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BRIGHA.M  YOUNG  UNWifl«r» 
pflOVO.  UTAH 


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THE    BOOK   OF    SAINTS 


■ '  /  /  i     /)  *v 


Si  THE 

BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


A  DICTIONARY  OF 
SERVANTS    OF   GOD    CANONISED   BY   THE 
CATHOLIC   CHURCH:    EXTRACTED   FROM 
THE  ROMAN  &  OTHER  MARTYROLOGIES 


COMPILED    BY 

THE    BENEDICTINE    MONKS    OF 
ST.  AUGUSTINE'S  ABBEY,  RAMSGATE 


A.   &f  C.   BLACK,   LTD. 

4,    5    and   6   SOHO   SQUARE,    LONDON,   W.  i 

1921 


NIHIL  OBSTAT 

Innocent  Apap  S.Th.M.O.P. 
Censor  Deputatus. 

I M PRIM  A  TUR 

Edm.  Can.  Surmont.  Vic.  Gen. 
19  Feb.   1920. 


HAROLD  B.  LEE  LIBRARY 

BRIGHAM  YOUNG  UNIVERSITY 

PROVO,    UTAH 


V... 


PREFACE. 

Mention  of  the  Saints  of  the  Catholic  Church  very  frequently  occurs 
both  in  general  reading  and  as  having  given  their  names  to  churches, 
towns,  villages  and  topographical  features.  The  object  of  this  com- 
pilation is  to  enable  the  personage  referred  to  readily  to  be  identified. 
Nothing  more  is  attempted  in  this  volume.  Of  a  certain  number  of  the 
Saints  detailed  Lives  have  been  published  in  English.  Of  many  more 
full  accounts  in  other  languages,  particularly  in  French  and  Italian,  are 
easily  accessible.  Again,  there  are  several  good  and  reliable  Series  of 
Lives  of  the  more  prominent  Saints.  The  best  known  of  these  to  English- 
speaking  people  is  Alban  Butler's  Lives  of  the  Saints,  an  eighteenth  century 
work  which  has  been  many  times  reprinted.  In  no  language,  however, 
does  there  exist  any  exhaustive  work  of  the  kind  ;  nor  in  the  nature  of 
things  can  there  be.  The  nearest  approach  thereto  we  have  is  the  Latin 
"  Acta  Sanctorum  "  of  the  Bollandists,  a  body  of  Jesuit  Fathers  gathered 
together  in  Belgium  for  the  special  purpose  of  carefully  sifting  and  repro- 
ducing all  documents  bearing  historically  on  the  life  and  cultus  after 
death  of  each  individual  Saint.  Of  their  work,  begun  in  the  seventeenth 
century  by  a  certain  Father  Bolland,  nearly  seventy  huge  folio  volumes 
have  appeared.  It  is  still  far  from  complete,  and  on  account  of  the 
results  of  modern  historical  research  in  many  places  needs  development 
and  extensive  revision.  Moreover,  of  no  small  number  of  canonised 
Saints  no  record  at  all  now  remains.  We  have  to  be  content  with  proof 
that  in  bygone  times  they  were  popularly  honoured  as  Saints,  and  by  the 
Church  formally  recognised  as  such.  Nor  is  it  even  possible  to  estimate 
the  number  of  God's  servants  whom  the  Church  has  at  one  place  or 
another  venerated  as  Saints.  In  the  first  Ages  of  Christianity  canonisation 
was  effected  in  each  country  by  the  joint  act  of  one  or  more  Bishops 
and  their  people.  Of  this  act  they  left  as  a  rule  sufficient  testimony  by 
dedicating  a  church  in  honour  of  the  new  Saint,  whose  name  it  thenceforth 
bore,  and  by  instituting  an  annual  festival  in  his  honour.  From  about 
the  eleventh  century  the  procedure  began  to  be  systemised  and  centralised, 
with  the  result  that  canonising  is  now  reserved  exclusively  to  the  Holy 


vi  PREFACE 

See.  The  legislation  of  Pope  Alexander  III  in  the  twelfth  century  and  of 
Urban  VIII  in  the  seventeenth  has  firmly  established  this  principle. 

The  present  process  of  Canonisation  is  exceedingly  complex.  It 
consists  in  the  first  place  of  a  thorough  investigation  into  all  the  particulars 
that  can  be  ascertained  of  the  life  and  death  of  the  alleged  Saint,  all  facts 
connected  with  whose  career,  both  public  and  private,  together  with  all 
his  utterances  and  writings,  are  tested  in  every  way.  He  must  be  shown 
to  have  been  God-fearing,  pious,  just  in  his  dealings,  patient,  self-denying, 
charitable,  and  so  on,  far  above  the  average  of  ordinary  good  men.  In 
this,  as  in  all  subsequent  stages  of  the  procedure,  every  witness  is  examined 
under  oath  and  in  the  presence  of  a  trained  Church  lawyer,  who  is  obliged 
to  urge  all  the  objections  he  can  think  of,  and  who  is  at  liberty  not  only 
to  cross-examine  the  witnesses  put  forward  but  to  call  any  number  of 
others  he  pleases  in  order  to  rebut  their  testimony.  Supposing  the 
judgment  of  the  Court  of  First  Instance  to  be  favourable,  the  case  goes 
for  retrial  to  a  higher  tribunal.  In  these  proceedings  not  only  are  witnesses 
called  to  testify  to  individual  facts,  but  particular  stress  is  put  upon 
the  popular  verdict  concerning  the  alleged  Saint,  that  is,  upon  the  repute 
in  which  he  was  held  by  those  who  may  have  had  dealings  with  him  or 
had  opportunities  of  forming  an  opinion  about  him.  Depositions  of  all 
kinds  must  be  gathered  together  with  as  little  delay  as  possible,  and  duly 
sworn  to  ;  but  in  order  to  guard  against  mere  enthusiasm  playing  any 
part  in  the  matter,  at  one  stage  of  the  proceedings  a  surcease  of  at  least 
ten  years  is  enjoined. 

The  above  official  enquiry  into  the  conduct  in  life  and  virtues  of  the 
deceased  Christian  for  whom  the  supreme  honour  of  canonisation  is 
claimed  is  deemed  unnecessary  only  in  the  case  of  a  Martyr,  that  is, 
of  one  of  the  Faithful  who  has  deliberately  laid  down  his  life  rather  than 
deny  Christ.  In  his  case  it  has  to  be  fully  proved  that  he  was  put  to 
death  on  account  of  his  religion,  and  not  because  he  was  guilty  of  some 
political  or  other  crime,  true  or  only  alleged. 

Canonisation  is  the  official  recognition  by  the  Church  of  the  fact  that 
one  of  her  children  has  won  his  place  in  Heaven  ;  and  since  Almighty 
God  alone  can  make  known  this  fact  to  mankind  every  canonisation 
essentially  depends  on  proof  that  miracles  have  been  wrought  in  witness 
thereto.  It  must  be  shown  that  because  of  the  alleged  Saint  the  laws  of 
Nature  have  by  Almighty  God  in  some  particular  instances  been  overruled. 
This,  from  the  circumstances  of  the  happening,  may  well  bear  testimony 
to  the  fact,  otherwise  unascertainable,  that  a  servant  of  God  deceased 
is  already  among  those  who  in  the  glory  of  Heaven  are  yet  mindful  of 
their  fellow-creatures  on  earth,  and  are  interceding  with  God  on  their 
behalf.  Among  the  miracles  required  for  a  canonisation  are  such  wonders 
as  the  giving  sight  to  the  blind,  hearing  to  the  deaf,  instantaneous  healing 


PREFACE  vii 

of  the  sick,  raising  of  the  dead  to  life,  the  very  wonders  wrought  by 
Christ  and  His  disciples  in  proof  of  the  truth  of  the  revelation  they  an- 
nounced to  mankind.  Clear  proof  of  at  least  four  miracles  is  required 
as  a  condition  of  canonisation.  It  must  be  shown  in  each  case  that  the 
fact  alleged  as  miraculous  has  really  taken  place,  that  it  cannot  be  ex- 
plained away  or  attributed  to  any  natural  cause,  and  that  the  miracle 
directly  followed  upon  an  appeal  made  to  Almighty  God  through  His 
servant  departed  this  life.  All  possible  objections  are  freely  urged  and 
have  to  be  fully  answered.  In  cases  of  alleged  miraculous  healing  of  the 
sick  competent  medical  experts  are  called  in  and  all  theories  advanced 
by  them  patiently  discussed.  It  cannot  be  wondered  at  that  a  great 
number  of  alleged  miracles,  perhaps  the  major  part,  are  rejected,  the 
limits  of  the  powers  of  Nature  being  so  little  known  to  us  and  so  great 
allowance  having  to  be  made  for  the  play  of  imagination,  and  for  what 
there  may  be  of  truth  in  processes  of  purely  natural  "  Faith -healing." 

Usually,  the  procedure  in  Causes  of  canonisation  takes  many  years 
to  complete  ;  for  there  are  numerous  hearings  and  rehearings  to  be 
allowed  for.  A  first  stage  is  that  of  "  Beatification,"  which  is  reached 
on  proof  of  extraordinary  holiness  of  life  and  of  two  miracles.  In  modern 
procedure  this  is  rarely  reached  within  fifty  years  of  the  death  of  the 
Saint.  At  Beatification,  permission  is  given  for  local  veneration.  For 
Canonisation  proper,  proof  of  two  more  miracles  wrought  since  Beatifica- 
tion is  demanded.  The  Servant  of  God  is  then  enrolled  in  the  Canon  of 
Saints,  his  or  her  name  being  inserted  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  or 
official  catalogue  of  Saints  proposed  to  the  veneration  of  the  Universal 
Church. 

The  Roman  Martyrology  contains  about  five  thousand  entries  ; 
but  in  the  case  of  the  Martyrs  of  the  first  centuries  of  Christianity,  they 
often  appear  in  groups,  the  name  of  only  the  leaders  of  each  band  of 
heroes  being  registered.  It  is  impossible  to  reckon  up  the  number  of 
holy  men  and  women  reputed  and  locally  honoured  as  Saints  in  various 
places  during  the  many  ages  which  preceded  the  formulating  the  minute 
rules  for  the  Process  of  Canonisation  which  have  obtained  for  the  last 
few  centuries.  In  many  instances  the  claims  of  those  commonly  and 
from  early  times  styled  Saints  have  in  modern  times  been  officially  en- 
quired into  with  the  result  that  their  cultus  has  been  sanctioned  ;  in  others, 
as,  for  example,  that  of  the  famous  Christian  writer,  Clement  of  Alexandria, 
who  flourished  and  died  about  a.d.  216,  the  claim  has  been  disallowed. 
This  does  not  mean  that  the  Church  condemns  or  repudiates  the  indi- 
vidual ;  but  only  that  She  has  no  proof  that  he  was  a  Saint  in  the  strict 
sense  of  the  word. 

But  there  are  many  hundreds  of  "  Saints  "  whose  claims  to  that  title 
rest  on  the  traditional  veneration  accorded  them  from  ancient  times,  and 


viii  PREFACE 

witnessed  to  in  many  cases  by  the  Dedication  of  churches  in  their  honour, 
but  of  the  legitimacy  of  whose  canonisation,  from  dearth  of  documents 
or  for  other  reason,  no  proof  is  now  extant.  These  remain  with  that 
recognition  only  which  was  given  them  by  the  ancient  Bishops  and 
peoples,  their  contemporaries,  but  with  a  strict  prohibition  of  any  extension 
of  their  cultus. 

Although  the  scope  of  this  book  of  reference  only  admits  of  the  cata- 
loguing of  Saints  of  some  prominence,  an  endeavour  has  been  made  to 
include,  in  addition  to  the  Saints  of  the  Roman  Martyrology,  all  others 
generally  known,  at  least  by  name,  especially  those  who  have  given  place- 
names  to  towns  or  villages  in  the  British  Isles. 

Liturgically,  Saints  are  classified  as  Apostles,  Martyrs,  Bishops  or 
Confessors  (Saints  who  were  neither  Bishops  nor  Martyrs)  ;  similarly 
female  Saints  are  Martyrs,  Virgins,  Widows,  Penitents,  etc.  These 
designations  have  been  added  (as  far  as  needful)  in  every  instance. 

In  regard  to  the  more  ancient  Saints,  considerable  difficulty  is  often 
occasioned  by  the  varying  spelling  of  the  Saint's  name.  Certain  names 
indeed  are  at  first  sight  all  but  unrecognisable.  St.  Olaus  or  Olave 
corrupted  into  Tooley,  and  St.  Vedast  written  Foster,  are  examples. 

Again,  the  early  converts  to  Christianity  often  changed  their  names 
on  receiving  Baptism.  Saul  of  Tarsus,  our  St.  Paul,  at  once  occurs  to 
the  mind.  The  new  names  assumed  were  ordinarily  Greek  or  Latin 
nouns  significant  of  some  virtue  or  quality.  Hence,  the  countless  SS. 
Eusebius,  Victor,  Justus,  Probus,  etc.  Later  too,  when  Christianity 
spread  among  the  then  Barbarians  of  Northern  and  Western  Europe, 
for  Teutonic  and  Celtic  appellations  Latin  forms  were  frequently  sub- 
stituted. Thus  the  Anglo-Saxon  Winfried  is  the  famous  St.  Boniface, 
Apostle  of  Germany. 

From  confusion  of  names  have  arisen  difficulties  and  uncertainties  in 
distinguishing  the  early  Saints,  when  more  or  less  contemporaries,  the 
one  from  the  other,  and  frequent  mistakes  made  by  Mediaeval  biographers. 
We  find  at  times  a  single  happening  attributed  by  one  writer  to  one 
Saint  and  by  another  writer  to  another  Saint  of  the  same  or  similar  name  ; 
and  on  the  other  hand  a  personage  with  two  names  is  at  times  presented 
to  us  as  two  distinct  individuals.  But  in  the  accounts  we  have  of  Saints 
who  have  lived  within  the  last  thousand  years  these  errors  scarcely  occur, 
and  the  official  or  approved  Lives  of  Saints  of  the  Middle  Ages  and  of 
modern  times  may  be  taken  as  substantially  accurate. 

As  the  present  compilation  aims  at  no  more  than  the  stretching  of 
the  historical  framework  of  a  Saint's  life,  the  sifting  of  the  details  elaborated 
by  the  chroniclers  of  the  old  legends  does  not  occur.  Similarly,  it  has 
not  been  deemed  necessary  specially  to  particularise  the  miracles  which 
in  every  case  have  borne  witness  to  the  holy  man  or  woman's  right  to 


PREFACE  ix 

a  place  in  a  catalogue  of  Saints.  In  the  main  (as  stated  above)  these 
miracles  are  of  the  kind  performed  by  our  Blessed  Lord  and  his  Apostles. 
Their  occurrence  from  time  to  time  was  foretold  by  Him  :  :'  They  shall 
cast  out  devils.  They  shall  speak  with  new  tongues.  They  shall  take 
up  serpents  ;  and  if  they  shall  drink  any  deadly  thing,  it  shall  not  hurt 
them.  They  shall  lay  their  hands  on  the  sick  and  they  shall  recover  " 
(Mark  xvi.  17,  18).  Or  again,  the  supernatural  power  abides  in  their 
earthly  remains  :  "  They  cast  the  body  into  the  sepulchre  of  Eliseus. 
And  when  it  had  touched  the  bones  of  Eliseus,  the  man  came  to  life  and 
stood  upon  his  feet  "  (4  Kings  xiii.  21).  Wonders  like  to  this  last  take 
place  in  the  twentieth  century,  even  as  they  did  in  past  ages  ;  and  they 
justify  the  veneration  which  the  Catholic  Church  teaches  her  children 
to  be  due  to  the  relics  of  God's  Saints. 

In  the  Lives  of  the  Saints,  fulfilments  of  Christ's  prophecy  are  fre- 
quently recorded  either  as  effected  by  the  Saint  himself  in  life  or  as 
occurring  after  his  death  in  response  to  a  call  upon  him  for  help. 

Lastly,  in  going  over  one  by  one  the  names  of  Saints  specially  and 
publicly  venerated  as  such  by  the  Church  of  God  on  earth,  it  must  never 
be  forgotten  that  they  form  but  a  small  proportion  of  the  "  great  multi- 
tude which  no  man  can  number  of  all  nations  and  tribes  and  peoples  and 
tongues,  standing  before  the  throne  and  in  sight  of  the  Lamb,  clothed 
with  white  robes  and  palms  in  their  hands  "  (Apoc.  vii.  9).  We  rely  on 
the  intercession  of  all  the  Blessed  in  Heaven,  for  "  the  prayers  of  all 
are  offered,  upon  the  golden  Altar  which  is  before  the  throne  of  God  " 
(Apoc.  viii.  3). 


ABBREVIATIONS. 

Bp.  -  Bishop.  MM.  =  Martyrs. 

Bl.  =  Saint  beatified,  but  V.  =  Virgin, 

not  yet  canonised.  VV.  =  Virgins. 
M.  =  Martyr. 


THE 

BOOK    OF    SAINTS 


Note.     *  To  names  of  Saints  not  included  up  to  the  present  date  in  the  ROMAN 
MARTYROLOGY,  the  Official  Church  Register,  an  asterisk  is  prefixed. 


A 


♦AARON  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  21) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Briton  who  crossing  into 
Armorica  (Bretagne)  founded  a  monastery  in 
an  island  called  after  him,  until  in  the  twelfth 
century  it  took  the  name  of  St.  Malo,  St. 
Aaron's  most  famous  disciple. 

AARON  (St.)  M.  (July  1) 

See  SS.  JULIUS  and  AAKON. 

AARON  (St.)  High  Priest  of  the  Old  Law.  (July  1) 
(15th  cent.  B.C.)  The  great  grandson  of 
Levi,  son  of  Jacob,  and  the  first  of  the  Jewish 
High  Priests,  to  which  office  he  was  appointed 
by  God  Himself.  He  was  the  brother  of 
Moses,  the  Hebrew  Lawgiver,  with  whom  he 
shared  the  leadership  of  the  people  of  Israel. 
Like  Moses,  he  never  entered  the  land  of 
Promise  ;  but  died  on  Mount  Hor,  on  the 
borders  of  Edom.  He  was  succeeded  by  his 
son  Eliezer  (B.C.  1471)  In  art  he  is  represented 
with  a  rod  in  flower,  a  censer  and  a  Jewish 
mitre.  The  Book  of  Exodus  contains  all  that 
we  know  concerning  him. 

ABACHUM  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  19) 

See  SS.  MARIS,  AUDIFAX,  &c. 

*ABB  (St.)  V.  (Aug.  25) 

Otherwise  St.  EBB  A,  which  see. 

*ABBAN  of  KILL-ABBAN  (St.)  Abbot.   (Mch.  16) 

(5th  cent.)     An  Irish  Saint,  contemporary 

of  St.  Patrick  and  nephew  of  St.  Ibar.     He 

was  the  Founder  of  Kill-Abban  Abbey  (Lein- 

♦ABBAN  of  MAGH-ARMUIDHE  (St.)     (Oct.  27) 

Abbot. 

(6th  cent.)  A  nephew  of  St.  Kevin,  and 
Founder  of  many  monasteries,  mostly  in  the 
South  of  Ireland.  Butler  and  others  con- 
fuse the  two  Saints  Abban.  Of  neither  have 
we  reliable  Lives. 
•ABBO  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  13) 

(10th  cent.)  A  French  Benedictine  monk 
of  literary  attainments  rare  in  the  age  in  which 
he  lived,  who  was  invited  by  St.  Oswald  of 
Worcester  to  preside  over  the  community  he 
had  founded  at  Ramsey  Abbey.  After  the 
death  of  St.  Oswald  St.  Abbo  returned  to 
France  and  became  Abbot  of  Fleury  on  the 
Loire.  He  afterwards  conducted  skilfully  and 
successfully  various  negotiations  between  the 
Holy  See  and  the  King  of  France.  He  lost  his 
life  while  endeavouring  to  stop  a  riot  (a.d. 
1004),  and  by  his  people  was  at  once  honoured 
as  a  Martyr. 


ABDAS  (St.)  M.  (May  16) 

Otherwise  St.  AUDAS,  which  see. 

ABDECALAS  (St.)  M.  (April  21) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Persian  of  advanced  age  who, 
together  with  another  priest,  St.  Ananias, 
and  about  a  hundred  Christians,  was  a  fellow- 
sufferer  with  St.  Simeon,  Archbishop  of 
Seleucia  and  Ctesiphon,  under  the  tyrant  King 
Sapor  II.  They  were  put  to  death  as  Christians 
on  Good  Friday,  A.d.  345.  The  Greek  historian 
Sozomen  reckons  at  sixteen  thousand  the 
number  of  the  Faithful  in  Persia  who  laid 
down  their  lives  for  Christ  during  the  forty 
years  of  the  reign  of  Sapor. 

ABDIAS  (OBADIAH)  (St.)  Prophet.  (Nov.  19) 
(9th  cent.  B.C.)  Abdis  (Servant  of  the  Lord) 
is  the  fourth  of  the  twelve  minor  prophets,  and 
is  generally  supposed  to  have  been  a  contem- 
porary of  Osee  (Hosea),  Joel  and  Amos.  But 
some  identify  him  with  Achab's  steward  (3 
Kings,  xviii.  3),  making  him  much  more 
ancient.  His  prophetic  writings  are  short  and 
are  contained  in  a  single  chapter  of  twenty-five 
verses.  He  foretells  the  destruction  of  Edom 
on  account  of  the  pride  of  the  Idumaeans  and 
of  the  wrongs  they  had  done  to  the  Jews. 

ABDIESUS  (HEBEDJESUS)  (St.)  M.  (April  22) 
(4th  cent.)  Styled  a  deacon  in  the  Roman 
Martyrology,  he  was  one  of  the  vast  multitude 
of  Persians  (named  and  unnamed),  who  by  the 
savage  edict  of  their  King  Sapor  were  called  to 
the  crown  of  martyrdom.  This  persecution 
raged  from  A.D.  341  to  a.d.  380,  that  is,  at 
intervals  during  the  last  forty  years  of  Sapor's 
reign. 

ABDON  and  SENNEN  (SS.)  MM.  (July  30) 

(3rd  cent.)  Two  Persian  nobles  who,  com- 
ing to  Rome,  or  rather  brought  thither  as 
captives  by  Decius,  when  returning  from  his 
first  successful  campaign  against  the  Persians, 
under  the  Emperor  Gordian,  devoted  them- 
selves to  the  service  of  the  imprisoned  Christians 
and  to  the  reverent  interring  of  the  bodies  of 
the  Martyrs.  They  were  themselves  thrown 
to  the  wild  beasts  in  the  Amphitheatre  in  the 
persecution  decreed  by  Decius  when  he  became 
Emperor  (a.d.  250).  They  were  long  grate- 
fully remembered  by  the  Christians  of  Rome 
and  are  still  annually  commemorated  in  the 
Liturgy  of  the  Church.  The  details  given 
concerning  them  in  the  otherwise  doubtful 
Acts  of  St.  Laurence  the  Martyr,  their  con- 
temporary, seem  fairly  trustworthy. 

♦ABEL  (Thomas)  (St.)  M.  (July  30) 

See  Bl.  THOMAS  ABEL. 
A  1 


ABERCIUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ABERCIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  22) 

(2nd  cent.)  Bishop  of  Hierapolis  in  Phrygia 
(Asia  Minor)  in  which  See  he  is  reported  to 
have  succeeded  the  famous  Papias.  He  was 
zealous  against  Paganism,  and  appears  to  have 
suffered  imprisonment  on  that  account  under 
the  philosophic  Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius. 
But  a  miracle  wrought  by  him  in  favour  of  her 
daughter  secured  him  the  protection  of  the 
Empress  Faustina,  and  he  returned  to  die  in 
peace  at  Hierapolis  (about  a.d.  167),  after 
following  on  his  journeys  one  of  the  routes 
traced  out  by  the  Apostle  St.  Paul,  everywhere 
preaching,  baptising  and  healing  the  sick. 
His  epitaph,  composed  by  himself,  discovered 
in  1882  and  now  in  the  Vatican  Museum,  is 
one  of  the  most  interesting  Christian  monu- 
ments of  the  second  century. 

ABIBO  (ABIBAS)  (St.)  Conf.  (Aug.  3) 

(1st  cent.)  The  second  son  of  Gamaliel 
(Acts  v.  24  ;  xxii.  3),  at  whose  feet  St.  Paul 
had  sat.  Following  his  father's  example,  he 
embraced  the  Christian  Faith  and  lived  an 
unsullied  life  to  his  eightieth  year.  His 
body  was  buried  near  that  of  St.  Stephen,  the 
First  Martyr,  at  Capergamela,  a  town  distant 
about  twenty  miles  from  Jerusalem.  The 
Church  commemorates  annually  the  anni- 
versary (Aug.  3)  of  the  Finding  (A.D.  415)  of 
the  bodies  of  the  four  Saints,  Stephen,  Gamaliel, 
Nicodemus  and  Abibo,  there  interred. 

ABIBUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  15) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Martyr  at  Edessa  in  Syria 
under  the  Emperor  Licinius  (a.d.  316).  He 
was  burned  to  death  at  the  stake. 

ABILIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  22) 

(First  cent.)  The  third  Bishop,  in  suc- 
cession to  SS.  Mark  and  Anianus,  of  Alex- 
andria in  Egypt,  to  which  See  he  was  advanced 
A.D.  84,  and  over  which  he  presided  for  thirteen 
years.  The  particulars  of  his  life  and  Episco- 
pate have  been  lost. 

*ABRA  (ABRE)  (St.)  V.  (Dec.  13) 

(4th  cent.)  A  daughter  of  St.  Hilary  of 
Poitiers,  born  before  his  father's  conversion. 
Following  her  father's  advice,  she  consecrated 
herself  to  God  as  a  nun  ;  but  died  (a.d.  361) 
when  only  in  her  eighteenth  year. 

♦ABRAHAM  (ABRAAMIUS)  (St.)  Bp.  M  (Feb.  5) 
(4th  cent.)  Bishop  of  Abela  in  Assyria, 
a  place  famous  for  the  victory  there  of  Alex- 
ander the  Great  over  the  Persians.  St. 
Abraham  was  put  to  death  (a.d.  348)  by  the 
persecuting  King  Sapor  II. 

♦ABRAHAM  (ABRAAMES)  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  14) 
(5th  cent.)  A  famous  Solitary  of  Mount 
Lebanon,  who,  as  Bishop  of  Carrhes  (Charan), 
showed  himself  a  zealous  pastor  of  souls  and, 
later,  did  much  work  useful  to  the  Church  at 
the  Court  of  the  Emperor  Theodosius  the 
Younger.    He  died  at  Constantinople,  a.d.  422. 

ABRAHAM  (St.)  Conf.  (March  16) 

(4th  cent.)  A  hermit  of  Edessa  and  native 
of  Chidana  in  Mesopotamia,  famous  for  his 
austerity  of  life,  for  his  fruitful  preaching  and 
for  the  miraculous  conversion  of  his  niece, 
venerated  with  him  as  St.  Mary.  His  life  was 
written  by  St.  Ephrem  and  he  is  honoured  in 
all  the  Liturgies.     He  died  about  A.D.  360.         . 

ABRAHAM  (St.)  Conf.  (June  18) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Syrian  Saint  who  on  a  journey 
to  Egypt  to  visit  the  Solitaries  of  the  desert  was 
seized  by  a  band  of  robbers  and  remained  five 
years  in  bonds.  He  succeeded  in  the  end  in 
escaping  and  making  his  way  to  the  coast. 
There  he  boarded  a  ship  bound  for  Gaul,  where 
he  settled  near  Clermont  in  Auvergne.  Numer- 
ous disciples  gathered  round  him  for  whom  he 
built  a  monastery.  He  died,  famous  for 
miracles,  a.d.  472. 

ABRAHAM  (St.)  Patriarch.  (Oct.  9) 

(19th  and  20th  cent.  B.C.)    The  Father  of  all 

believers,  and  the  progenitor,  according  to  the 

flesh,  of  the  Hebrew  nation.     He  is  also  the 

father  of  Ismael,  from  whom  the  Ismaelites  or 


Arabs  are  descended.  When  seventy  years  of 
age,  he  went  forth  from  Babylonia,  his  native 
land,  at  God's  bidding,  to  dwell  henceforth  in 
Canaan,  the  land  flowing  with  milk  and  honey 
promised  to  his  seed.  There,  he  led  a  pastoral 
and  nomad  life.  Moreover,  God  made  a 
covenant  with  him,  changing  his  name  from 
Abram  to  Abraham  (Father  of  nations),  promis- 
ing at  the  same  time  that  his  descendants 
should  be  more  numerous  than  the  stars  of 
Heaven  and  that  in  his  seed  all  peoples  should 
be  blessed.  Of  him  Our  Lord  said  :  "  Abraham 
rejoiced  that  he  might  see  my  day  ;  He  saw  it 
and  was  glad  "  (John  viii.  56).  All  through 
their  eventful  history  it  was  the  glory  of  the 
Jewish  people  to  claim  descent  from  him  and 
from  his  son  and  grandson,  Isaac  and  Jacob. 
To  them,  in  words  spoken  to  Moses  (Exod.  iii. 
6),  God  was  the  God  of  Abraham,  Isaac  and 
Jacob.  The  Patriarch  died  in  Palestine  at  the 
age  of  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  years 
(B.C.  1821).  These  and  similar  Old  Testament 
dates  are  given  according  to  the  traditional 
Chronology  ;  but  are  still  disputed. 

♦ABROSIMUS  (St.)  M.  (April  22) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Persian  priest  stoned  to  death, 
with  many  of  his  flock,  under  King  Sapor  II, 
A.D.  341. 

ABSALON  (St.)  M.  (March  2) 

See  SS.  LUCIUS,  ABSALON,    &c. 

ABUDEMIUS  (St.)  M.  (July  15) 

(4th  cent.)  A  native  of  the  Island  of  Tenedos 
in  the  Mge&n  Sea  who,  after  enduring  frightful 
torture,  was  there  put  to  death  as  a  Christian 
in  the  persecution  under  the  Emperor  Diocletian 
and  his  colleagues  in  the  first  years  of  the 
fourth  century. 

ABUNDANTIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  1) 

See  SS.  LEO,  DONATUS,    &c. 

ABUNDANTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  16) 

See  SS.  ABUNDIUS,  ABUNDANTIUS,    &c. 

ABUNDIUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  27) 

See  SS.  ALEXANDER,  ABUNDIUS,  &c. 

ABUNDIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (April  2) 

(5th  cent.)  A  celebrated  Bishop  of  Como  in 
North  Italy,  charged  by  Pope  St.  Leo  the  Great 
with  the  important  mission  to  the  Emperor 
Theodosius  the  Younger  which  resulted  in  the 
convocation  of  the  great  Council  of  Chalcedon 
(a.d.  451)  and  in  the  final  condemnation  of  the 
heresiarch  Eutyches,  who  denied  the  two-fold 
Nature  of  Christ  God-Man  (whence  his  followers 
have  their  name  of  Monophysites — assertors 
of  One  Nature  only).  St.  Abundius  died 
a.d.  469.  He  is  often  represented  in  art  in  the 
act  of  raising  a  dead  man  to  life,  one  of  the 
miracles  he  wrought  and  which  led  to  his 
enrolment  in  the  catalogue  of  Saints. 

ABUNDIUS  (St.)  Conf.  (April  14) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Sacristan  of  the  Church  of 
St.  Peter  in  Borne  St.  Gregory  the  Great 
makes  mention  of  his  humble  but  Divinely 
favoured  life.  He  is  said  to  have  passed  away 
about  the  year  564. 

ABUNDIUS  (St.)  M.  (July  11) 

(9th  cent.)  A  Parish  priest  of  a  mountain 
village  near  Cordova  in  Spain  during  the 
Moorish  domination.  He  entertained  no  thought 
of  martyrdom,  but  found  himself  in  the  year 
854  suddenly  drawn  into  the  conflict,  and, 
laying  his  head  on  the  block,  made  a  glorious 
sacrifice  of  his  lfe  for  the  Christian  Faith. 

ABUNDIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  26) 

See  SS.  IRENAEUS  and  ABUNDIUS. 

ABUNDIUS,  ABUNDANTIUS,  MARCIAN  and 
JOHN  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  16) 

(3rd  or  4th  cent.)  Abundius,  a  Roman 
Priest,  and  Abundantius,  his  deacon,  had 
converted  to  Christianity  Marcian,  a  citizen 
of  distinction,  by  miraculously  raising  to  life 
his  son  John.  The  Emperor  Diocletian,  in- 
formed of  what  had  happened,  ordered  all  four 
to  be  beheaded  together,  without  the  walls  of 
the  Imperial  City.  The  precise  date,  between 
the  years  274  and  308  is  uncertain. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ADALSINDIS 


ABUNDIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  10) 

See  SS.  CARPOPHORUS  and  ABUNDIUS. 
ABUNDIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  14) 

See  SS.  JUSTUS  and  ABUNDIUS. 
ACACIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  27) 

See  SS.  HIRENARCHUS,  ACACIUS,    &c. 
ACACIUS  (ACHATES)  (St.)  Bp.  (March  31) 

(3rd  cent.)  Surnamed  Agathangelus  (Good 
Angel).  A  Bishop  in  Phrygia  (Asia  Minor) 
who  in  the  Decian  persecution  (a.d.  250)  became 
famous  for  having  by  his  prudence  and  con- 
stancy so  impressed  the  tyrant  as  to  obtain 
his  discharge  from  custody.  It  is  not  known 
how  long  he  survived.  He  is  held  in  great 
veneration  in  the  East. 
ACATHIUS  (St.)  M  (May  8) 

(4th  cent )  A  Christian  centurion  in  the 
Roman  army,  tortured  and  beheaded  at 
Constantinople  under  Diocletian  (a.d.  303). 
Constantine  the  Great  built  a  noble  church 
in  his  honour.  He  is  the  St.  Agazio  venerated 
at  Squillace  in  Calabria. 
ACATHIUS  (ACACIUS)  (St.)  Bp.  (April  9) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Amida  in  Meso- 
potamia, distinguished  for  his  compassionate 
charity  to  the  Persian  prisoners  taken  in  their 
successful  invasion  of  Persia  by  the  Romans  of 
Constantinople  in  the  reign  of  King  Bahram 
(or  Varannes)  V,  who  is  said  chiefly  on  that 
account  to  have  ceased  for  a  time  from  perse- 
cuting the  Christians.  St.  Acathius  died  some 
time  after  a.d.  421.  Some  of  his  letters  are 
still  extant. 
ACATIUS  (ACATHIUS)  M.  (April  28) 

See  SS.  PATRITIUS,  ACATIUS,    &c. 

*ACCA  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  20) 

(8th  cent.)    A  disciple  of  Bosa  of  York  and 

of  St.  Wilfrid,  and  successor  of  the  latter  Saint 

at  Hexham.     St.  Acca  was  held  in  the  highest 

veneration  by  Venerable  Bede.     He  seems  to 

have    died    (a.d.    740),    perhaps    in    exile,   or 

shortly  after  his  return  to  Hexham.     A  solemn 

Translation    of    his    relics    took    place    three 

centuries  later.     St.  Acca  was  certainly  one  of 

the  most  learned  Anglo-Saxon  prelates  of  his 

century. 

ACCURTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  16) 

See  SS.  BERARDUS,  PETER,    &c. 
ACEPSIMAS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (April  22) 

(4th  cent.)     A  venerable  old  man,  Bishop  of 
Honita  in  Assyria,  who  was  imprisoned,  tortured 
and  put  to  death  by  King  Sapor  II  of  Persia, 
between  a.d.  341  and  A.d.  380. 
ACESTES  (St.)  M.  (July  2) 

(1st  cent.)  One  of  the  three  soldiers  that 
tradition  tells  us  were  converted  by  St.  Paul, 
while  acting  as  guards  at  his  execution.  They 
sealed  their  Faith  with  their  own  blood,  a  few 
davs  later  (July  2,  A..D.  67). 
ACHARD  (St.)  Abbot.  (Sept.  15) 

Otherwise  St.  AICHARDUS,  ivhkJi  see. 
ACHE  and  ACHEUL  (SS.)  MM.  (May  1) 

Otherwise  SS.  ACIUS  and  ACEOLUS,  which 
see. 
ACHILLAS  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  7) 

(4th  cent.)  The  Patriarch  of  Alexandria  who 
succeeded  St.  Peter  the  Martyr.  Deceived  by 
the  hypocrisy  of  the  afterwards  notorious 
heretic  Arius,  he  ordained  him  priest.  Two 
years  later  (a.d.  313)  St.  Achillas  passed  away, 
reverenced  by  all  for  his  many  virtues,  and 
had  for  his  successor  St.  Alexander,  who  was 
followed  by  the  great  St.  Athanasius. 
ACHILLES  (St.)  (May  15) 

(4th  cent.)    A  Bishop  of  Larissa  in  Thessaly, 
who  died  a.d.  331  and  is  venerated  in  the  East 
as  a  Saint. 
ACHILLEUS  (St.)  M.  (April  23) 

See  SS.  FELIX,  FORTUNATUS,    &c. 
ACHILLEUS  (St.)  M.  (May  12) 

See  SS.  NEREUS,  ACHILLEUS,    &c. 
ACIUS  (ACHE)  and  ACEOLUS  (ACHEUL) 

MM.  (May   1) 

(3rd  cent.)    Martyrs  near  Amiens  (France) 

early    in    the    reign    of    Diocletian.    Several 


churches  have  been  built  in  their  honour,  and 
they  are  regarded  as  Patron  Saints  of  more 
than  one  village.  But  trustworthy  particulars 
of  their  career  are  lacking. 

ACINDYNUS  (St.)  M.  (April  20) 

See  SS.  VICTOR,  ZOTICUS,    &c. 

ACINDYNUS,    PEGASIUS,    APHDONIUS,    ELPI- 

DEPHORUS,     and     ANEMPODISTUS     (SS. 

MM.  (Nov.  2) 

(4th  cent.)     Persian  Christians  who  suffered 

for   the    Faith    under    King    Sapor   II,    about 

a.d.    345.     From    MSS.    in    the    Vatican    and 

Imperial    (Vienna)    Libraries,    the    Bollandists 

have  published  a  Greek  narrative  of  the  Passion 

of   St.   Acindynus   and   his   companions,   from 

which  it  would  appear  that  all  or  nearly  all  of 

them  were  priests  or  clerics. 

ACISCLUS  and  VICTORIA  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  1) 

(4th  cent.)  A  brother  and  sister  who,  arrested 
as  Christians,  underwent  many  cruel  tortures 
before  being  beheaded,  under  Diocletian,  at 
Cordova  (a.d.  304).  Their  cultus  is  widespread 
in  Spain. 

ACUTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  19) 

See  SS.  JANUARIUS,  FESTUS,    &c. 

ACYLLINUS  (St.)  M.  (July  17) 

See  SCILLITAN  MARTYRS. 

ADAL-,  AETHEL-,  AL-,  AU-,  EDIL-,  ETHEL- 
All  these  prefixes  to  names  of  Teutonic  origin 
are  more  or  less  interchangeable.  Thus,  St. 
Etheldreda,  St.  Ediltrudis,  St.  Audrey,  are  one 
and  the  same  personage.  That  which  appears 
the  more  usual  manner  of  spelling  a  Saint's  name 
in  English  has,  as  a  rule,  been  followed  in  these 
pages  in  each  case.  In  Latinising  Proper 
Names,  mediaeval  writers  usually  substitute  D 
for  TH,  or  simply  omit  the  H.  So,  the  letter  T, 
especially  in  terminations,  has  a  tendency  to  be 
replaced  by  C.  Again,  the  terminations  BERT 
and  BRIGHT  are  mere  variants.  Thus,  we 
talk  of  St.  Cuthbert.  but  we  write  Kirkcudbright 
for  the  town  that  takes  its  appellation  from  him. 
In  fine,  FRED,  FRIDE,  FRID,  FRIDA, 
FREDE,   &c,  are  undistinguishable. 

*ADALARDUS    (ADELHARDUS,    ALARD)    (St.) 
Abbot.  (Jan.  2) 

(9th  cent.)  An  Abbot  of  Corbie  (France), 
related  to  the  Emperor  Charlemagne  and  one 
of  his  chief  ministers  and  advisers.  At  one 
time  he  lost  the  favour  of  that  monarch's  son 
and  successor,  Louis  the  Pious,  and  was  ban- 
ished. On  his  return,  he  gave  himself  entirely 
to  the  discharge  of  his  monastic  duties,  dying 
at  Corbie,  a.d.  827,  at  the  age  of  seventy-three. 
During  his  tenure  of  office  he  founded  the  great 
Abbev  of  New  Corbie  in  Saxony. 

*ADALBALD  (St.)  Conf.  (Feb.  2) 

(7th  cent.)  A  pious  nobleman  of  the  Court 
of  King  Clovis  II  of  France.  He  was  the 
husband  of  St.  Rictrude,  and,  like  their  parents, 
their  four  children  are  publicly  venerated  as 
Saints.  St.  Adalbald  was  murdered  while  on 
a  journey  (A.D.  645),  under  circumstances  which 
have  led  to  his  being  honoured  in  many  places 
as  a  Martyr. 

ADALBERT  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (April  23) 

(10th  cent.)  One  of  the  Patron  Saints  of 
Bohemia  and  Poland.  A  Bohemian  bv  birth, 
consecrated  in  his  infancy  to  Our  "Blessed 
Lady,  he  was  educated  by  Adalbert,  Arch- 
bishop of  Magdeburg  and,  on  his  return  to 
Bohemia,  was  ordained  priest  by  Diethmar, 
Archbishop  of  Prague,  whom  he  succeeded 
shortly  afterwards.  Driven  from  Prague,  he 
retired  for  a  time  to  the  Abbey  of  St.  Boniface 
in  Rome ;  and  after  vain  efforts  to  re-enter 
his  own  Diocese,  directed  his  zeal  to  the  conver- 
sion of  Hungary,  Poland  and  Prussia.  His 
missionary  success  was  great,  and  his  labours 
only  ceased  on  his  receiving  the  crown  of 
martyrdom  at  Dantzig  (a.d.  997). 

♦ADALSINDIS  (St.)  V.   "  (Dec.  24) 

(8th   cent.)     One   of   the   daughters   of   SS. 

Adalbald  and  Rictrudis,  who  sanctified  herself 

in  the  monastery  of  Hamay,  of  which  her  own 


ADAMNAN 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


sister,  St.   Eusebia,  was  Abbess.     A.D.  715  is 
given  as  the  year  of  her  death. 

♦ADAMNAN  (St.)  Conf.  (Jan.  31) 

(7th  cent.)  A  monk  of  Coklingham  Abbey  in 
the  Saxon  Kingdom  of  Northumbria.  He 
expiated  by  a  long  life  of  austerities  and  prayer 
the  sins  of  his  youth,  and  deserved  well  of  the 
Church  by  co-operating  with  St.  Ebba  in 
reforming  the  discipline  of  the  convent  which 
she  had  founded  and  over  which  she  presided 
to  the  day  of  her  death.  St.  Adamnan  himself 
passed  away  about  the  vear  679. 
ADAMNAN  (ADAM)  (St.)  Abbot.  (Sept.  6) 

(8th  cent.)  An  Irish  Abbot  of  Iona  in  Scot- 
land— "  a  wise  and  good  man,  well  versed  in 
the  Holy  Scriptures " — best  known  by  the 
Life  of  St.  Columba  he  has  left  and  by  a  descrip- 
tion of  the  Holy  Places  of  Palestine  which  he 
compiled.  He  was  remarkable  for  his  success 
in  procuring  in  Scotland  and  Ireland  the 
adoption  of  the  Roman  practice  as  to  the  date 
of  Easter.  He  died  A.D.  704.  Whether  or 
not  he  is  one  and  the  same  with  St.  Eunan 
the  Patron  Saint  of  the  Diocese  of  Raphoe  in 
Ireland,  remains  an  open  question.  His  name 
has  been  popularly  abbreviated  into  Adam, 
and  is  still  frequently  given  in  Scotland  at 
Baptism. 

ADAUCUS  (ADAUCTUS)  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  7) 

(4th  cent.)  By  birth  an  Italian,  and  an 
Imperial  favourite  at  the  Court  of  the  pitiless 
Diocletian,  who  sacrificed  him  on  discovering 
his  religion.  He  was  executed  in  Phrygia 
(A.D.  304),  and  had  a  number  of  companions 
in  his  Martyrdom,  some  of  M'hom  were  of 
senatorial  or  other  high  rank.  Among  them 
there  were  also  manv  women  and  children. 
Historians  attribute  the  special  barbarity  of 
the  tortures  he  endured  rather  to  the  savageness 
of  Galerius,  Diocletian's  colleague,  than  to  the 
evil  disposition  of  the  old  Emperor  himself. 

ADAUCTUS  (St.)  M.  (July  30) 

See  SS.  FELIX  and  ADAUCTUS. 

ADAUCTUS  and  CALLISTHENE  (SS.)  (Oct.  4) 
(4th  cent.)  Ephesians,  one  of  whom,  St. 
Adauctus,  suffered  under  the  tyrant  Maximinus 
Daza,  about  the  year  312.  The  Martyr's 
daughter,  Callisthene,  escaped  and  lived  a 
saintly  life,  devoted  to  works  of  charity,  till  her 
death  at  Ephesus. 

*ADELA  (St.)  Widow.  (Sept.  8) 

(11th  cent.)  The  wife  of  Count  Baldwin  IV 
of  Flanders  who,  after  her  husband's  death, 
took  the  veil  at  the  hands  of  Pope  Alexander  II 
(A.D.  1067)  and  retired  to  the  Benedictine  Abbey 
of  Messines,  near  Ipres,  where  she  died  a.d. 
1071. 

♦ADELA  and  IRMINA  (SS.)  VV.  (Dec.  24) 

(7th  and  8th  cent.)  Two  sisters,  daughters 
of  Dagobert,  King  of  the  Franks,  for  whom  he 
founded  a  monastery  at  Treves,  where  their 
devotedness  to  the  service  of  the  poor  led  to  their 
being  after  their  deaths  honoured  as  Saints. 

♦ADELAIDE  (ADELHEID)  (St.)  Empress.  (Dec.  16) 
(10th  cent.)  A  Burgundian  princess,  wife  of 
Lothaire,  King  of  Italy,  and,  after  his  death 
and  much  persecution  patiently  endured, 
married  to  Otho,  Emperor  of  Germany.  She 
was  an  able  woman  and,  especially  during  her 
second  widowhood  and  guardianship  of  her 
grandson,  Otho  III,  rendered  great  services 
to  Church  and  State,  acting  as  the  Peacemaker 
of  Europe  in  that  lawless  age.  It  is  said  of 
St.  Adelaide  that  "  she  never  forgot  a  kindness, 
nor  ever  remembered  an  injury."  In  the  end 
she  retired  to  a  monastery  in  Alsace,  where  she 
died  A.D.  999. 

ADELBERT  (St.)  Conf.  (June  25) 

(8th  cent.)  A  Northumbrian  by  birth  and 
said  to  have  been  of  royal  blood.  He  became 
a  disciple  of  St.  Egbert  and  afterwards  joined 
St.  Willebrord,  in  the  latter's  Apostolate  of 
Holland.  He  was  made  Archdeacon  of  the 
recently  founded  See  of  Utrecht  and  died  at 
Egmund  about  A.D.  740. 


*ADELELMUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  30) 

(11th  cent.)  A  French  monk,  who,  having 
given  great  proofs  of  skill  and  piety  in  the  govern- 
ment of  his  Abbey  was  called  to  Spain  by  King 
Alphonsus  V  and  there  re-established  good 
order  and  monastic  discipline  in  the  monasteries 
committed  to  his  charge.  The  date  of  his 
death  early  in  the  twelfth  century  is  uncertain. 

♦ADELHEID  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  5) 

(11th  cent.)  An  Abbess  of  Villich  (Gueldres), 
a  saintly  nun,  who  passed  away  A.D.  1015. 

♦ADELHEID  (St.)  Empress.  (Dec.  16) 

Otherwise  St.  ADELAIDE,  ivhich  see. 

♦ADELOGA  (HADELOGA)  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  2) 

(8th  cent.)     A  Frankish  Princess,   daughter 

of  the  famous  Charles    Martel,  and  foundress 

of  the  great  Abbey  of   Kitzingen,  under  the 

Rule  of  St.  Benedict  (A.D.  745). 

ADELPHIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  29) 

(5th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Rufus  in 
the  See  of  Metz,  which  Diocese  he  governed  for 
seventeen  years,  converting  many  pagans  to 
Christianity.  But  nothing  certain  concerning 
him  is  known  ;  and  it  is  only  conjeeturally  that 
he  is  dated  in  the  fifth  century.  His  cultus  at 
Metz  from  early  ages  is,  however,  indisputable  ; 
and  the  Solemn  Translation  of  his  relics  to 
Neuweiler  in  Alsace  in  the  ninth  century  was 
the  occasion  of  great  popular  rejoicings. 

ADEODATUS. 

Saints  of  this  name  are  better  known  as 
DEUSDEDIT  or  DIEUDONNE  (God-Given). 

ADERITUS  (ABDERITUS,  ADERY)  (St.)  Bp. 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Greek  by  birth  and  the  first 
successor  of  St.  Apollinaris  (the  missionary  sent 
thither  by  the  Apostle  St.  Peter)  in  the  See  of 
Ravenna,  where  he  died  early  in  the  second 
century.  No  reliable  account  of  his  life  now 
exists.  His  body,  originally  buried  outside 
the  walls  of  Ravenna,  was  in  the  Middle  Ages 
enshrined  in  one  of  the  chief  churches  of  the 
city. 

ADILIA  (St.)  V.  (Dec.  13) 

Otherwise  St.  OTHILIA  or  ODILIA,  which 

♦ADJUTOR  (AJUTRE).  (April  30) 

(12th  cent.)  A  Norman  knight  who  took 
part  in  the  Crusades,  and,  on  his  return  from 
the  Holy  Land,  led  the  life  of  a  hermit  at 
Vernon  on  the  river  Seine,  where  he  died  (A.D. 
1131). 

ADJUTOR  (St.)  Conf.  (Sept.  1) 

See  SS.  PRISCUS,  CASTRENSIS,    &c. 

ADJUTOR  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  18) 

See  SS.  VICTURUS,  VICTOR,  &c. 

ADJUTUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  16) 

See  SS.  BERARDUS,  PETER,  &c. 

ADJUTUS  (St.)  Conf.  (Dec.  19) 

(Date  uncertain.)  Described  as  Abbot  of 
Orleans  and  often  assigned  to  as  early  as  the 
fifth  century.  He  is  inscribed  as  ADJUTUS 
in  the  Roman  Martyrology  ;  but  French  authors 
mostly  style  him  AVITUS  or  AVY.  The 
learned  Mabillon  holds,  in  accordance  with 
Baronius,  that  there  were  really  two  Abbots 
of  this  name  in  the  Orleanais,  the  one  of  Perche, 
the  other  of  Micy,  both  honoured  as  Saints. 
Neither  of  course  must  be  confused  with  the 
much  better  known  St  Avitus,  Bishop  of 
Vienne,  who  flourished  at  about  the  same 
period.  It  is  to  be  noted  that  St.  Gregory  of 
Tours,  a  thousand  years  before  Mabillon.  had 
distinguished  one  from  the  other,  the  two 
holy  Abbots.  Nevertheless,  the  modern  com- 
pilers of  the  Analecta  Bollandiana,  adopting 
the  seventeenth  century  criticisms  of  Ruinart, 
insist  that  the  earlier  MSS.  know  of  only  one 
Abbot  Adjutus,  or  Avitus,  recognised  as  a  Saint 
in  the  fifth,  sixth  or  seventh  century.  This 
would  be  the  St.  Avitus,  Abbot,  of  June  17) 
Various  developments  of  his  legend  have 
(they  contend)  led  to  the  mistake.  Krusch 
ventures  the  suggestion  that  two  festivals  were 
locally  kept  in  his  honour,  one  (Dec.  19)  com- 
memorating his  death,    the   other  (June    17) 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


iEMILIAN 


the   Translation   at  some  later  period   of  his 
relics. 
ADO  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  16) 

(9th  cent.)  Born  in  Burgundy  of  rich  and 
noble  parents  (a.d.  799),  St.  Ado  was  educated 
in  the  Benedictine  Abbey  of  Ferrieres  in  the 
Diocese  of  Sens.  Ordained  priest,  he  taught 
sacred  and  profane  science  in  the  Schools  of 
the  Abbey  of  Brum,  near  Treves.  He  next 
spent  four  years  in  Rome,  engaged  in  literary 
researches,  and  returning  to  France,  discovered 
at  Ravenna  much  important  material  from 
which  he  published  his  famous  Martyrology. 
He  worked  on  this  at  Lyons  as  the  guest  of 
St.  Remigius,  Archbishop  of  that  city.  On  the 
death  of  Agilmar,  Archbishop  of  Vienne  in 
Dauphine,  St.  Ado  was  consecrated  his  suc- 
cessor and  received  the  Ballium  from  Fope 
Nicholas  I.  He  died  in  the  year  875.  In  art, 
he  is  usually  represented  studying  the  Scriptures 
in  a  library.  Besides  the  Martyrology.  we  have 
several  others  of  his  writings.  Ado's  Martyrol- 
ogy has  largely  influenced  the  compilers  of  later 
revisions  of  the  Roman  Martyrology  itself,  and 
full  account  must  therefore  in  the  study  of  the 
latter  be  taken  of  the  shortcomings  of  Ado's 
work.  The  valuable  volume  of  the  erudite 
Dom  Quentin  (issued  in  1908)  should  be  con- 
sulted for  details. 
*ADOLPHUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  11) 

(13th    cent.)     A    Bishop    of    Osnabruck    in 

Germany,  remarkable  for  his  saintliness  of  life 

and  especially  for  his  self-sacrificing  care  for 

the  poor.     He  died  A.D.  1222. 

ADRIA  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  2) 

See  SS.  EUSEBIUS,  MARCELLUS,    &c. 
ADRIAN. 

This  proper  name  is  also  spelled  in  certain 
cases  with  an  initial  H  (Hadrian). 
♦ADRIAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  9) 

(8th  cent.)  An  African  by  birth  who 
embraced  the  religious  life  as  a  Benedictine  in 
Italy  and  was  sent  to  England  with  the  famous 
St.  Theodore,  by  Pope  St.  Vitalian.  St.  Adrian 
succeeded  St.  Benet  Biscop  as  Abbot  of  Canter- 
bury. He  was  a  man  not  only  of  saintly  life, 
but  also  of  great  learning  and  conspicuous 
ability.  He  founded  in  England  several  schools 
for  the  education  of  vouth.  He  died  A.D.  710. 
♦ADRIAN  FORTESCUE  (Bl.)  M.  (July  10) 

(16th  cent.)     A  brave  knight,  condemned  to 

death  for  refusing  to  admit  the  supremacy  in 

matters  of  religion  of  King  Henry  VIII.     He 

was  beheaded  on  Tower  Hill  A.D.  1539. 

♦ADRIAN  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.         (March  4) 

(9th  cent.)  A  band  of  Martyrs  (some  say 
many  thousands  in  number)  massacred  by  the 
Heathen  Danes  (a.d.  874)  in  the  Isle  of  May 
(Firth  of  Forth).  St.  Adrian,  Bishop  of  St. 
Andrews,  was  leader  of  this  glorious  array  of 
Christian  victims.  Their  burial-place  was  a 
noted  pilgrimage  in  Catholic  Scotland. 
ADRIO,  VICTOR  and  BASILLA  (SS.) 

MM.  (May  17) 

(4th  cent.)  Egyptian  Martyrs  at  Alexandria. 
It  seems  certain  that  they  suffered  in  one  of 
the  persecutions  of  the  fourth  century,  but 
whether  at  the  hands  of  the  Pagans  at  its 
commencement,  or  later  under  the  Allans,  is 
not  clear,  all  particulars  being  lost. 
♦ADULPHUS  (St.)  Bp.  (June  17) 

(8th  cent.)  The  brother  of  St.  Botolph,  who 
with  that  Saint  journeyed  in  his  youth  from 
England  to  Saxony,  where  he  remained  for 
many  years  and  was  promoted  to  the  Episcopal 
dignity.  He  seems,  however,  to  have  returned 
to  England  before  his  death,  which  happened 
about  the  year  700,  and  his  relics  were  there 
mingled  with  those  of  his  holy  brother. 
♦ADRIAN  (St.)  M.  (March  19) 

(7th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  St.  Landoald  who 
was  murdered  by  robbers  wliile  begging  alms 
for  his  community  near  Maestricht  (a.d.  668 
about)  and  afterwards  locally  venerated  as  a 
Martyr. 


ADULPHUS  and  JOHN  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  27) 

(9th   cent.)    Martyrs   at   Cordova   in   Spain 

(about  a.d.  850)  in  the  fierce  persecution  under 

which  the  Christians  suffered  under  the  Moorish 

Caliph  Abderrahman. 

ADVENTOR  (S.)  M.  (Nov.  20) 

See  SS.  OCTAVIUS,  SOLUTOR,    &c. 

fE.    Names  of  Saints  beginning  with  this  diphthong 

are  frequently  spelled  with  A  or  E  only  as  initial. 

Thus  for  JElphege,  we  have  Alphage  (Alphege) 

and  Elphege. 

*AED  (AOD,  ^EDSIND)  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  10) 

(7th  cent.)  Related  to  SS.  Fursey  and  Foillan. 

A  Bishop  in  Meath  or  perhaps  somewhere  in 

Connaught. 

♦.ffiDAN  (AIDAN,  EDAN)  Bp.  (Jan.  31) 

(7th  cent.)     An  Irish  Bishop,  disciple  in  his 

youth  of  St.  David  of  Wales,  who  on  his  return 

to  Ireland,  laboured  zealously  in  the  interests 

of  religion  and  died  Bishop  of  Ferns  (a.d.  632). 

He  is  also  called  MAIDHOC,  MAODHOG  and 

MOGUE.     He  is  known  in  Brittany  as  St.  DE. 

/EDESIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  8) 

(4th  cent.)     The  elder  brother  of  St.  Amphi- 

anus  and  a  pupil  of  St.  Pamphilius  of  Caesarea. 

After  having  in  various  ways  suffered  for  the 

Faith,  he  passed  into  Egypt,  where  we  read  of 

his     venturing    to    reproach     Heraclius,     the 

governor    of   the    province,    for    the    cruelties 

practised  by  him  against  the  Christians.     He 

was  put  to  the   torture  for  his  boldness  and 

eventually  cast  into  the  sea  (a.d.  306). 

♦,ELRED  (St.)  Abbot.  (March  2) 

(12th   cent.)    A   holy   man   of  Anglo-Saxon 

origin,   who,   abandoning  a  high  post  at  the 

Court  of  David  I.,  King  of  Scots,  retired  to  the 

Cistercian  Abbey  of  Bievaulx  in  Yorkshire,  of 

which  monastery  he  was  in  the  end  to  become 

Abbot      His  repute  as  a  Saint,  great  during  his 

life,  increased  after  hi3  holv  death,  Jan.   12, 

1166. 

/ELPHLEAH  (St.)  Bp.  (April  19) 

Otherwise  St.  ELPHEGE,  which  see. 
♦^ELGIFU  (St.)  V.  (May  18) 

Otherwise  St  ELGIVA,  which  see. 

yEMILIAN  (St.)     bbot.  (Nov.  12) 

(6th    cent.)    A    poor    shepherd    in    Angon 

(Spain),  who,  from  the  age  of  twenty  lived  for 

forty  years  as  a  hermit  in  the  mountains  near 

his     birthplace,     Vergaja,     until     his     Bishop 

constrained   him   to   take   priests'   orders   and 

made  him  parish  priest  of  his  native  village. 

But  his  zeal  created  him  enemies,  and  he  soon 

returned  to  his  hermitage,  where,   celebrated 

for  his  miracles  and  virtues,  he  died  (A.D.  574). 

His  body,  interred  at  first  in  his  hermitage, 

was  later  transferred  to  a  magnificent  monastery 

built  in  memory  of  him.     It  is  alleged  that  he 

had  had  many  disciples  living  with  him  ;    and 

on  that  account  he  has  always  been  venerated 

as   an   Abbot   and    as   the   introducer   of  the 

Benedictine  Rule  into  Spain. 

JEMILIAN  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Feb.  8) 

See  SS.  DIONYSIUS,  .EMILIAN,    &c. 

Some    writers,    however,    identify    tills    St. 

jEmilian    with    another   Martyr   of   the   same 

name,    likewise    an    Armenian,    venerated    at 

Trebbia  (Trevi)  in  Central  Italy,  as  first  Bishop 

of  that  citv  (4th  century). 

♦/EMILIAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (March  10) 

(8th  cent.)    An  Irish  Saint,  related  to  St. 

Rumold,    who   founded   and   presided   over   a 

Benedictine  Abbey  in  Flanders. 

iEMILIAN  (St.)  M.  (April  29) 

See  SS.  AGAPIUS,  SECUNDINUS,    &c. 
.ffiMILIAN  (St.)  M.  (July  18) 

(4th    cent.)     A    Christian    of    Dorostorium 
(Sillistria)  on  the  Danube.     He  suffered  under 
Julian  the  Apostate,  being  burned  to  death  by 
order  of  the  Prefect  Capitolinus  (a.d.  362). 
/EMILIAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  8) 

(9th  cent.)  The  Menology  of  Basil  ascribes 
to  this  holy  Bishop  of  Cyzicus  all  the  qualities 
and  virtues  of  a  perfect  pastor  of  souls,  empha- 
sises   his    zeal    for    the    Orthodox    Faith    and 

5 


^MILIAN 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


enlarges  especially  on  his  fearless  denunciation 
of  the  Iconoclasts.  He  was  brought  before  the 
Emperor  Leo  the  Armenian,  subjected  to  many 
indignities,  and  died  in  exile  (a.d.  820). 

Cyzicus,  standing  on  the  island  of  the  same 
name  off  the  Southern  shore  of  the  Sea  of 
Marmora,  was  one  of  the  most  important  of 
the  Greek  cities  in  Asia  Minor,  a  great  Christian 
centre,  and  boasted  of  a  succession  of  fifty-nine 
Bishops. 
IEMILIAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  11) 

(6th  cent.)  In  the  ancient  records  of  the 
Church  of  Vercelli  (Piedmont),  St.  iEmilian 
is  said  to  have  lived  as  a  hermit  for  forty  years 
before  his  elevation  to  the  Bishopric  of  that 
city.  He  thrice  visited  Rome  and  attended 
the  three  Synods  held  by  Pope  St.  Symmachus. 
He  died,  a  centenarian  in  the  year  520.  Trans- 
lations of  his  relics  took  place  in  the  year  1181  and 
again  towards  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century. 
*/EMILIAN  (St.)  Conf.  (Oct  11) 

(Date  uncertain.)  The  Roman  Martyrology 
assigns  this  St.  iEmilian  to  Rennes  in  Brittany  ; 
but  no  trace  of  a  Saint  of  this  name  can  be 
found  in  the  Breton  records.  The  Bollandists 
conclude  that  iEmilian  in  this  case  is  a  corrup- 
tion of  the  name  Melanius.  A  Saint  Melanius, 
according  to  Albert  Legrand  and  other  local 
authorities,  was  Bishop  of  Rennes  for  sixty-two 
years  and  died  on  the  Feast  of  the  Epiphany, 
a.d.  567.  In  the  year  878  the  body  of  this 
Saint  was  rescued  from  the  outrages  of  the 
Norman  invasion,  and,  with  the  body  of  St. 
Clair,  carried  to  Bourges.  This  Translation 
(ninth  century)  may  have  been  commemorated 
on  Oct.  11  with  iEmilianus  in  error  substi- 
tuted for  Melanius  in  the  official  documents. 
/EMILIAN  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  6) 

(5th  cent.)  An  African  physician,  a  Martyr 
of  the  Vandal  persecution  under  the  Arian 
King  Hunneric  (A. P.  484).  The  name  of 
St.  iEmilian  appears  in  a  curious  old  French 
litany  of  "  Saints  of  the  Medical  Profession." 
jEMILIANA  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  5) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Roman  lady,  and  the  paternal 
aunt  of  St.  Gregory  the  Great,  who  tells  us, 
in  his  Life  of  St.  Felix,  that  her  dead  sister 
Tarsilla  appeared  to  St.  iEmiliana  and  foretold 
to  her  that  she  would  die  and  spend  the  Epi- 
phany with  her  in  Paradise.  An  old  English 
Martyrology  thus  relates  the  above  incident. 
"  Her  sister's  ghost  appeared  to  her  in  a  nightly 
vision,  saying  to  her  :  '  Without  thee,  I  cele- 
brated the  Holiday  of  the  Lord's  Birth,  but 
with  thee,  I  shall  keep  the  holiday  of  the 
Lord's  manifestation,  that  is,  the  Twelfth 
holiday  of  the  Lord,  the  day  of  His  Baptism.'  ' 
IEMILIANA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  30) 

(Date  unknown.)  She  is  stated  to  have  been 
a  Christian  maiden  who  lived  in  Rome  and 
died  a  Martyr.  But  all  particulars  are  lacking. 
A  priest,  Eutychius,  mentioned  as  having 
assisted  at  the  first  Roman  Synod  of  Pope 
St.  Symmachus  (a.d.  499),  is  described  as  being 
of  the  Church  of  St.  iEmiliana. 
jEMILIUS  (St.)  M.  (May  22) 

See  SS.  CASTUS,  .EMILIUS,   &c. 

jEMILIUS,  FELIX,  PRIAM  and  AEMILIAN  (SS.) 

MM.  (May  28) 

(Date  uncertain.)     Churches  are  dedicated  in 

honour  of  these  Saints  in  the  Island  of  Sardinia  ; 

but  otherwise  nothing  is  now  known  concerning 

them. 

JEMILIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  6) 

See  SS.  MARCELLUS,  CASTUS,    &c. 
*^ENGUS  (ANGUS)  (St.)  Bp.  (March  11) 

(9th  cent )     An  Irish  Saint,  Abbot  of  Cluain- 
Edneach  and  consecrated  a   Bishop ;    famous 
as  a  compiler  of  a  valuable  Irish  Martyrology. 
He  died  at  Desert-^Engus  A.D.  824. 
♦.ffiSCHILUS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (June  12) 

(12th  cent.)     An  Englishman  who  followed 
St.  Anschar  as  a  missionary  to  Sweden,  where 
be  was  raised  to  the  Episcopal  dignity.     His 
zeal  for  the  propagation  of  the  Christian  religion 
6 


led  at  length  to  his  being  condemned  to  death 
by  King  Swerker  I,  surnamed  the  "  Bloody." 
St.  iEschilus  laid  down  his  life  for  Christ  on 
Good  Friday  A.D.  1131 . 

*.ffiTHELHEARD  (Bl.)  Bp.  (May  21) 

(9th   cent.)     The   fourteenth   Archbishop   of 

Canterbury,  who  died  A.D.  805,  and  after  his 

death  appears  to  have  been  locally  venerated 

as  a  Saint. 

*>ETHELGIFU  (St.)  V.  (Dec.  9) 

Otherwise    St.    ETHELGIVA    or    ELGIVA, 

'WTlhCfl  S6C 

/ETHERIUS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (March  4) 

See  SS.  BASIL,  EUGENE,    &c. 
^ETHERIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (June  14) 

(7th  cent.)  A  holy  Bishop  of  Vienne  (France), 
commemorated  in  all  the  Martyrologies  as 
famous  for  his  virtues,  learning  and  miracles.  He 
flourished  in  the  first  half  of  the  seventh  century. 
Nothing  further  is  now  known  about  him. 
^ITHERIUS  (St.)  M.  (June  18) 

(4th  cent.)  One  of  the  countless  Christians 
who  suffered  torture  and  death  under  the 
Emperor  Diocletian.  His  martyrdom  took 
place  probably  at  Nicomedia  (Asia  Minor), 
A.D.  304. 
dETHERIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (July  27) 

(6th     cent.)     The     eighteenth     Bishop     of 
Auxerre  (France),  which  Diocese  he  governed 
till  his  holy  death  in  the  tenth  year  of  his 
Episcopate  (A.D.  573). 
*JETIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  6) 

(9th  cent.)  A  General  in  the  Christian  army 
and  chief  among  the  heroic  band  of  forty-two 
soldiers  who,  taken  prisoners  by  the  Caliph 
Montassem  (a.d.  836)  at  Amorium  in  Syria, 
resisted  all  threats  and  allurements  to  become 
Mohammedans,  and,  after  nine  years  of  prison 
and  repeated  tortures,  were  put  to  death  by 
his  orders. 
♦AFAN  (St.)  Conf.  (Nov.  16) 

(6th  cent.)    A  Welsh  Saint  of  the  Cunedda 
family,   by   some   supposed   to   have   been   a 
Bishop.     He  has  given  its  title  to  the  Church  of 
Llanafan  (Brecknock). 
AFRIQUE  (AFRICUS)  Bp.  (April  28) 

(7th  cent.;  A  Bishop  of  Comminges  in  the 
South  of  France,  celebrated  for  his  zeal  for 
Orthodoxy.  His  memory  is  still  held  in  great 
veneration,  though  his  shrine  and  relics  were 
destroyed  by  the  Calvinists  in  the  sixteenth 
century. 
AFFROSA  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  4) 

Otherwise   St.    DAFROSA    or   DAPHROSA, 
which  see 
AFRA  (St.)  M.  (May  24) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  convert  to  Christianity,  made 
by  the  Martyrs  SS.  Faustinus  and  Jovita,  and 
baptised  by  the  Bishop  St.  Apollonius.  She 
was  the  wife  of  a  nobleman  of  the  city  of 
Brescia  in  Lombardy,  where  in  the  end  she 
suffered  martyrdom  about  a.d.  133.  It  was  in 
her  church  at  Brescia  that  St.  Angela  Merici 
founded  the  Ursuline  Order  and  was  herself 
buried. 
AFRA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  5) 

(4th  cent.)  Said  to  have  been  a  courtesan 
in  the  city  of  Augsburg  in  Bavaria,  but  con- 
verted by  a  saintly  Bishop,  whom  she  sheltered 
in  his  flight  from  his  persecutors.  When  the 
persecution  reached  Augsburg,  Afra  was  seized 
and  taken  before  the  judge,  who,  failing  to  move 
her  constancy,  condemned  her  to  be  burned 
alive  (A.D.  304).  The  same  fate  attended  her 
mother,  St  Hilaria,  and  her  maids,  Digna, 
Eunomia  and  Eutropia.  These  pious  women, 
whilst  occupied  in  the  interment  of  St.  Afra, 
were  imprisoned  in  the  burial  vault  by  soldiers, 
who  filled  it  with  burning  logs  and  branches, 
and  so  roasted  them  to  death.  An  Abbey 
Church  was  built  over  the  vault  and  dedicated 
to  St.  Afra. 
AFRICAN  MARTYRS. 

The  early  Church  of  North  Africa  was  one  of 
the    most   flourishing    and    one    of    the    most 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


AGAPITUS 


prolific  of  Saints  in  Christendom.  African 
Saints,  of  whom  St.  Augustine  and  St.  Cyprian 
are  the  best  known,  will  be  found  in  their  order. 
Similarly,  groups  of  Martyrs  taking  their  names 
from  the  chief  sufferers  in  each.  Of  those  who 
are  simply  registered  without  mention  of  name 
in  the  old  Martyrologies  certain  groups  claim 
special  notice. 

It  may  be  remarked  that  African  Martyrs 
can  chronologically  be  distributed  in  three 
series  :  1.  Sufferers  in  the  persecutions  under 
the  Roman  Emperors.  2.  Those  of  the  perse- 
cution by  the  Arian  Vandals.  3.  Victims  of 
the  Mohammedan  hatred  of  Christianity. 

The  North  African  Church  was  a  branch  of 

the    Latin    Church.     Egyptian    Martyrs    were 

under    the    Patriarchate    of    Alexandria,    and 

therefore  are  treated  apart. 

AFRICA  (MARTYRS  IN).  (Jan  6) 

(3rd  cent.)    A  number  of  Christian  men  and 

women,  burned  at  the  stake  in  Africa  about 

a.d.  210,  under  the  Emperor  Septimius  Severus. 

AFRICA  (MARTYRS  IN).  (Feb.  11) 

(4th  cent.)  Martyrs  known  as  the  "  Guardians 
of  the  Holy  Scriptures."  They  elected  rather 
to  die  than  to  deliver  up  the  Sacred  Books  to 
be  burned  as  ordered  in  the  great  persecution 
under  Diocletian.  Those  commemorated  on 
Feb.  11  suffered  in  the  Province  of  Numidia 
(A.D.  303).  St.  Augustine  makes  special 
mention  of  them. 
AFRICA  (MARTYRS  IN).  (April  5) 

(5th  cent.)  A  congregation  of  Catholic 
Christians  massacred  on  Easter  Sunday  (a.d. 
459),  by  order  of  the  Arian  Genseric,  King  of 
the  Vandals,  while  assisting  at  Mass.  The 
lector,  who  was  in  the  act  of  intoning  the 
Alleluia  from  the  lectern  at  the  moment  when 
the  soldiers  rushed  into  the  church,  had  his 
throat  pierced  bv  an  arrow. 
AFRICA  (MARTYRS  IN).  (April  9) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  body  of  Christians  done 
to  death  at  Masyla,  probably  near  Fez  in 
Morocco,  in  one  of  the  early  persecutions. 
They  were  held  in  great  veneration  in  the 
African  Church.  A  panegyric  preached  by 
St.  Augustine  in  their  honour  is  extant.  They 
are  also  commemorated  in  one  of  the  Hymns 
of  the  Christian  poet,  Prudentius. 
AFRICA  (MARTYRS  IN).  (Oct.  16) 

(Date  uncertain.)  Two  hundred  and  twenty 
Christians  commemorated  from  ancient  times 
as  having  suffered  death  for  Christ  on  a  six- 
teenth day  of  October.  But  neither  the  year, 
nor  the  precise  place,  nor  any  details  of  their 
martyrdom,  have  come  down  to  us. 
AFRICA  (MARTYRS  IN).  (Oct.  30) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  group  of  between  one 
hundred  and  two  hundred  Christians,  massacred 
in  one  of  the  earlier  persecutions.  The  Martyro- 
logies, however,  give  no  particulars  as  to  date, 
place,  or  nature  of  their  passion.  It  should 
always  be  remembered  that  one  of  the  objects 
of  the  great  persecution,  for  which  the  Emperor 
Diocletian  is  responsible  at  the  close  of  the 
third  century  of  the  Christian  Aera,  was  the 
destruction  of  the  Sacred  Books  and  records 
of  the  Cliristians.  In  this  the  Pagans  were 
only  too  successful,  and  the  loss  to  Ecclesiastical 
History  has  been  irreparable.  The  Annals 
of  the  early  Martyrs,  in  particular,  have  become 
very  incomplete.  In  regard  to  the  Churches 
of  Africa  and  of  the  East,  the  laying  waste 
by  the  Arabs  of  the  countries  involved  the 
destruction  of  libraries  and  Archives,  and  has 
had  a  similar  disastrous  result.  In  Western 
Europe,  thanks  to  the  scholarly  copyists  main- 
tained in  the  monasteries,  much  has  survived, 
not  only  of  classical  literature,  but  also  of 
records  of  early  Christianity  dating  at  least 
from  the  fourth  century. 
AFRICA  (MARTYRS  IN)'.  (Dec.  16) 

(5th  cent.)  A  number  of  holy  women  (prob- 
ably nuns),  who  laid  down  their  lives  (a.d.  482), 
in  witness  to  the  Catholic  Faith,  then  proscribed 


by  the  Arian  Vandal  King  of  Africa,  Hunneric. 
The  bodies  of  some  were  crushed  by  heavy 
weights,  and  of  others  were  scorched  by  red-hot 
metal  plates.  The  lives  of  the  rest  were  taken 
after  slow  tortures. 

AFRICANUS  (St.)  M.  (April  10) 

See  SS.  TEBENTIUS,  AFRICANUS,    &c. 

AGABIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  4) 

(3rd  cent.)  An  early  Bishop  of  Verona 
(North  Italy),  "  eminent  (according  to  Cardinal 
Baronius)  for  his  love  of  God,  for  his  gentle 
manners  and  for  his  liberality  towards  the 
poor."     The  date  of  his  death  is  uncertain. 

AGABUS  (St.)  Conf.  (Feb.  13) 

(1st  cent.)  Said  to  have  been  one  of  the 
seventy-two  disciples  sent  out  to  preach  by 
Our  Lord  (Luke  x.)  and  thus  an  eye-witness 
of  His  miracles.  He  is  mentioned  as  a  disciple 
and  prophet  in  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles  (xi.  28). 
The  Greek  Church  commemorates  the  martyr- 
dom of  St.  Agabus  at  Antioch  on  March  8. 
From  a  tradition  among  the  Carmelites,  he  is 
usually  represented  in  art  robed  in  the  habit 
of  that  Order  and  holding  the  model  of  a 
church  in  his  hand. 

♦AGAMUND  (St.)  M.  (April  9) 

(9th  cent.)  One  of  the  Croyland  Abbey 
monks,  who  had  attained  his  hundredth  year 
when,  in  the  irruption  of  the  heathen  Danes 
(about  a.d.  870),  he,  with  his  Abbot  St.  Theo- 
dore and  many  of  his  brethren,  was  barbarously 
put  to  death.  As  in  the  case  of  many  others 
of  the  ancient  Saints,  the  circumstances  of  his 
death  were  thought  sufficient  to  justify  the 
giving  to  him  the  title  of  Martyr. 

AGAPE  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  25) 

See  SS.  DONATUS,  SABINUS,    &c. 

AGAPE  and  CHIONIA  (SS.)  VV.MM.  (April  3) 
(4th  cent.)  Two  sisters  who,  with  a  third 
sister,  byname  Irene,  and  some  other  Christians, 
were  charged  with  concealing  the  Sacred  Books 
of  the  Christians  which  had  been  ordered  to  be 
given  up  to  be  destroyed,  and  who  were  on  that 
account  burned  at  the  stake  at  Thessalonica, 
under  the  Emperor  Diocletian  (a.d.  304). 

AGAPE  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  1) 

Otherwise  St.  CHARITY,  which  see. 

AGAPE  (St.)  V.M.  (Dec.  28) 

See  SS.  INDES,  DOMNA,    &c 

AGAPITUS  (AGAPETUS)  (St.)  Bp.  (March  16) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Ravenna  (Italy), 
said  to  have  been  chosen  to  that  See,  as  had 
been  his  ten  predecessors,  in  consequence  of 
the  alighting  of  a  white  dove  on  his  shoulders 
at  the  moment  of  the  election.  Some  authors 
confuse  this  St.  Agapitus  with  another  Bishop 
of  Ravenna  of  the  same  name,  but  who  does 
not  seem  to  have  been  publicly  venerated  after 
his  death  (4th  cent.)  as  a  Saint. 

AGAPITUS  (St.)  Bp.  (March  24) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Synnada  in  Phrygia 
(Asia  Minor),  who  flourished  in  the  first  half  of 
the  third  century,  and  who  seems  to  have 
undergone  much  suffering  in  one  of  the  persecu- 
tions of  the  period. 

AGAPITUS  (St.)  (Aug.  6) 

See  SS.  XYSTUS,  FELICISSIMUS,    &c. 

AGAPITUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  18) 

(3rd  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Palestrina 
(Praeneste),  near  Rome.  He  was  a  youth  of 
noble  birth  who,  at  the  age  of  fifteen  was 
arrested  as  a  Christian,  and  after  being  put  to 
the  torture  was  sentenced  to  death.  The 
brave  boy  was  thrown  to  the  wild  beasts  in  the 
Amphitheatre ;  but,  as  not  rarely  happened 
in  the  case  of  Christian  Martyrs,  the  fierce 
creatures  refused  to  do  him  any  harm.  The 
sight  of  the  miracle  astounded  the  spectators, 
and  was  followed  by  the  conversion  to  Christian- 
ity of  not  a  few  among  them,  of  whom  one  was 
St.  Anastasius,  a  tribune  in  the  army.  The 
judge  cut  matters  short  by  ordering  Agapitus 
to  be  forthwith  beheaded.  This  passed  during 
the  so-called  ninth  persecution,  that  under  the 
Emperor  Aurelian   (a.d.  274).     The  Cathedral 

7 


AGAPITUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


of  Palestrina  now  stands  on  the  site  of  the 
martyrdom  of  St.  Agapitus.  In  the  year  974, 
his  relics  were  enshrined  in  a  natural  cave  or 
grotto  in  its  crypt ;  but  five  centuries  later 
translated  in  great  part  to  Corneto,  near  Civita 
Vecchia.  A  liturgical  commemoration  of  St. 
Agapitus  is  made  in  the  Universal  Church 
annually  on  Aug.  18,  the  anniversary  of  his 
passion. 

AGAPITUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  20) 

See  SS.  EUSTACE,  THEOPISTUS,    &c. 

AGAPIA  (AGAPES)  V.M.  (Feb.  15) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Christian  maiden  instructed 
by  St.  Valentine,  Bishop  of  Terni,  by  whom  she 
was  chosen  to  preside  over  a  body  of  religious 
women.  She  suffered  martyrdom  about  A.d. 
270. 

AGAPITUS  (St.)  Pope.  (Sept.  20) 

(6th  cent.)  By  birth  a  Roman,  he,  when 
only  Archdeacon  of  the  Roman  Church,  accord- 
ing to  a  custom  prevalent  in  that  age,  was 
elected  (a.d.  535)  to  succeed  Pope  John  II. 
In  the  following  year  he  repaired  to  Constanti- 
nople, partly  to  avert  the  war  on  Italy  threat- 
ened by  the  Emperor  Justinian,  and  partly 
to  put  order  into  the  troubled  Eastern  Churches. 
He  failed  in  his  political  mission,  but  succeeded 
in  rescuing  the  Church  of  Constantinople  from 
the  Eutychian  heretics.  "With  great  courage 
he  denounced  and  cancelled  the  election  as 
Patriarch  of  the  metropolis  of  the  East,  of 
Anthimus,  a  time  server  who  refused  to  sub- 
scribe the  Canons  of  the  Council  of  Chalcedon, 
then  the  test  of  Orthodoxy.  He  then,  as 
Supreme  Pontiff,  appointed  to  the  vacant  See, 
Mennas,  an  Ecclesiastic  of  undoubted  virtue 
and  of  great  learning.  Whilst  occupied  in 
dealing  with  complaints  of  heterodoxy  made 
against  various  Eastern  Bishops,  St.  Agapitus 
died  at  Constantinople  that  same  year.  His 
body  was  taken  to  Rome  and  interred  with 
those  of  his  predecessors  in  the  Basilica  of 
St.  Peter.  The  Greeks  commemorate  him  as  a 
Saint  on  April  17,  the  anniversary  of  his  death. 
Several  of  his  letters  are  still  extant. 

AGAPITUS  (St.)  (Nov.  20) 

See  SS.  BASSUS,  DIONYSIUS,    &c. 

AGAPIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  24) 

See  SS.  TIMOLAUS,  DIONYSIUS,   &c. 

AGAPIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  28) 

See  SS.  APHRODISIUS,  CARALIPPUS,  &c. 

AGAPIUS,  SECUNDINU3,  TERTULLA,  .ffiMILIAN 
and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  29) 

(3rd  cent.)  The  Spanish  Saints,  Agapius 
and  Secundums  (said  to  have  been  Bishops), 
were  banished  to  Africa  in  the  persecution  under 
Valerian.  There,  at  Cirrha  (near  Constantine), 
they  were  put  to  death  ( 4..D.  259)  together  with 
Tertulla,  iEmilian  and  other  Christians,  among 
whom  was  a  mother  with  her  twin  children. 

AGAPIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  19) 

See  SS.  TIMOTHY,  THECLA,    &c. 

St.  Agapius  is  also  commemorated  separately 
on  Nov.  20,  which  see. 

AGAPIUS  (St.;  M.  (Aug.  21) 

See  SS.  BASSA,  THEOGONIUS,    &c. 

AGAPIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  10) 

(5th  cent.)  During  twenty  years,  Bishop  of 
Novara  in  Piedmont,  where  he  died,  A.D.  438. 
He  is  described  as  having  in  all  things  walked 
in  the  footsteps  of  his  holy  predecessor,  St. 
Gaudentius. 

AGAPIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  2) 

See  SS.  CARTERIUS,  STYRIACUS,    &c. 

AGAPIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  20) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Martyr  of  Caesarea  in  Pales- 
tine. During  the  first  years  of  the  persecution 
under  Diocletian,  he  thrice  suffered  imprison- 
ment for  the  Faith.  At  last,  again  arrested 
by  order  of  the  Emperor  Galerius  and  chained 
to  a  murderer,  he  was  brought  to  the  public 
amphitheatre  to  be  cast  to  the  wild  beasts. 
His  companion  obtained  the  Emperor's  pardon  ; 
and  to  Agapius  also  liberty  was  offered,  but  on 
condition  of  his  renouncing  Christ.     He  refused, 

8 


and  a  bear  was  let  loose  upon  him  ;  but  after 
having  been  terribly  mauled  by  the  animal, 
he  was  found  to  be  still  alive.  Weighted  with 
heavy  stones,  his  body  was  then  cast  into  the  sea 
(a.d.  306).  St.  Agapius  is  also  commemorated 
with  SS.  Timothy,  Thecla  and  others  on  Aug.  19. 

AGATHA  (St.)  V.M.  (Feb.  5) 

(3rd  cent.)  Palermo  and  Catania  both  claim 
the  honour  of  being  the  birthplace  of  this 
famous  Sicilian  Saint,  whose  name,  enshrined 
in  the  Litany  of  the  Saints  and  in  the  Canon 
of  the  Mass,  appears  in  the  old  Martyrology 
of  Carthage  and  in  all  others,  Greek  and  Latin. 
In  the  numerous  frescoes  and  sculptures  which 
have  come  down  to  us  from  antiquity,  she  is 
represented  holding  a  pair  of  pincers  or  with 
other  instruments  of  the  tortures  to  which  she 
was  subjected.  The  traditional  details  of  her 
bitter  Passion  are  given  in  the  Lections  for  her 
Feast  in  the  Roman  Breviary.  After  suffering 
exquisite  tortures,  she  died  of  her  wounds  in 
prison  at  Catania,  during  the  persecution  under 
Decius  (A.D.  250).  The  miracles  by  which  her 
intercession  has  preserved  Catania  in  successive 
eruptions  of  Mount  Etna  are  well  authenticated. 
Her  Acts  in  Latin,  alleged  to  be  based  on  others 
from  the  pen  of  an  eye-witness  of  her  martyr- 
dom, are  substantially  reliable.  < 

♦AGATHA  (St.)  Matron.  (Feb.  5) 

(11th  cent.)  The  wife  of  a  Count  of  Carinthia, 
devoted  to  her  domestic  duties  and  a  model  of 
patience  under  the  most  grievous  trials.  She 
was  ever  occupied  in  good  works  and  especially 
in  the  care  of  the  poor  and  distressed.  She 
died  a.d.  1024,  and  many  miracles  since  worked 
at  her  tomb  bear  witness  to  her  sanctity. 

AGATHANGELUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  23) 

(4th  cent.)  A  deacon  of  Ancyra  in  Galatia, 
who  suffered  martyrdom  with  his  Bishop, 
St.  Clement,  about  the  year  309.  Their  relics 
were  brought  to  Paris  by  the  Crusaders  in  the 
thirteenth  century.  The  existence  and  cultus 
of  these  Martyrs  is  undoubted,  though  the 
learned  Baronius,  and,  after  him,  modern 
historians  in  general,  reject  the  legends  concern- 
ing them  current  in  the  Middle  Ages,  as  romances 
based  on  spurious  documents  which  had  been 
put  forth  as  genuine  Acts.  The  Greeks  have  a 
special  commemoration  of  St.  Agathangelus 
on  Nov.  5,  and  they  give  him  two  other  deacons, 
Pheugon  and  Chariton,  and  several  Christian 
children  as  his  companions  in  martyrdom. 

AGATHO  (St.>  Pope.  (Jan.  10) 

(7th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Palermo  in 
Sicily,  his  birthplace.  He  embraced  there  the 
monastic  life  in  the  Benedictine  monastery  of 
St.  Hermes,  but  was  elected  to  the  Papal 
throne  on  June  27  A.D.  678.  The  Sixth 
Ecumenical  Council  was  held  at  Constantinople 
during  his  Pontificate  (A.D.  680).  He  restored 
St.  Wilfrid  to  the  See  of  York  and  otherwise 
benefited  the  Church  in  England,  whither  he 
sent  skilled  masters  to  reintroduce  the  Roman 
Church-chant.  The  tradition  is  that  he  was 
already  a  centenarian  on  his  elevation  to  the 
Papacy.  He  was  endued  in  an  extraordinary 
degree  with  the  grace  of  working  miracles,  and 
hence  surnamed  Thaumaturgus  "  (the  wonder 
worker).  He  died  and  was  buried  in  St.  Peter's, 
A.D.  682. 

AGATHO  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  14) 

See  SS.  CYRIO,  BASSIANUS,    &c. 

AGATHO  and  TRIPHINA  (SS.)  MM.  (July  5) 
(4th  cent,  probably).  Of  the  Sicilian  Martyr 
St.  Agatho  little  is  known ;  but  his  name  has 
become  prominent  on  account  of  the  controversy 
among  the  learned  concerning  the  St.  Triphina 
bracketed  with  him  in  the  Registers.  Some 
authors  go  so  far  as  to  assert  that  this  fellow- 
sufferer  with  St.  Agatho  was  not  a  woman,  but 
a  Christian  man,  by  name  Triphonius  or  Try- 
phon.  Others  hold  the  view  that  the  Saint 
Triphina  of  July  5  is  identical  with  the  St. 
Triphomena  to  whom  the  Cathedral  of  Minori 
near  Salerno  is  dedicated.     This  latter  Saint 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


AGNES 


is  admitted  by  all  to  have  been  a  Sicilian  ;  and 
her  martyrdom  is  assigned  to  the  first  years  of 
the  fourth  century  under  Diocletian.  But 
antiquaries  cannot  yet  be  said  to  have  solved 
satisfactorily  the  problem  of  SS.  Agatho  and 
Triphina. 

AGATHO  (St.)  (Dec.  7) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  soldier,  posted  at  Alexandria 
as  guard  over  the  bodies  of  certain  Christian 
Martyrs,  which  he  prevented  a  mob  of  Pagans 
from  outraging.  For  this  humane  act,  he  was 
set  upon  and  dragged  before  the  magistrates 
as  a  suspected  Christian.  Whether  he  had  been 
previously  such  or  not  is  uncertain  ;  but  in  the 
Court  of  Justice  he  fearlessly  confessed  Christ, 
and  on  his  own  confession  was  sentenced  to 
death  and  beheaded.  He  was  one  of  the 
victims  of  the  persecution  under  the  Emperor 
Decius  (a.D.  250).  * 

AGATHOCLIA  (St.)  V.  M.  (Sept.  11) 

(3rd  cent.)  The  Christian  servant  maid  of 
a  Pagan  lady  in  Spain,  and  by  her  cruelly  treated 
on  account  of  her  religion.  In  the  end  she  was 
denounced  to  the  authorities  during  one  of  the 
persecuting  decades  of  the  third  century — one 
of  the  most  troubled  in  the  annals  of  the  Church. 
The  poor  slave  girl  was  savagely  scourged ; 
and  to  prevent  her  repeating  again  and  again, 
as  was  her  wont,  the  comforting  name  of  Jesus, 
her  tongue  was  torn  out.  She  was  at  last 
beheaded  ;  but  neither  the  precise  time  nor  the 
place  are  now  known. 

AGATHODORUS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (March  4) 

See  SS.  BASIL,  EUGENE,    &c. 

AGATHODORUS  (St.)  M.  (April  13) 

See  SS.  CARPUS,  PAPYLUS,    &c. 

AGATHONICUS,    ZOTICUS    and    OTHERS    (SS.) 
MM.  (Aug.  22) 

(3rd  cent.)  According  to  the  Menology  of 
Basil,  St.  Agathonicus  was  a  Christian  of 
patrician  family  put  to  death  for  the  Faith  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Constantinople,  during 
the  persecution  under  Diocletian  and  Maximian 
Herculeus,  towards  the  close  of  the  third 
century.  With  him  suffered  Zoticus,  by 
profession  a  philosopher,  and  several  of  the 
pupils,  or,  as  they  were  called,  disciples  of  the 
latter.  The  Emperor  Justinian,  more  than  a 
hundred  years  later,  built  a  magnificent  church 
in  their  honour.  They  are  mentioned  in  the 
Latin  Martyrologies,  and  in  the  Imperial 
Library  at  Vienna  there  is  preserved  a  valuable 
MS.  record  of  their  Passion. 

AGATHOPEDES    and    THEODULUS    (SS.) 

MM.  (April  4) 

(4th  cent.)  A  deacon  with  his  lector,  arrested 
at  Thessalonica  as  Christians,  and  drowned  in 
the  sea  by  order  of  the  President  Faustinus, 
during  the  persecution  of  the  savage  Maximian 
Herculeus,  colleague  of  Diocletian.  This  hap- 
pened in  one  of  the  first  years  of  the  fourth 
century. 

AGATHOPODES  (St.)  Conf.  (April  25) 

See  SS.  PHILO  and  AGATHOPODES. 

AGATHOPUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  23) 

See  SS.  THEODULUS,  SATURNINUS,    &c. 

AGATHIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  18) 

(Date  unknown.)  One  of  a  band  of  thirty-six 
missionaries,  who,  in  the  first  or  second  century, 
sought  to  propagate  Christianity  in  Egypt, 
which  country  they  for  that  purpose  divided 
into  four  regions.  To  St.  Agathius  with  eight 
others  fell  the  eastern  districts.  The  conver- 
sions they  made  were  numerous  and  continual. 
Eventually  arrested,  they  were  condemned  to 
death  and  were  burned  at  the  stake  as  "  impious 
men,  disturbers  of  public  order." 

AGERICUS  (AGUY,  AIRY)  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  1) 

(6th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Desideratus 
(D6sire)  in  the  See  of  Verdun  (France).  His 
charity  and  kindliness  endeared  him  to  princes 
and  people  alike  ;  and  his  prayers  and  counsel 
were  sought  by  all.  He  worked  many  miracles, 
both  in  his  life  and  after  his  holy  death,  which 
came  to  pass  in  the  year  591. 


AGGAEUS  (AGGEUS,  HAGGAI)  Prophet.  (July  4) 
(6th  cent.  B.C.)  The  tenth  among  the  Minor 
Prophets  of  the  Old  Testament.  Very  little  is 
recorded  or  preserved  by  tradition  concerning 
him.  His  prophecy  is  brief  and  contains  his 
commission  to  deliver  the  Divine  message  to 
King  Darius  Hystaspes  of  Persia,  to  forward 
the  rebuilding  of  the  Temple  of  Jerusalem. 
He  seems  himself  to  have  seen  the  former 
Temple,  in  which  supposition  he  must  have  been 
a  very  aged  man  when  he  delivered  his  pro- 
phecy ;  but  a  contrary  belief  among  the  Jews 
has  it  that  he  was  born  during  the  exile,  and 
that  he  lived  to  see  the  second  temple  (B.C. 
516). 

AGGAEUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  4) 

See  SS.  HERMES,  AGGAEUS,    &c. 

*AGIA  (St.)  Widow.  (Sept.  1) 

(6th  cent.)  The  mother  of  St.  Lupus  of  Sens 
(France),  a  holy  woman,  after  her  death  vener- 
ated as  a  Saint. 

AGILAEUS  (AGLEUS)  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  15) 

(4th  cent.)  An  African  who  suffered  at 
Carthage  in  the  last  great  persecution,  about 
A.D.  300.  His  relics  were  afterwards  translated 
to  Rome  ;  and  hence  he  became  well  know  in 
the  Western  Church.  One  of  the  Homilies  of 
St.  Augustine  was  preached  on  his  Festival. 

*AGILULPH  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (July  9) 

(8th  cent.)  A  monk,  and  later,  Abbot  of 
Stavelot,  who  became  Bishop  of  Cologne,  and, 
incurring  in  the  zealous  discharge  of  his  ministry 
the  enmity  of  the  famous  potentate  Charles 
Martel,  was  put  to  death  by  his  connivance 
(A.D.  770). 

*AGILUS  (AISLE,  AIL)  Abbot.  (Aug.  30) 

(7th  cent.)  A  young  nobleman  of  the 
Frankish  Court  who  became  a  disciple  of  the 
Irish  Saint  Columbanus  at  Luxeuil  in  Eastern 
France.  There  he  lived  a  holy  life  under 
St.  Eustasius  for  many  years.  Later  he  went 
as  a  missionary  into  Bavaria,  and  finally  became 
Abbot  of  Rebais,  near  Paris,  where  he  died 
A.D.  650,  at  the  age  of  sixty-six. 

AGLIBERT  (St.)  M.  (June  24) 

See  SS.  AGOARD,  AGLIBERT,    &c. 

AGNELLUS  (St.)  Conf.  (Dec.  14) 

(7th  cent.)  Agnellus,  otherwise  Anellus, 
born  at  Naples  of  wealthy  parents,  at  the  age  of 
fifteen,  became  a  hermit.  Later  in  his  life 
some  African  monks,  who  had  been  driven  into 
exile  by  the  Arians  and  had  settled  at  Naples, 
prevailed  upon  him  to  become  their  Abbot. 
He  died  A.D.  596.  As  to  the  Rule  followed  in 
his  monastery,  some  think  it  to  have  been  that 
of  St.  Basil,  others  that  of  St.  Benedict.  He  is 
represented  clothed  with  the  religious  habit 
and  bearing  a  cross  or  standard,  as  in  such  guise 
he  has  often  appeared  at  Naples  and  repidsed 
the  enemies  who  were  assailing  the  town.  His 
relics  were  enshrined  in  an  ancient  church 
of  Our  Blessed  Lady  which  later  was  named 
after  him.  Moroni  relates  that  during  his 
lifetime,  when  the  Saracens  (a.d.  674)  besieged 
the  city  of  Naples,  St.  Agnellus  raised  the  stan- 
dard of  the  Cross,  and,  at  the  head  of  the 
Neapolitan  troops,  put  the  besiegers  to  flight. 

AGNES  (AGNA)  V.M.  (Jan.  21) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Virgin-Martyr,  everywhere 
venerated  and  one  of  those  daily  commemorated 
in  the  Canon  of  the  Mass.  At  the  tender  age 
of  thirteen,  she  obtained  the  double  crown  of 
martyrdom  and  chastity.  Failing  to  burn  her 
at  the  stake,  the  Prefect  of  Rome  under  Maxi- 
mian Herculeus  ordered  her  to  be  beheaded 
(a.d.  301),  though  this  precise  date  is  much 
contested.  She  was  buried  on  the  Via  Nomen- 
tana,  where  a  church  was  built  by  Constantia, 
daughter  of  the  Emperor  Constantine.  St. 
Agnes  is  represented  in  various  ways,  but  mostly 
with  a  lamb  at  her  feet  and  a  sword  in  her  hand. 
Many  details  of  the  fifth  century  Acts  of  St. 
Agnes  are  open  to  criticism,  though  substanti- 
ally the  circumstances  of  her  martyrdom 
are  autlientic. 

9 


AGNES 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


AGNES  OF  BOHEMIA  (St.)  V.  (March  6) 

(13th  cent.)  A  princess,  daughter  of  the 
King  of  Bohemia  and  sister  of  the  King  of 
Hungary,  who  to  a  marriage  with  the  Emperor 
Frederick  II.  preferred  the  life  of  a  Poor  Clare. 
By  her  gentle  piety  she  gained  the  hearts  of 
all  with  whom  she  had  to  deal.  Pope  Gregory 
IX.,  who  greatly  valued  her,  placed  her  at  the 
head  of  all  the  convents  of  her  Order.  She 
passed  away,  a.d.  1282,  at  the  age  of  seventy- 
seven  years. 
AGNES  OF  MONTE  PULCIANO  (St.)  V.  (April  20) 

(14th  cent.)  Born  at  Monte  Pulciano  in 
Tuscany,  at  an  early  age  Agnes  emhraced  the 
religious  life  in  the  Dominican  convent  of 
Proceno,  of  which  she  became  the  Prioress, 
passing  later  to  that  founded  by  herself  at  her 
birthplace,  where,  famous  for  sanctity  of  life 
and  for  the  supernatural  graces  bestowed  upon 
her,  she  died  in  her  forty-ninth  year  (A.D.  1317). 
She  was  canonised  four  hundred  years  later. 
* AGNES  OF  POITIERS  (St.)  V.  (May  13) 

(6th  cent.)  Chosen  by  St.  Radegund  to  be 
Abbess  of  the  two  hundred  nuns  of  her  monas- 
tery of  Holy  Cross  at  Poitiers,  the  two  Saints 
journeyed  together  to  Aries  where  from  the 
hands  of  St.  Caesarius  they  received  the  Rule 
of  their  community.  St.  Agnes  died  shortly 
after  her  holy  mistress  (a.d.  588). 
*AGNES  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  28) 

(Date  uncertain.)     Reputed  of  British  birth, 

and  venerated  at  Cologne  as  a  Martyr.      She 

was  possibly  one  of  the  sufferers  with  St.  Ursula. 

*AGNES  OF  ASSISI  (Bl.)  V.  (Nov.  16) 

(13th  cent.)  The  sister  of  St.  Clare  and  one 
of  the  first  to  embrace  the  religious  life  under 
the  Rule  of  St.  Francis,  as  a  Poor  Clare  or 
Minoress.  St.  Francis  placed  her  as  Abbess 
over  the  convent  of  these  nuns  which  he  had 
founded  at  Florence.  She  returned  to  Assisi  in 
1253  to  assist  at  the  death-bed  of  her  holy 
sister,  and  three  months  later  rejoined  her  in 
Heaven.  On  earth  they  shared  the  same 
tomb. 
AGOARDUS,  AGLIBERTUS   and   OTHERS   (SS.) 

MM.  (June  24) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  group  of  Martyrs  described 
as  having  been  so  numerous  as  to  defy  counting. 
They  appear  to  have  been  massacred  in  a  popular 
outbreak  against  the  Christians,  at  Creteil, 
near  Paris.  The  tradition  is  that  SS.  Agoardus 
and  Aglibert,  their  leaders,  had  come  from  the 
Rhine  country,  and  that  SS.  Ewaldus,  Altinus 
and  Savinian  had  converted  them  to  Christian- 
ity. The  details  concerning  these  Martyrs, 
now  available,  are  very  untrustworthy  ;  and 
the  dates  given  still  more  so.  But  a.d.  273 
seems  likely  as  the  year  of  their  triumph. 
*AGOFRIDUS  (AGOFROI)  (St.)  Abbot.    (Aug.  24) 

(8th  cent.)  The  brother  and  successor  of 
St.  Leofridus  as  Abbot  of  Lacroix,  a  Bene- 
dictine monastery  of  the  Diocese  of  Evreux  in 
Normandy.  He  became  Abbot  A.D.  738. 
The  date  of  his  death  is  not  given. 
AGRICOLA  (AREGLE,  AGRELE)  (St.) 

Bp.  (March  17) 

(6th  cent.)  A  holy  Bishop  of  Chalon-sur- 
Saone,  zealous  for  the  spiritual  good  of  his  flock 
and  for  the  orderly  performance  of  Divine 
service.  He  took  part  in  several  French  Church 
Councils.  St.  Gregory  of  Tours  enlarges  upon 
the  austerity  of  his  private  life.  He  died  A.D. 
580,  at  the  age  of  eighty-three. 
AGRICOLA  (AGRICOLUS)  (St.)  (Sept.  2) 

(7th  cent.)  The  son  of  St.  Magnus,  a  Frankish 
noble,  who  late  in  life  took  Holy  Orders  and 
eventually  was  promoted  to  the  See  of  Avignon. 
St.  Agricolus,  his  son,  entered  the  monastery 
of  Lerins  as  a  Religious,  and  there  acquired  a 
great  reputation  for  piety  and  learning.  Sum- 
moned by  his  father  to  Avignon,  he  speedily 
made  himself  beloved  and  esteemed  by  clergy 
and  laity  alike,  and  was  in  due  course  called 
to  occupy  that  Metropolitan  See.  He  governed 
his  Diocese  for  forty  years  to  the  great  profit 

10 


of  his  people,  and  died  A.D.  700,  in  the  sixty- 
fourth  year  of  his  age. 

AGRICOLA  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  4) 

See  SS.  VITALIS  and  AGRICOLA. 

AGRICOLA  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  3) 

(Date    unknown.)     A    Martyr    in    Hungary 

whose  "  gesta  "  have  not  come  down  to  us, 

but  whose   name   appears   in   all  the   ancient 

Registers. 

AGRICOLA  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  16) 

See  SS.  VALENTINE,  CONCORDIUS,    &c. 

AGRIPPINA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  23) 

(3rd  cent.)  According  to  the  Greeks,  she  was 
a  Roman  maiden  of  tender  years  who  courage- 
ously and  joyfully  endured  cruel  torture  and 
death  for  the  Faith  in  the  reign  of  the  Emperor 
Valerian  (a.d.  256).  Her  relics  were  removed 
from  Rome  to  Sicily  by  SS.  Bassa  and  Paula. 

AGRIPPINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  9) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  holy  man  who,  in  the  second 
century  of  the  Christian  Aera  made  the  See  of 
Naples  illustrious  by  his  zeal  for  the  Catholic 
Faith  and  by  his  working  of  miracles.  His 
relics,  originally  interred  in  the  old  Cathedral 
Church  called  "  Stephania,"  were  subsequently 
enshrined  under  the  High  Altar  of  the  actual 
Cathedral  of  Naples,  with  the  bodies  of  SS. 
Eutychetes  and  Acutius,  fellow-sufferers  with 
St.  Januarius. 

AGRITIUS  (AGRICE,  AGUY)  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  13) 
(4th  cent.)  A  Syrian,  chosen  at  the  instance 
of  the  Empress  Helena  from  the  ranks  of  the 
clergy  of  Antioch  to  become  Bishop  of  Treves 
in  Germany.  He  was  consecrated  to  that  See 
by  Pope  St.  Sylvester.  The  Empress  Helena 
further  committed  to  his  care  the  Seamless 
Tunic  of  Our  Blessed  Lord,  thenceforth  known 
as  the  Holy  Coat  of  Treves  and  the  object  of  a 
famous  pilgrimage.  The  Imperial  Palace  at 
Treves  was  converted  into  a  Cathedral,  and  the 
Emperor  Constantine  was  lavish  of  favours  to 
the  missionary  Bishop  sent  thither  from  the 
East.  St.  Agritius  laboured  zealously  and 
successfully  during  twenty  years  at  the  conver- 
sion of  Gaul  and  of  Western  Germany.  After 
his  death  (a.d.  335)  his  remains  were  interred 
in  the  Basilica  of  St.  John,  now  called  St. 
Maximin's,  after  his  famous  successor  in  the 
Bishopric. 

AGUY  (St.) 

An  abbreviated  popular  form  of  the  names 
AG  ERIC  US  and  AGRITIUS. 

*AIBERT  (St.)  Conf.  (April  7) 

(12th  cent.)  A  Benedictine  monk  in  the 
north  of  France,  who  passed  to  the  life  of  a 
hermit.  His  long  life  of  eighty  years  was, 
almost  from  infancy,  one  of  continuous  prayer 
and  penance.  It  is  related  of  him  that  he 
never  missed  saying  two  Masses  daily,  one  for 
the  Dead  and  one  for  the  Living.  He  died 
A.D   1140. 

*AIDAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  20) 

(8th  cent.)  An  Irish  Bishop  in  Mayo.  He 
died  A.D.  768. 

AICHARDUS  (AICARD,  ACHARD)   (St.) 
Abbot.  (Sept.  1) 

(7th  cent.)  The  son  of  an  officer  at  the  Court 
of  Clotaire  II,  born  at  Poitiers  and  destined  by 
his  father  for  a  military  career.  But  his  own 
wish,  which  was  also  that  of  his  mother,  that 
he  should  consecrate  himself  to  God,  was 
eventually  fulfilled,  and  he  took  the  monastic 
habit  in  the  Abbey  of  St.  Jouin  in  Poitou. 
He  became  in  succession  Abbot  of  the  mona- 
steries of  Quinzay  and  Jumieges.  Throughout 
his  life,  a  model  of  prayer,  austerity,  and  of 
observance  of  Religious  Rule,  he,  at  his  own 
request,  expired  (a.d.  687)  on  a  couch  of  sack- 
cloth and  ashes. 

*AID  (St.)  Abbot.  (April  11) 

(Date  uncertain.)  An  Abbot  of  Achad- 
Finglas  in  County  Carlow,  possibly  one  and  the 
same  with  St.  Aed  or  Maedhogh  of  Clonmore. 

AIDAN  (AEDAN)  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  31) 

(7th  cent.)    In  response  to  a  request  from 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ALBERT 


St.  Oswald,  King  of  Northumbria,  St.  Aidan, 
a  monk  of  the  famous  Abbey  of  Hy  or  Iona, 
was  chosen  by  the  Abbot  Seghen  for  the  special 
mission  of  rekindling  the  Faith  in  the  Kingdom 
of  Northumbria.  He  was  forthwith  consecrated 
Bishop  and,  on  his  arrival  in  the  North  of 
England,  took  for  his  See  the  Island  of  Lindis- 
farne  (Holy  Island),  where  he  founded  a  famous 
Abbey.  His  Diocese  reached  from  the  Forth 
to  the  Humber.  The  account  of  the  miracles 
he  worked  and  other  particulars  of  his  saintly 
life  are  to  be  found  in  the  writings  of  Venerable 
Bede.  He  founded  many  churches  and  schools 
for  which  he  provided  masters  from  among  his 
fellow  monks.  He  died  at  Bamborough  in  the 
eighteenth  year  of  a  fruitful  Episcopate  (a.d. 
G51).  A  graceful  tradition  is  to  the  effect  that 
the  young  shepherd  boy  Cuthbert,  at  the 
moment  of  the  passing  away  of  St.  Aidan,  saw 
in  a  vision  the  soul  of  the  Saint  carried  up  by 
angels  into  Heaven,  and  thereupon  himself  set 
about  preparing  by  a  life  in  the  cloister  for 
carrying  on  the  work  for  God  to  which  the 
Saint  had  been  devoted.  Nor  did  the  fame  of 
St.  Cuthbert  fall  short  of  that  of  St.  Aidan. 
St.  Aidan  is  represented  in  art,  sometimes  with 
a  torch  in  his  hand,  sometimes  with  a  stag  near 
him,  suggested  by  a  legend  that  once  he  by  his 
prayer  rendered  invisible  a  deer  pursued  by 
huntsmen. 
AIGNAN  (AGNAN)  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  1) 

Otherwise  St.  ANIANUS,  which  see. 
AIGULPHUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.      (Sept.  3) 
(7th  cent.)    Monks  of  Fleury,  an  Abbey  on 
the    Loire.     St.    Aigulphus    was    sent   by    his 
Abbot,  St.  Mommolus,  to  rescue  the  relics  of 
St.  Benedict  from  the  ruins  of  Monte  Cassino, 
where    they    were    enshrined.     He    afterwards 
undertook  a  much  needed  reform  of  discipline 
in  the  Abbey  of  Lerins  off  the  coast  of  Provence, 
but  was  resisted  by  a  local  chieftain  or  baron, 
who,  in  the  end,  caused  him  to  be  murdered  with 
several  of  his  fellow  monks  (a.d.  676). 
*AILBHE  (ALBEUS)  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  12) 

(5th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint,  concerning  whose 
life  and  Apostolic  labours  there  are  few  reliable 
particulars  extant.  He  must  have  been  con- 
temporary with  St.  Patrick  in  the  fifth  century, 
and  have  worked  chiefly  in  the  South  of  Ireland, 
where  he  is  venerated  as  Patron  Saint  of  Munster 
and  as  first  Bishop  of  the  See  of  Emly,  later 
united  to  Cashel. 
AIME  (AME)  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  12) 

Otherwise  St.  AMATUS,  which  see. 
AIRY  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  1) 

Otherwise  St.  AGERICUS,  which  see. 
AISLE  (AILEU)  (St.)  Abbot.  (Aug.  30) 

Otherwise  St.  AGILUS,  which  see. 
AITHELAS  (St.)  M.  (April  22) 

(4th  cent.)     One  of  the  band  of  Persian  Mar- 
tyrs of  which  the  leader  was  St.  Abdiesus. 
*AIZAN  and  SAZAN  (SS.)  MM.  Conf.       (Oct.  1) 
(4th  cent.)    Two  brothers,  kings  or  chieftains 
in  Abyssinia,  distinguished  for  their  attachment 
to  the   Catholic   Faith   and  for  their  zeal   in 
propagating  Christianity  in  Africa.     They  were 
honoured    with    the    friendship   of    the    great 
St.  Athanasius.     One  or  other  of  them  appears 
to  have  survived  till  nearly  the  year  400,  and 
their  cultus  was   at  once,   after  their  deaths, 
established  among  the  Ethiopians. 
AJOU  (AJON)  Abbot,  M.  (Sept.  3) 

Otherwise  St.  AIGULPHUS,  which  see. 
AJUTRE  (St )  Conf.  (April  30) 

Otherwise  St.  ADJUTOR,  which  see. 

"ALANUS  and  ALORUS  (SS.)  Bps.  (Oct.  26) 

(5th    cent.)    Two    Bishops    of    Quimper    in 

Brittany,  who  flourished  in  the  fifth  century, 

but  concerning  whom   no  reliable   particulars 

have  come  down  to  us,  except  the  fact  of  the 

popular  and  Liturgical  veneration  given  to  them 

from  early  ages. 

ALBAN  (St.)  M.  (June  21) 

(4th  cent.)     A   Greek  priest  of  Naxos  who, 

sent  into  exile  by  the  Arians,  preached  the  Gospel 


in  parts  of  Germany  about  Mainz.  Here  he  was 
again  attacked  by  the  Arians,  and  eventually 
put  to  death  by  them,  towards  a.d.  400.  A 
celebrated  Abbey  at  Mainz,  dedicated  in  his 
honour,  has  preserved  his  memory. 

ALBAN  (St.)  M.  (June  22) 

(4th  cent.)  The  first  Martyr  of  Britain. 
He  suffered  in  the  persecution  under  Diocletian 
(probably  a.d.  303),  though  the  Edicts  of  perse- 
cution were  only  rarely  enforced  in  the  provinces 
governed  by  Constantius  Chlorus.  St.  Alban 
was  converted  to  the  Faith  by  a  priest  to  whom 
he  had  given  shelter  and  whose  life  he  had  thus 
saved.  Several  wonderful  occurrences  signal- 
ised his  martyrdom,  as  related  by  Bede  and 
others.  It  took  place  at  Verulam,  a  town 
which  received  the  name  of  St.  Albans  after 
the  erection  there  of  the  famous  Abbey  of  that 
name,  the  work  of  King  Offa  of  Mercia  in  the 
eighth  century.  With  St.  Alban  suffered  one 
of  the  executioners,  who,  at  sight  of  the  Saint's 
courage  and  constancy,  had  declared  himself 
also  to  be  ready  to  embrace  Christianity.  The 
priest  who  was  saved  by  St.  Alban,  who  dis- 
guised him  in  his  own  cloak  (styled  a  Caracalla), 
and  who  is  commonly  known  as  St.  Amphibalus, 
is  said  to  have  fled  into  Wales,  there  to  have 
effected  many  conversions,  and  ultimately  to 
have  sealed  his  Faith  with  his  blood.  In  art, 
St.  Alban  is  usually  represented  with  a  cross 
in  one  hand  and  a  sword  in  the  other,  with  a 
river  or  spring  in  the  foreground. 

♦ALBERIC  (Bl.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  26) 

(12th  cent.)  Abbot  of  Citeaux  and  one  of 
the  founders  of  the  Cistercian  Order  of  Monks 
under  the  Rule  of  St.  Benedict,  the  character- 
istic feature  of  which  order  was  insistence  on 
the  observance  to  the  letter  of  that  ancient 
Western  Rule.  St.  Alban  placed  his  reform 
under  the  special  patronage  of  Our  Blessed 
Lady,  and  in  her  honour  gave  his  monks  the 
white  robe  they  still  wear.     He  died  a.d.  1109. 

♦ALBERT  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan  8) 

(7th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Cashel  in 
Ireland.  Unfortunately  a  reliable  account  of 
the  life  of  St  Albert  does  not  exist.  We  know 
of  him  that  with  St.  Erard,  he  took  part  in  the 
evangelising  of  Bavaria,  and  that  he  died  and 
was  interred  at  Ratisbon.  He  flourished  at 
the  close  of  the  seventh  century. 

ALBERT  (St.)  Conf.  (Aug.  7) 

(14th  cent.)  A  Sicilian  Friar  of  the  Order 
of  Mount  Carmel,  to  which  his  mother,  hitherto 
childless,  had  vowed  him  before  his  birth. 
When  of  sufficient  age  he  willingly  ratified  his 
mother's  vow  and  entered  among  the  Carmelites 
of  Mount  Trapani.  He  lived  a  life  of  extreme 
austerity  and,  by  his  zeal  in  preaching,  called 
many  sinners  back  to  the  paths  of  virtue.  He 
also  converted  numerous  Jews  to  the  true  Faith. 
He  died  in  a  solitude,  that  is,  in  a  lonely  hermi- 
tage of  his  Order,  in  the  year  1306,  and  was 
buried  in  the  Carmelite  Church  at  Messina,  of 
which  city  he  is  recognised  as  one  of  the  Patron 
Saints.  He  was  canonised  about  the  middle 
of  the  fifteenth  century. 

•ALBERT  (Bl.)  Bp.  M.  (Sept.  14) 

(13th  cent.)  An  Italian  Bishop  of  the  Order 
of  Canons  Regular  who,  after  governing  the 
Sees  of  Bobbio  and  Vercelli  and  labouring 
strenuously  to  reconcile  the  German  Emperor 
with  the  Holy  See,  became,  under  Innocent  III, 
Patriarch  of  Jerusalem.  The  Holy  City  having 
unhappily  again  fallen  under  the  sway  of  the 
Infidels,  Bl.  Albert  established  his  See  at  Acre, 
and  for  eight  years  until  his  death  (a.d.  1214), 
distinguished  himself  for  piety  and  pastoral 
zeal.  At  the  request  of  St.  Brocard,  he  com- 
posed a  wise  and  accepted  Rule  for  the  Carmelite 
Order.  He  was  assassinated  by  an  evil-liver 
whom  he  had,  as  was  his  duty,  sternly  rebuked, 
and  has  since  been  venerated  as  a  Martyr. 

♦ALBERT  THE  GREAT  (Bl.)  Bp.  (Nov.  15) 

(13th  cent.)  The  famous  Dominican  philo- 
sopher  and  theologian   who   had   St.   Thomas 

11 


ALBERT 


THE  BOOK  OP  SAINTS 


Aquinas  for  his  pupil  and  whose  own  works 
place  him  in  the  first  ranks  of  Mediaeval  School- 
men. A  German  by  birth,  after  refusing  many 
Ecclesiastical  dignities,  content  to  serve  in  his 
own  Order,  he  was  constrained  by  the  Pope  to 
accept  the  Bishopric  of  Ratisbon  ;  but,  after 
three  years  of  able  and  successful  pastoral 
work,  was  allowed  to  retire  to  his  convent  at 
Cologne,  where  he  died  a.d.  1280,  being  then 
in  his  eighty-eighth  year.  His  works  are 
published  in  twenty-six  folio  volumes. 

ALBERT  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Nov.  21) 

(12th  cent.)  The  son  of  Godfrey  III  and 
brother  of  Henry,  Duke  of  Lorraine  and  Bra- 
bant. Choosing  the  clerical  profession,  he  was 
appointed  to  the  Cathedral  Chapter  of  Li6ge, 
of  which  Diocese  he  became  Archdeacon.  His 
virtues  were  such  as  to  recommend  him  as  the 
successor  of  his  Bishop,  Radulphus,  though  his 
promotion  was  opposed  both  by  Baldwin, 
Count  of  Hainault,  and  by  Henry  VI,  Emperor 
of  Germany.  St.  Albert  appealed  to  Rome, 
whither  he  travelled  in  disguise  Pope  Celestine 
not  only  declared  his  election  to  the  See  of  Liege 
perfectly  legitimate,  but  further  raised  him  to 
the  dignity  of  Cardinal.  Consecrated  at  Rheims 
by  the  Archbishop  and  awaiting  there  an  oppor- 
tunity of  returning  to  his  Bishopric,  he  was 
lured  outside  the  city  walls  by  some  creatures 
of  the  Emperor,  who  pretended  to  be,  like  him- 
self, victims  of  persecution,  and  murdered  by 
them  (a.d.  1192).  Of  his  relics  part  are  at 
Liege  and  part  at  Louvain. 

ALBERT  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  13) 

Otherwise  St.  AUBERT  or  AUTHBERT, 
which  ssc 

*ALBERTA  (St.)  V.M.  (March  11) 

(3rd  cent.)  One  of  the  earlier  victims  of  the 
persecution  under  Diocletian  (a.d.  286).  She 
suffered  at  Agen  in  the  South  of  France. 

*ALBEUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  3) 

Otherwise  St.  AILBHE,  which  see. 

ALBINA  (St.)  V.M.  (Dec.  16) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  young  Christian  znaiden  who 
suffered  at  Caesarea  in  Palestine,  in  the  persecu- 
tion under  Decius  (A.D.  250).  But  the  Roman 
Martyrology  seems  to  imply  that  she  was  carried 
to  Italy  and  there  put  to  death.  Her  relics 
have  certainly  from  time  immemorial  been 
enshrined  in  the  Cathedral  of  Gaeta  in  the 
Neapolitan  territory.  The  Greeks  allow  this, 
but  explain  it  by  urging  a  miraculous  translation 
of  her  body  after  martyrdom. 

ALBINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  5) 

See  SS.  GENUINUS  and  ALBINUS. 

ALBINUS  (AUBIN)  (St.)  Bp.  (March  2) 

(6th  cent.)  A  native  of  the  Diocese  of  Vannes 
in  Brittany,  who,  after  spending  a  quarter  of  a 
century  in  the  cloister,  was  elected  Bishop  of 
Angers  (a.d.  529).  He  took  a  prominent  part 
in  the  Third  Council  of  Orleans  (A.D.  538). 
A  church  and  Abbey  were  erected  to  his  memory 
at  Angers.  St.  Aubin  de  Moeslain  (Haute 
Marne)  is  a  popular  place  of  pilgrimage. 

ALBINUS  (AUBIN,  ALPIN)  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  15) 
(4th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Justus  in 
the  See  of  Lyons  between  A.D  380  and  A.D.  390, 
but  the  length  of  his  Episcopate  is  uncertain. 
He  is  said  to  have  built  the  Church  of  St. 
Stephen  and  to  have  chosen  it  for  his  Cathedral. 
He  was  buried  at  Lyons,  but  it  is  uncertain  in 
what  church. 

♦ALBINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  26) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Anglo-Saxon  Saint,  by  name 
Witta,  who  took  the  name  Albinus,  a  Latinised 
form,  when  setting  out  as  a  fellow-worker  with 
St.  Boniface  in  the  conversion  of  Germany. 
One  of  the  new  Missionary  Bishoprics  in  that 
country  was  allotted  to  him. 

♦ALBURGA  (St.)  Widow.  (Dec.  25) 

(9th  cent.)  Sister  to  King  Egbert  of  Wessex, 
and  married  to  a  noble  of  his  Court,  after  whose 
death  she  retired  to  the  monastery  which  she 
had  founded  at  Wilton,  near  Salisbury,  where 
she  passed  away  sometime  in  the  ninth  century. 
12 


*ALCHMUND  (St.)  M.  (March  19) 

(8th  cent.)  A  prince  of  the  Royal  House  of 
Northumbria,  who  after  many  years  of  exile 
among  the  Picts  in  Scotland  met  his  death  in 
Shropshire  (A.D  800)  in  circumstances  which 
led  to  his  end  being  regarded  as  a  martyrdom. 
Many  miracles  were  wrought  at  his  tomb,  and 
his  relics  were  enshrined  in  a  magnificent  church 
erected  in  his  honour  at  Derby. 

*ALCUIN  (ALBINUS)  (Bl.)  Abbot.  (May  19) 

(9th  cent.)  A  native  of  York  who  has  the 
reputation  of  having  been  the  most  learned 
man  of  his  time.  Well  versed  in  Greek  and 
Latin  literature,  he  gave  great  impetus  to  the 
founding  of  schools,  both  in  England,  and  later 
in  France.  A  favourite  of  the  Emperor  Charle- 
magne (whose  almoner  he  became),  Alcuin  used 
all  his  influence  with  that  monarch  to  advance 
the  kindred  causes  of  Christianity  and  civilisa- 
tion. He  reformed  the  discipline  of  various 
monasteries  and  died  Abbot  of  St.  Martin's  at 
Tours  (A.D.  804).  We  have  from  his  pen 
Commentaries  on  Holy  Scripture  to  the  cor- 
recting of  the  Latin  text  of  which  Alcuin  gave 
much  time  and  labour  ;  likewise,  volumes  of 
letters  and  other  works. 

♦ALDATE  (ELDATE)  (St.)  (Feb.  4) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Briton  who  lived  in  the  western 
counties  of  England,  and  who  in  some  legends 
is  styled  Bishop  of  Gloucester.  Aldate's  patriot- 
ism in  stirring  up  his  fellow-countrymen  to 
resist  the  heathen  invaders  of  the  land,  coupled 
with  his  pious  and  exemplary  life,  gained  for 
him  local  repute  as  a  Saint.  Many  churches 
bear  his  name  as  their  Titular  Saint ;  but  reli- 
able details  of  his  life  are  lacking.  His  death 
may  safely  be  assigned  to  the  middle  of  the 
fifth  century.  There  is  some  reason  to  believe 
that  there  were  two  Saints  of  this  name  in  the 
England  of  the  fifth  and  sixth  centuries  ;  but  it 
is  impossible  to  disentangle  their  legends. 

ALDEGUNDA  (ORGONNE)  (St.)  V.  (Jan  30) 

(7th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Maubeuge 
on  the  Sambre,  in  the  North  of  France,  and  the 
foundress  of  its  famous  Abbey.  She  was  of 
the  Royal  House  of  the  Merovingians  and 
trained  to  holiness  by  St.  Amandus,  Bishop  of 
Maestricht,  from  whom  she  received  the  veil  of 
religion.  She  died  of  cancer  about  a.d.  680, 
and  was  succeeded  as  Abbess  by  her  niece, 
St.  Adeltrude. 

♦ALCHMUND  and  GILBERT  (TILBERT)  (SS.) 
Bps.  (Sept.  7) 

(8th  cent.)  Two  Bishops  of  Hexham  in 
Northumbria,  the  one  and  the  other  locally 
venerated  as  a  Saint.  St.  Alchmund  died  after 
thirteen  years  of  Episcopate  (a.d.  780),  and  his 
successor  St.  Gilbert,  nine  years  later. 

*ALDERICUS     (ALDRICUS,     ELRIC)     (St.) 
Bp.  (Jan.  7) 

(9th  cent.)  Bishop  of  Le  Mans  in  the  West 
of  France,  a  learned  and  most  pious  prelate, 
devoted  to  the  poor  and  to  the  religious  interests 
of  his  Diocese.  He  was  also  in  high  repute  for 
ability  in  the  management  of  affairs  ;  and,  by 
his  holiness  of  life,  impressed  all  at  the  Court  of 
King  Louis  le  Debonnaire.  The  works  he  wrote 
are  unfortunately  lost.     He  died  A.D.  856. 

♦ALDETRUDE  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  25) 

(7th  cent.)  A  niece  of  SS.  Aldegundis  and 
Waldetrude,  who  embraced  the  religious  life 
in  the  monastery  founded  by  the  former  at 
Maubeuge  in  France.  In  due  course  she  suc- 
ceeded her  aunt  as  Abbess.  She  seems  to  have 
lived  to  extreme  old  age,  as  her  death  is  placed 
in  the  last  quarter  of  the  seventh  century. 

ALDHELM  (ADHELM)  (St.)  Bp.  (May  25) 

(8th  cent.)  The  son  of  Kenter,  a  relative  of 
Ina,  King  of  Wessex,  and  a  pupil  at  Canterbury 
of  the  Abbot  St.  Adrian.  He  further  pursued 
his  studies  under  St.  Maidulf,  an  Irish  scholar 
and  the  Founder  of  Malmesbury  (Maidulfsbury). 
St.  Aldhelm  himself  became  Abbot  later  on  in 
his  life  of  this  same  Abbey  of  Malmesbury,  and, 
while  holding  this  charge,  at  the  request  of  a 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ALEXANDER 


Synod,  wrote  his  well-known  letter  to  Gerontius, 
King  of  the  Daranonian  Britons  on  the  vexed 
question  of  the  date  of  Easter.  On  the  division 
of  the  Diocese  of  Wessex,  St.  Aldhelra  was 
appointed  Bishop  of  the  Western  half,  with  his 
See  at  Sherborne  in  Dorsetshire.  Four  years 
later  (A.d.  709)  he  died  at  Dulting  in  Somerset- 
shire. He  was  undoubtedly  a  highly  accom- 
plished prelate,  and  was  the  first  among  the 
Anglo-Saxons  invaders  of  Britain  to  cultivate 
both  Latin  and  vernacular  poetry. 

*ALENA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  24) 

(7th  cent.)  A  young  girl  of  noble  birth  in  the 
country  now  called  Belgium,  who,  having  been 
converted  to  Christianity,  while  secretly  jour- 
neying to  hear  Mass,  was  set  upon  and  bar- 
barously put  to  death  by  the  pagans  of  the 
neighbourhood,  about  a.d.  640. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Jan.  11) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  native  of  Fermo,  near  Ancona 
in  Italy,  who  became  Bishop  of  his  native  city 
wherein  he  laboured,  "  faithful  unto  death." 
He  perished  in  the  persecution  under  the 
Emperor  Decius  (a.d.  250).  His  relics  are  still 
enshrined  in  his  Cathedral. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  30) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  venerable  old  man  who,  for 
repeatedly  proclaiming  his  Christian  belief,  was 
tortured  and  put  to  death  in  the  persecution 
under  Decius  (a.d.  251),  at  Edessa  in  Syria. 
Some  historians  think  that  this  St.  Alexander 
is  identical  with  the  Saint  of  the  same  name, 
Patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  whose  Feast  is  cele- 
brated on  March  18.  Nor  does  this  seem 
improbable. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  9) 

(Date  uncertain.)  On  Feb.  9,  the  Roman 
Martyrology  commemorates  two  Saints  of  the 
name  Alexander.  The  one  is  represented  as 
having  suffered  martyrdom  in  Rome  with  thirty- 
eight  other  Christians.  The  other  is  described 
as  a  Martyr  in  Cyprus,  with  a  St.  Ammonius 
as  a  fellow-sufferer.  There  is  possibly  some 
error  here,  due  to  the  ancient  copyists.  The 
learned  Bollandists  distribute  these  Martyrs 
quite  differently,  add  twenty  to  their  number, 
and  insist  that  they  all  perished  in  Africa  or  in 
the  East,  though  of  some  the  relics  may  have 
been  translated  to  Rome. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  18) 

See  SS.  MAXIMUS,  CLAUDIUS,    &c. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  26) 

(4th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Achillas  in 
the  Patriarchal  See  of  Alexandria,  and  a 
champion  of  the  Faith  against  the  heretic  Arius. 
To  his  influence  over  the  Emperor  Constantino 
are  due  in  great  part  the  facilities  which  that 
monarch  afforded  to  the  Bishops  for  their 
gathering  at  the  memorable  Council  of  Nicaea 
(A.D.  325).  St.  Achillas  died  in  the  following  year. 

ALEXANDER.     ABUNDIUS,     ANTIGONUS     and 
FORTUNATUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  27) 

(Date  uncertain.)  Martyrs  who  have  re- 
mained in  popular  memory  but  of  whom  we  have 
no  record.  Some  believe  them  to  have  suffered 
in  Rome  ;  others  in  Thessaly.  Their  names, 
too,  are  variously  spelled  which  adds  new  diffi- 
culties to  the  research. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (March  10) 

See  SS.  CAIUS  and  ALEXANDER. 

ALEXANDER  and  THEODORE  (SS.) 

MM.  (March  17) 

(Date  uncertain.)  These  Saints,  Cardinal 
Baronius  describes  as  Roman  Martyrs,  whose 
names  he  found  in  the  ancient  MSS.  he  collated, 
together  with  a  series  of  other  names  purporting 
to  have  been  companions  in  martyrdom  with 
Alexander  and  Theodore.  St.  Alexander  is 
sometimes  described  as  a  Bishop,  and  St.  Theo- 
dore as  his  deacon.  Their  names,  too,  are 
sometimes  found  written  Nicander  and  Theo- 
dulus.  There  is  no  trace  discoverable  nowadays 
anywhere  of  their  history.  In  the  middle  of 
the  ninth  century,  Pope  Sergius  II  solemnly 
translated  and  enshrined  their  relics. 


ALEXANDER  OF  JERUSALEM  (St.) 

Bp.  (March  18) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  fellow-student  with  Origen 
at  Alexandria  in  Egypt.  He  became  Bishop  of 
a  See  in  Asia  Minor,  where  he  suffered  for  the 
Faith  in  the  time  of  Septimus  Severus  (a.d. 
204).  When  on  a  visit  to  Jerusalem,  he  was 
chosen  by  the  Patriarch,  St.  Narcissus,  as  his 
coadjutor.  He  lived  to  a  very  great  age  and 
was  at  length  (a.d.  250)  arrested  in  the  persecu- 
tion under  Decius.  He  died  in  prison  at 
Caesarea  in  Palestine  a  few  months  afterwards. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (March  24) 

Two  Martyrs  of  this  name  are  included  in  the 
group  SS.  TIMOLAUS,  DIONYSIUS,  &c, 
which  see. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (March  27) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  soldier,  described  in  the  Roman 
Martyrology  as  having  suffered  as  a  Christian 
in  Hungary,  under  the  Emperor  Maximian 
Herculeus,  colleague  of  Diocletian.  There  is 
great  difficulty  in  distinguishing  this  St.  Alexan- 
der from  St.  Alexander  of  Thrace  (May  13). 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (March  28) 

See  SS.  PRISCUS.  MALCHUS,   &c. 

ALEXANDER  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  24) 
(2nd  cent.)  A  Greek  by  birth,  and  the 
friend  and  companion  of  St.  Epipodius  of 
Lyons.  He  was  arrested  as  a  Christian,  put  to 
the  torture  and,  in  the  end,  crucified  (A.d.  177). 
Thirty-four  other  Christians  of  Lyons  perished 
at  the  same  time. 

ALEXANDER,     EVENTIUS     and     THEODULUS 
(SS.)  MM.  (May  3) 

(2nd  cent.)  Pope  St.  Alexander  I,  a  Roman 
by  birth,  succeeded  St.  Evaristus,  a.d.  108, 
or  as  others  contend,  a.d.  121,  and  reigned 
for  about  ten  years.  A  constant  tradition 
attributes  to  him  the  change  in  the  Canon  of 
the  Mass  of  the  words  used  by  St.  Paul :  "  Who 
in  the  night  in  which  He  was  betrayed,"  into 
those  now  employed  :  "  Who  the  day  before 
He  suffered."  St.  Alexander  was  put  to 
death,  together  with  his  two  priests,  Eventius 
and  Theodulus,  under  the  Emperor  Hadrian. 
Modern  research  and  especially  the  discovery 
of  the  tomb  of  this  early  Pope  has  tended  to 
confirm  the  account  of  St.  Alexander  handed 
down  to  us  in  Mediaeval  Acts,  hitherto  regarded 
as  unreliable. 

ALEXANDER  and  ANTONINA  (SS.)  MM.  (May  3) 
(4th  cent.)  St.  Alexander,  a  Christian 
soldier,  during  the  persecution  under  Diocletian 
and  his  colleagues,  succeeded  in  rescuing  a 
Christian  maiden,  St.  Antonina,  from  a  house 
of  ill-fame,  to  which,  as  was  not  unusual  in  pagan 
times,  she  had  been  condemned.  They  were 
both  arrested  and,  after  preliminary  torture, 
burned  to  death  at  Constantinople  (a.d.  313), 
Maximin  Daza  then  reigning  in  the  East. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (May  20) 

See  SS.  THALALAEUS,  ASTERIUS,    &c. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (May  29) 

See  SS.  SISINNIUS,  MARTYRIUS,    &c. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (June  2) 

See  SS.  PHOTINUS,  SANCTUS,   &c. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  Bp.  (June  4) 

(8th  cent.)  One  of  the  many  Saints  who 
occupied  the  See  of  Verona.  He  appears  to 
have  been  the  twenty-first  Bishop  and  to  have 
flourished  at  the  beginning  of  the  eighth 
century. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (June  6) 

See  SS.  AMANTIUS,  ALEXANDER,    &c. 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (June  6) 

(6th  cent.)  A  holy  Bishop  of  Fiesole  (Tus- 
cany), famous  for  his  courageous  defence  of 
the  rights  and  liberties  of  the  Church,  at  the 
Court  of  the  Kings  of  Lombardy.  He,  however, 
paid  for  his  intrepidity  with  his  life ;  for  on 
his  return,  after  having  won  his  cause,  he  was 
waylaid  by  his  opponents  and  drowned  in  the 
river  Arno  (A.D.  590). 

ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (July  9) 

See  SS.  PATERMUTHIAS,  COPRAS,    &c. 

13 


ALEXANDER 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (July  10) 

One   of   the   SEVEN   HOLY   BROTHERS, 
MM.,  which  see. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (July  21) 

See  SS.  VICTOR,  ALEXANDER,    &c. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  1) 

See  SS.  LEONTIUS,  ATTIUS,    &c. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Aug.  11) 

(3rd  cent.)  This  Saint  Alexander  has 
acquired  the  surname  Carbonarius  (the  charcoal- 
burner),  an  occupation  which  he  voluntarily 
took  up  in  preference  to  the  career  which  his 
wealth  and  noble  birth  had  opened  out  before 
him.  On  the  death  of  their  Bishop,  the  clergy 
and  laity  of  Comana,  a  suffragan  See  of  Neo- 
Caesarea  in  Asia  Minor,  applied  to  St.  Gregory 
Thaumaturgus  for  the  choice  of  a  successor. 
His  rejecting  certain  candidates  proposed 
because  of  their  worldly  position  led  to  one  of 
the  clergy  jestingly  proposing  Alexander  the 
Charcoal-burner,  who  on  being  examined,  was 
found  in  reality  to  have  all  the  qualities  requisite 
in  a  Bishop.  St.  Alexander  was  burned  to  death 
at  the  stake,  as  a  Christian,  a.d.  250. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  26) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Tribune  in  the  Theban  Legion 
(See  SS.  Mauritius,  etc.)  who,  being  arrested 
and  condemned  to  death,  made  his  escape 
from  the  prison  at  Milan,  but  was  retaken  out- 
side the  walls  of  Bergamo  and  there  beheaded, 
it  is  said,  in  the  presence  of  Maximin  Herculeus 
himself  (a.d.  297).  The  Acts  of  the  Martyr 
are  preserved  at  Bergamo,  where  his  relics  are 
enshrined  in  the  Cathedral. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  28) 

(4th  cent.)  The  first  Bishop  to  preside  over 
the  See  of  Constantinople,  after  its  change  of 
name  from  Byzantium.  During  the  stormy 
period  of  the  struggle  of  the  Church  against  the 
Arian  heresy,  he,  ably  supported  by  his  name- 
sake of  Alexandria,  was  a  resolute  champion 
of  the  Catholic  Faith.  He  assisted  at  the 
Council  of  H  ice  ;  and,  though  threatened  with 
banishment,  persisted  in  his  refusal  to  allow 
Arius  to  communicate  with  the  Church  of  Con- 
stantinople. The  awful  death  of  Arius  is 
regarded  as  a  response  to  the  Saint's  prayer 
for  deliverance  from  his  machinations.  St. 
Alexander  is  commemorated  by  the  Greeks  on 
August  30.  He  died  at  a  ripe  old  age  a.d.  340. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  9) 

See  SS.  HYACINTH,  ALEXANDER,    &c. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Sept.  21) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  holy  Bishop,  whose  See  was 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Rome.  Having  by 
his  prayers  recalled  dead  men  to  life,  his  fame 
spread  about,  and  he  was  arrested  and  put  to  the 
torture.  In  the  end  he  was  beheaded  on  the 
Claudian  Way,  some  twenty  miles  from  Rome, 
in  what  precise  year  is  unknown.  Pope  St. 
Damasus  in  the  fourth  century  translated  his 
relics  and  enshrined  them  in  one  of  the  Roman 
churches. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  28) 

See  SS.  MARK,  ALPHIUS,   &c. 
ALEXANDER  SAULI  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  11) 

(16th  cent.)  One  of  God's  instruments  in 
the  restoration  of  Church  discipline  in  Italy 
in  the  sixteenth  century.  Of  noble  birth  in 
Lombardy,  he  joined  the  recently  founded 
Order  of  Barnabites,  of  which  he  became 
General.  His  chief  sphere  of  work  was  in 
Corsica,  where  for  twenty  years  he  was  Bishop 
of  Aleria.  Made  in  1591,  against  his  will, 
Bishop  of  Pavia,  he  died  there  (April  23)  in 
the  following  year.  He  was  beatified  in  1741, 
and  canonised  by  Pope  Pius  X  A.D.  1904. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  17) 

See  SS.  VICTOR,  ALEXANDER,    &c. 
ALEXANDER,  HERACLIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.) 

MM.  (Oct.  22) 

(Date  unknown.)  St.  Alexander,  a  Bishop, 
but  whose  See  is  not  mentioned,  is  described  in 
the  Menology  of  Basil  as  having  preached  the 
Gospel  with  such  success  as  toAhave  converted 

14 


to  the  Faith  of  Christ  a  multitude  of  both  Jews 
and  Pagans.  Arrested  and  brought  before  the 
Imperial  authorities,  no  torture  could  induce 
him  to  consent  to  take  part  in  heathen  rites. 
One  of  his  guards  was  so  moved  by  the  sight  of 
the  constancy  of  the  Martyr  that  he  too  pro- 
claimed himself  a  Christian,  and  was  in  conse- 
quence beheaded.  This  is  the  St.  Heraclius 
honoured  with  St.  Alexander.  Other  converts 
followed.  St.  Alexander  and  his  disciples  were 
in  the  end  all  put  to  death.  Unfortunately, 
neither  the  date  nor  the  place  of  their  martyr- 
dom have  come  down  to  us. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  9) 

(4th   cent.)    A   Confessor,    who   suffered   at 
Salonica,  under  the  Emperor  Maximian  Hercu- 
leus, Diocletian's  savage  colleague  (A.d.  304). 
No  particulars  are  discoverable. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  24) 

(4th    cent.)     One    of    the    sufferers    in    the 
persecution    under   Julian   the    Apostate.     He 
died  for  the  Faith  at  Corinth  a.d.  361. 
ALEXANDER  BRIANT  (Bl.)  M.  (Dec.  1) 

(16th  cent.)  A  holy  priest,  with  a  "  sweet 
grace  in  preaching,"  who  shortly  before  his 
martyrdom  joined  the  Society  of  Jesus.  While 
in  prison  for  the  Faith  he  was  severely  racked 
and  otherwise  put  to  many  tortures.  He 
suffered  at  Tyburn,  with  Blessed  Edmund 
Campion  and  Blessed  Ralph  Sherwin,  Dec.  1, 
A.D.  1581. 
ALEXANDER  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  12) 

See  SS.  EPIMACHUS  and  ALEXANDER. 
ALEXANDAR,   CLAUDIA,   EUPHRASIA,    MAT- 

RONA,  JULIANA,  EUPHEMIA,  THEODOTA, 

DERPHUTA,  and  a  SISTER  OF  DERPHUTA 

(SS.)  MM.  (March  20) 

(4th  cent.)  Christian  women,  natives  of 
Amissus  in  Paphlagonia  (Asia  Minor),  burned 
to  death  on  account  of  their  religion  in  that 
town,  under  the  Emperors  Diocletian  and 
Maximinian  (about  A.D.  300). 
ALEXANDRA  (St.)  V.M.  (May  18) 

See  SS.  THEODOTUS,  THECUSA,    &c. 
ALEXANDRIA  (MARTYRS  OF). 

Of  the  innumerable  Christians  who  laid 
down  their  lives  for  Christ  in  Egypt,  in  the 
early  persecutions  under  the  heathen  Roman 
Emperors,  in  the  troubles  with  the  Eutychian 
heretics,  and  in  the  massacres  consequent  on 
the  over-running  of  the  country  by  the  Moham- 
medan Arabs,  a  large  proportion  suffered  at 
Alexandria,  the  metropolis.  Many  of  these 
Ma*"*  are  mentioned  in  this  volume  in 
connection  with  the  Bishops  or  others  who 
were  their  leaders,  this  being  the  method 
followed  by  the  Martyrologies  and  other 
ancient  catalogues  of  Saints.  A  few  other 
important  groups  of  Alexandrian  Martyrs 
are  the  following.  They  were  mostly  victims 
of  mob  violence,  in  massacres  of  Christians 
tolerated  by  the  authorities,  rather  than  Chris- 
tians tried  in  regular  form  and  condemned 
to  death  by  magistrates. 
ALEXANDRIA  (MARTYRS  OF)  (Jan.  28) 

(4th  cent.)  An  Arian  officer,  by  name 
Syrianus,  at  the  head  of  a  troop  of  soldiers, 
entered  the  great  church  of  Alexandria,  insulted 
the  Patriarch  St.  Athanasius,  who  was  offering 
the  Holy  Sacrifice,  and  without  formalities  of 
any  kind  ordered  those  present  to  be  put  to 
death.  St.  Athanasius  was  among  the  few 
who  escaped  (a.d.  356). 
ALEXANDRIA  (MARTYRS  OF).  (Feb.  28) 

(3rd  cent.)  The  Church  recognises  as 
Martyrs  to  charity  a  number  of  clerics  and  of 
laymen  who  sacrificed  their  lives  (a.d.  261) 
in  ministering  to  the  plague-stricken  in  a 
terrible  pestilence  at  that  time  raging  in 
Alexandria. 
ALEXANDRIA  (MARTYRS  OF).  (March  17) 

(4th  cent.)  A  multitude  of  Christians 
massacred  by  the  Pagan  devotees  of  Serapis 
on  their  refusal  to  join  in  the  idolatrous  worship 
offered  in  his  temple.    This  was  the  work  of  a 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ALOYSIUS 


riotous  mob  (A.D.  390)  during  the  reign  of  the 
Christian  Emperor  Theodosius,  who  thereupon 
destroyed  the  temple  and  had  a  Christian 
church  built  upon  its  site. 

ALEXANDRIA  (MARTYRS  OF).  (March  21) 

(4th  cent.)  Catholics  of  both  sexes  (number 
unrecorded)  massacred  in  various  churches  of 
Alexandria  (a.d.  342)  by  the  Arians  who  had 
deposed  and  expelled  the  Patriarch,  St.  Athana- 
sius,  their  great  opponent. 

ALEXANDRIA  (MARTYRS  OF)  (May  13) 

(4th  cent.)  A  great  number  of  Catholics 
put  to  death  or  exiled  from  Alexandria  (A.D. 
372)  when,  for  the  fifth  time,  St.  Athanasius 
had  been  driven  from  his  flock,  under  the 
Arian  Emperor  Valens. 

ALEXANDRIA  (MARTYRS  OF)  (Aug.  10) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  multitude  of  Christians,  victims 
at  Alexandria  of  the  persecutions  under  the 
Emperors  Decius  and  Valerian.  St.  Denis  of 
Alexandria  gives  a  graphic  account  of  their 
sufferings.  They  are  in  the  Roman  Martyrology 
commemorated  together,  though  they  were 
put  to  death  in  various  years  between  A.D.  260 
and  A.D.  267. 

*ALEXIS  (ALEXIUS)  of  KIEFF  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  12) 
(14th  cent.)  A  Russian  nobleman  who 
embraced  the  religious  life  under  the  Rule  of 
St.  Basil,  and  who  later  became  Archbishop  of 
Kiew.  Famous  for  the  working  of  miracles 
and  for  wisdom  and  learning,  he  is  said  to 
have  been  appealed  to  for  advice,  even  by  the 
Sultan  of  the  Turks  in  Asia  Minor.  He  died 
A.D.  1364. 

ALEXIUS  FALCONIERI  (St.)  Conf.  (Feb.  17) 

One  of  the  HOLY  SEVEN  FOUNDERS  OF 
THE  SERVITE  ORDER,  which  see. 

ALEXIS  (ALEXIUS)  (St.)  Conf.  (July  17) 

(5th  cent.)  The  only  son  of  a  Roman 
Senator,  whom  desire  to  avoid  the  fascinations 
of  the  world,  impelled  to  fly  from  his  home  and 
promised  bride  on  his  wedding  day,  and  to  set 
sail  for  Asia  Minor.  On  his  arrival  there  he 
made  his  way  to  Edessa,  where  for  many  years 
he  lived  in  the  greatest  poverty  and  busied 
himself  in  prayer  and  good  works.  Dreading 
the  veneration  in  which  he  began  to  be  held 
on  account  of  his  holy  life,  he  journeyed  to  the 
coast  and  embarked  in  a  vessel  bound  for 
Tarsus.  But,  after  many  mishaps  at  sea,  he 
was  at  length  cast  ashore  on  the  coast  of  Italy, 
his  native  country,  and  so  returned  to  Rome. 
Acting  on  a  Divine  impulse,  he  there  sought 
shelter  in  his  father's  house,  in  a  shed  adjoining 
which  he  was  suffered  to  live  and  die,  disguised 
as  a  poor  mendicant,  without  his  identity  being 
discovered.  After  his  decease,  a  written 
paper  was  found  in  his  possession,  giving 
particulars  of  his  life  and  of  the  motives  which 
had  induced  him  to  act  as  he  had  done.  Pope 
Innocent  I  and  the  Emperor  Honorius  are 
said  to  have  been  present  at  his  obsequies 
and  at  his  burial  in  the  Church  of  St.  Boniface, 
erected  close  to  his  father's  mansion  (a.d.  404). 
The  many  miracles  wrought  at  his  intercession 
led  to  his  being  honoured  as  a  Saint. 

♦ALFERIUS  (ADALFERIUS)  (Bl.) 

Abbot.  (April  12) 

(11th  cent.)  The  founder  of  the  celebrated 
monastery  of  La  Cava  in  the  South  of  Italy. 
Among  his  disciples  was  the  future  Pope, 
Blessed  Victor  III.  Blessed  Alferius  died  at 
a  great  age  A.D.  1050. 

•ALFRED  (ALTFRIED)  (Bl.)  Bp.  (Sept.  15) 

(9th    cent.)    A    Bishop    of    Hildesheim    in 

Germany,   who   died   about   A.D.    869,   and   is 

honoured  as  a  Saint.      But  of  his  holy  life  no 

reliable  particulars  are  extant. 

♦ALFREDA  (ELFREDA,  ETHELFREDA) 

(St.)  V.  (May  20) 

Otheruise  St.  ALTHRYDA,  which  see. 

♦ALFRICK  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  16) 

(10th  cent.)  An  Abbot  of  Abingdon,  after- 
wards Archbishop  of  Canterbury  (A.D.  995- 
a.d.  1006),  distinguished  for  the  holiness  of  his 


life  and  for  his  able  government  of  his  Church  in 
the  critical  times  of  the  Danish  invasion  of  Kent. 
♦ALFWOLD  (St.)  Bp.  (March  26) 

(11th  cent.)  A  Winchester  monk,  specially 
devout  to  SS.  Swithun  and  Cuthbert,  and 
remarkable  for  the  austerity  of  his  holy  and 
singularly  active  life.  He  was  made  Bishop 
of  Sherborne,  which  See  he  governed  with  zeal 
and  prudence  till  his  death  (a.d.  1058). 
♦ALEYDIS  of  SCHAREMBEKE  (ALIZ  DE 
SCHAERBECK)  V.  (June  11) 

(13th  cent.)     A  nun  in  a  Cistercian  monastery 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Brussels.     She  passed 
away  about  A.D.  1300. 
ALGERIC  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  1) 

Otherwise   St.    AGERICUS,    AGUY,    AIRY, 
which  see. 
ALICE  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  5) 

Otherwise  St.  ADELHEID  or  ADELAIDE, 
which  see. 
ALIPIUS  (ALYPIUS)  Bp.  (Aug.  15) 

(5th  cent.)  A  fellow  citizen  and  disciple  of 
St.  Augustine  of  Hippo,  to  whom  he  was 
greatly  attached,  and  whom  he  followed  from 
Carthage  to  Rome  and  Milan,  where  they  were 
both  baptised  by  St.  Ambrose  on  Easter  Eve, 
A.D.  387.  Upon  their  return  to  Africa,  they 
spent  some  time  in  solitude  as  Religious. 
Afterwards  St.  Alipius  visited  the  Holy  Land. 
Elected  Bishop  of  Tagaste,  he  laboured  strenu- 
ously in  the  defence  of  the  Church  against  the 
Donatist  and  Pelagian  heresies.  He  is  said 
to  have  been  present  at  the  deathbed  of  St. 
Augustine  (a.d.  430),  and  to  have  himself 
passed  away  shortly  afterwards. 
♦ALKELD  (St.)  V.  (March  27) 

(10th  cent.)  Two  Yorkshire  churches  are 
dedicated  to  this  Saint  (sometimes  called 
Athilda).  Nothing  whatever  is  known  of  her 
except  that  an  ancient  painting  represents  her 
being  strangled  by  Danish  pirates.  Such  an 
event  may  with  some  probability  be  assigned 
to  the  tenth  century.  But  her  name  does  not 
occur  in  any  of  the  older  Calendars  or  in  any 
Liturgical  record. 
♦ALKMUND  (St.)  M.  (March  19) 

Otherwise  St.  ALCHMUND,  which  see. 
♦ALLAN  (ALLEN)  (St.)  Conf.  (Jan.  12) 

Otherwise  St.  ELIAN,  which  see. 
ALLOYNE  (St.)  Conf.  (Oct.  1) 

Otherwise  St.  BAVO,  which  see. 
ALLYRE  (St.)  Bp.  (July  7) 

Otherwise  St.  ILLIDIUS,  which  see. 
ALMACHIUS  (TELEMACHUS)  (St.)  M.      (Jan.  1) 
(5th  cent.)     A  hermit  who  came  to  Rome 
from  the  East  and  publicly  protested  against 
the  inhuman  gladiatorial  combats  in  the  Roman 
Amphitheatre.     He  was  seized  and  cut  to  pieces 
by   order   of   the   Prefect   Alipius   (a.d.    404). 
The  Emperor  Honorius,  however,  availed  him- 
self of  this  happening  to  put  an  end  to  the 
practice   of   sacrificing   human   beings    in   the 
public  sports. 
*ALMEDHA  (ELED,  ELEVETHA)  V.M.     (Aug.  1) 
(6th   cent.)    A   daughter   or   granddaughter 
of  the   famous   King   Brychan   of   Brecknock. 
The  tradition  is  that  she  suffered  martyrdom 
in  a  hill  near  Brecknock,  at  the  hands  of  the 
heathen,  sometime  in  the  sixth  century. 
*ALNOTH  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  25) 

(7th  cent.)  A  poor  serving  man  in  St.  Wer- 
burgh's  monastery  at  Chester,  who  embraced 
the  life  of  an  anchoret  in  Northamptonshire 
and  was  put  to  death  by  evil-doers  towards  the 
end  of  the  seventh  century.  His  sanctity  was 
borne  witness  to  bv  many  miracles. 
ALODIA  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  22) 

See  SS.  NUNILO  and  ALODOA. 
ALONZO  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  23) 

Otherwise  St.  ILDEPHONSUS,  which  see. 
ALORUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  26) 

See  SS.  ALANUS  and  ALORUS. 
ALOYSIUS  GONZAGA  (St.)  (June  21) 

(16th  cent.)    A  son  of  Ferdinand  Gonzaga, 
Prince    of    the    Holy    Roman    Empire,    born 

15 


ALPHAEUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


March  9,  1568.  Such  was  his  piety  that 
Cardinal  Bellarmine  helieved  Aloysius  to  have 
passed  his  whole  life  without  ever  grievously 
offending  Almighty  God.  After  serving  as  a 
page  at  the  Court  of  Spain,  he  in  his  eighteenth 
year  entered  the  Society  of  Jesus,  took  the  vows 
of  religion  and  received  minor  Orders.  He 
died  of  the  plague,  having  contracted  the 
infection  while  visiting  and  ministering  to  the 
sick  (a.d.  1591)  at  the  age  of  twenty-three. 
St.  Aloysius  is  usually  represented  in  art, 
clad  in  a  surplice,  and  with  a  lily  and  crucifix 
in  his  hands  or  near  him.  He  is  Patron  Saint 
of  the  young.  Many  churches  are  dedicated 
to  him  in  all  parts  of  the  world. 
ALPHAEUS  (St.)  Conf.  (May  26) 

(1st  cent.)  Commemorated  hy  the  Greeks 
as  the  father  of  the  Apostle  St.  James  the  Less, 
and  mentioned  as  such  in  the  Gospels  (Matt.  x. 
3).  There  are  no  trustworthy  traditions  con- 
cerning him. 
ALPHAEUS  and  ZACCHAEUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  17) 

(4th  cent.)  Martyrs  in  Palestine  during  the 
persecution  under  Diocletian  (about  A.D.  302). 
They  were  prominent  among  the  multitude  of 
Christians  in  the  Holy  Land,  who  with  St. 
Procopius  laid  down  their  lives  for  Christ. 
In  the  accounts  we  have  of  them,  stress  is 
particularly  put  upon  their  heroic  endurance 
of  the  most  appalling  tortures,  previous  to 
their  execution. 
ALPHAGE  (ALPHEGE)  Bp.  M.  (April  19) 

Otherwise  St.  ELPHEGE,  which  see. 
ALPHIUS,  PHILADELPHUS  and  CYRINUS  (SS.) 

MM.  (May  10) 

(3rd  cent.)  Sicilian  Saints,  said  to  have  been 
brothers.  Their  Acts  are  unreliable  owing  to 
many  interpolations  ;  but  they  appear  to  have 
suffered  under  Decius  (a.d.  251).  They  are  in 
great  veneration  in  Sicily  and  also  among  the 
Greeks 
ALPHIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  28) 

See  SS.  MARK,  ALPHIUS,    &c. 
*ALPHONSUS  NAV ARETE  (Bl.)  M.  (June  1) 

(17th  cent.)  A  Dominican  missionary  in 
Japan,  where  he  converted  many  thousands  to 
Christianity.  He  was  beheaded  (a.d.  1617), 
and  two  years  later  his  body  was  discovered 
to  be  still  incorrupt. 
ALPHONSUS  LIGUORI  (St.)  Bp.,  Doctor 

of  the  Church.  (Aug.  2) 

(18th  cent.)  Born  at  Naples  of  an  ancient 
and  noble  family,  he  began  his  public  life  as  a 
barrister,  but  soon  renounced  his  prospects  of 
a  brilliant  career  to  devote  himself  exclusively 
to  the  service  of  God.  He  joined  a  Society 
of  priests  formed  for  the  purpose  of  giving 
missions  and  instruction  to  the  people  of  the 
Kingdom  of  Naples,  and  became  a  true  Apostle 
of  Christ  who  crowned  his  preaching  and 
labours  with  wonderful  success  and  with  the 
gift  of  working  miracles.  At  Benevento  he 
founded  the  Congregation  of  the  Most  Holy 
Redeemer  to  perpetuate  this  special  work  of 
mission-giving.  After  refusing  many  Bishop- 
rics, he  was  prevailed  upon  to  accept  that  of 
S.  Agata  dei  Goti,  by  Pope  Clement  XIII. 
As  a  bishop  he  showed  himself  a  model  of  every 
pastoral  virtue,  but  owing  to  failing  health, 
finally  obtained  permission  to  resign  his  See. 
The  remainder  of  his  life  he  employed  in  the 
composition  of  theological  and  ascetical  works, 
which  display  both  deep  learning  and  a  won- 
derful spirit  of  fervent  piety.  He  was  also  a 
poet  and  a  musician.  He  died  in  his  ninetieth 
year  (A..D.  1787)  in  the  odour  of  sanctity  and 
was  canonised  by  Pope  Gregory  XVI  in  the 
year  1839.  In  1871,  Pius  IX  proclaimed  him 
a  Doctor  of  the  Church.  Artists  usually 
represent  him  in  the  attitude  of  prayer  with  a 
monstrance  in  his  hand,  or  writing  with  pen 
and  paper  before  a  crucifix. 
ALPHONSUS  RODRIGUEZ  (St.)  Conf.     (Oct.  30) 

(17th  cent.)    A  well-to-do  Spanish  merchant, 
who,  on  losing  his  wife  and  two  children,  joined 

16 


the  Society  of  Jesus  as  a  lay-brother,  and  for 
thirty  years  served  as  porter  in  a  Jesuit  College 
in  the  Island  of  Majorca.  He  was  enriched  by 
God  with  many  wonderful  supernatural  gifts, 
but  was  chiefly  remarkable  for  his  exceeding 
patience  and  humility.  He  died  A.d.  1617 
at  the  age  of  eighty -six,  and  many  miracles  have 
been  wrought  in  favour  of  those  who  have 
invoked  him. 
ALPINIAN  (St.)  Conf.  (June  30) 

See  SS.  MARTIALIS,  ALPINIANUS,    &c. 
♦ALRICK  (St.)  Conf.  (June  30) 

(11th  cent.)  A  holy  hermit  in  the  north  of 
England,  associated  with  St.  Godric,  who 
assisted  him  at  his  departure  from  this  world. 
St.  Alrick  lived  in  the  last  half  of  the  eleventh 
centurv. 
•ALTHRYDA  (ALFRIDA,  ETHELDRYTHA) 

(St.)  V.  (May  20) 

(9th  cent.)  A  daughter  of  King  Offa  of  Mercia 
and  the  betrothed  wife  of  the  Martyr-king, 
St.  iEthelbehrt,  after  whose  death  she  retired 
to  Croyland  (a.d.  792)  and  thenceforth  lived  as 
a  recluse.  She  passed  away  A.D.  834. 
•ALTHEUS  (St.)  Conf.  (Dec.  26) 

Otherwise  St.  TATHAI,  which  see. 
ALTMANN  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  8) 

(11th  cent.)  A  native  of  Paderborn  in 
Westphalia,  first  known  as  leader  of  seven 
thousand  Christians  in  a  pilgrimage  to  the 
Holy  Land,  where  a  third  of  their  number  were 
massacred  by  the  infidels.  On  his  return  he 
was  appointed  Bishop  of  Passau,  and  distin- 
guished himself  by  his  resolute  support  of  Pope 
St.  Gregory  VII  in  that  Pontiff's  efforts  to 
reform  clerical  discipline  in  Germany.  He 
suffered  in  consequence  exile  and  persecution, 
nor  was  freed  from  the  latter  save  by  his  holy 
death  (A.d.  1091).  His  shrine  is  in  the  Abbey 
of  Gottweic,  which  he  had  founded. 
ALTO  (St.)  Abbot.  (Sept.  5) 

(8th  cent.)  By  birth  a  Scot,  he  crossed  over 
into  Germany  and,  favoured  by  King  Pepin, 
founded  the  celebrated  Bavarian  Abbey  of 
Alt-Munster,  where  he  died  about  A.D.  760, 
having  been  the  means  of  the  conversion  to 
Christianity  of  a  multitude  of  Pagans. 
♦ALVAREZ  of  CORDOVA  (Bl.)  (Feb.  9) 

(15th  cent.)  A  Saint  of  the  Order  of  St. 
Dominic,  who  spent  his  life  in  preaching  and 
converting  sinners  throughout  Spain,  and  who 
laboured  hard  to  extinguish  the  great  Schism 
of  the  West,  occasioned  by  the  conflicting 
claims  of  two  rival  Popes.  Blessed  Alvarez 
died  A.D.  1420. 
AMADEUS  of  SAVOY  (Bl.)  Conf.  (March  31) 

(15th  cent.)  A  Duke  of  Savoy  who  governed 
his  states  in  such  manner  as  not  only  to  make 
himself  beloved  by  his  subjects,  but  also  by 
his  holy  example  to  promote  religion  among 
them.  He  died  at  Vercelli  in  Piedmont,  A.d. 
1472,  when  in  the  thirty-eighth  year  of  his  age. 
He  is  the  Patron  Saint  of  the  Royal  House  of 
Piedmont,  of  the  members  of  which  he  is  an 

AMADOUR  (St.)  Conf.  (Aug.  20) 

Otherwise  St.  AMATOR,  which  see. 

AMADOUR  (St.)  Bp.  (May  1) 

Otherwise  St.  AMATOR,  which  see. 

*AMAETHLU  (MAETHLU)  (St.)  Conf.  (Dec.  22) 
(6th  cent.)  A  Welsh  Saint  who  has  left  his 
name  to  Llanfaethlu,  a  church  founded  by  him 
in  Anglesev. 

AMANDUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  6) 

(7th  cent.)  Born  near  Nantes  in  the  West 
of  France,  he  embraced  the  monastic  life  in 
the  Abbey  of  St.  Martin  at  Tours  and,  at  the 
request  of  King  Clothaire  II,  undertook  mis- 
sionary work  in  Flanders,  Brabant  and  Holland. 
For  this  purpose  he  was  consecrated  a  Mission- 
ary Bishop,  and  in  the  year  649  was  called  to 
govern  the  See  of  Maestricht.  He  founded  a 
great  number  of  churches  and  monasteries, 
besides  effecting  innumerable  conversions  to 
Christianity.    In  his  declining  years  he  retired 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


AMBROSE 


to  the  Abbey  of  Elnon,  where  he  passed  away 
in  his  ninetieth  year  (a.d.   684).     He  is   the 
Patron  Saint  of  Flanders  and  is  represented 
in  art  carrying  a  church  in  his  hand. 
AMANDUS  (St.)  Bp.  (June  18) 

(5th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Delphinus 
as  Bishop  of  Bordeaux,  about  A.d.  404,  which 
See  he  resigned  for  a  time,  but  returned  to  it 
at  the  death  of  St.  Severinus,  who  had  suc- 
ceeded him.  He  was  contemporary  with  St. 
Paulinus  of  Nola,  who  attributes  to  St.  Amandus 
his  own  conversion  to  Christianity  and  Baptism. 
They  died  about  the  same  time  (a.d.  431). 
AMANDUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  10) 

See  SS.  ZOTICUS,  IRENAEUS,  &c. 
AMANTIUS  (St.)  Conf.  (March  19) 

See  SS.  LANDOALDUS  and  AMANTIUS. 
AMANTIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (April  8) 

(5th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Provinus 
in  the  See  of  Como.  St.  Leo  the  Great  presented 
him  with  precious  relics  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul, 
to  whom  he  dedicated  his  Cathedral  at  Como, 
wherein  he  himself  was  buried  (a.d.  440).  He 
is  still  held  in  great  veneration  by  his  flock, 
who,  in  the  sixteenth  century,  enshrined  his 
relics  in  a  church  dedicated  in  his  honour. 
AMANTIUS,  ALEXANDER  and  OTHERS 

(SS.)  MM.  (June  6) 

(Date  unknown.)  Said  to  have  been  four 
brothers  born  at  Cannes  on  the  Mediterranean 
coast,  and  together  converted  to  Christianity. 
Amantius  became  Bishop  of  Noyon  (France), 
whither  his  brothers  followed  him.  They  appear 
to  have  perished  together,  probably  in  one  of 
the  local  persecutions  of  the  second  century. 
AMANTIUS  (St.)  M.  (June  10) 

See  SS.  GETULIUS,  CEREALIS,    &c. 
AMANTIUS  (St.)  Conf.  (Sept.  26) 

(6th  cent.)  A  priest  personally  known  to 
St.  Gregory  the  Great,  who  compared  him  to 
the  Apostles  in  regard  to  his  power  of  working 
miracles.  The  date  of  his  death  is  unknown,  but 
he  seems  to  have  been  called  to  his  reward  about 
a.d.  600  at  Tiphernum  (Citta  di  Castello),  near 
Perugia,  where  he  is  honoured  as  a  Patron  Saint. 
AMANTIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  4) 

(5th  cent.)  A  native  and  Bishop  of  Rhodez 
(South  of  France),  and  second  Apostle  of  the 
district  which  had  fallen  away  from  Christian- 
ity. By  his  preaching  and  the  miracles  he 
wrought  he  won  his  people  back  to  Christ. 
He  died  about  a.d.  440. 
AMARANTHUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  7) 

(3rd  cent.)  Said  to  have  suffered  martyrdom 
at  Vieux,  near  Albi,  in  the  south  of  France 
in  the  third  century.  Little  or  nothing  is  known 
about  him,  save  what  we  can  glean  from  St. 
Gregory  of  Tours,  who  says  that  he  had  read 
the  account  of  his  martyrdom.  He  appears, 
however,  to  have  been  widely  venerated  in 
ancient  times.  St.  Eugene  of  Carthage, 
banished  from  Africa,  came  to  die  at  the  tomb 
of  St.  Amaranthus.  The  relics  of  both  Saints 
are  enshrined  in  the  Cathedral  of  Albi. 
AMATOR,  PETER  and  LOUIS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  30) 
(9th  cent.)  A  Spanish  priest  with  his  deacon 
and  layman,  put  to  death  by  the  Moors  at 
Cordova,  where  he  had  zealously  laboured, 
encouraging  his  fellow-Christians  to  remain 
faithful  to  Christ,  no  matter  how  much  perse- 
cuted because  of  Him. 
AMATOR  (AMATRE,  AMADOUR)  (St.) 

Bp.  (May  1) 

(5th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  St.  Valerian,  Bishop 
of  Auxerre,  and  the  husband  of  a  holy  woman 
venerated  locally  as  St.  Martha.  By  mutual 
agreement,  St.  Martha  entered  a  convent  and 
St.  Amator  received  Holy  Orders,  and  later 
succeeded  Eladius  as  Bishop  of  Auxerre  (A.D. 
306).  In  his  turn  he  was  succeeded  by  the 
famous  St.  Germanus,  whom  he  had  ordained. 
St.  Amator  was  buried  (a.d.  418)  in  the  church 
which  he  had  built  in  honour  of  the  Martyr 
St.  Symphorian,  and  which  later  bore  his  own 
name. 


AMATOR  (AMADOUR)  (St.)  Conf.  (Aug.  20) 

(1st  cent.)  Supposed  to  have  been  the  first 
Christian  to  live  the  hermit's  life  in  Gaul. 
His  cell  was  at  Quercy,  near  Cahors,  and  is 
still  a  much  frequented  place  of  pilgrimage. 
His  body,  in  the  year  1126,  was  found  to  be 
incorrupt  and  flexible  as  when  first  laid  in  the 
tomb. 
AMATOR  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  26) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  citizen  of  Autun  (France), 
and  afterwards  Bishop  of  that  city.  He 
organised  the  Church  of  the  Aedui  (the  Gallic 
tribes  between  the  Saone  and  the  Loire),  and 
appears  to  have  been  Bishop  among  them  in 
a.d.  270.  His  body  was  interred  at  Autun, 
near  the  shrine  of  the  Martyr  St.  Symphorian, 
who  had  suffered  there  in  the  preceding  century. 
AMATUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  31) 

(12th  cent.)  The  life  of  this  Saint  has  been 
written  by  several  authors,  but  they  disagree 
considerably  even  as  to  the  century  in  which 
he  lived.  The  most  likely  account  of  him  is 
that  he  was  of  noble  birth,  a  native  of  the 
South  of  Italy,  that  he  distributed  all  his 
worldly  goods  to  the  poor,  became  a  priest, 
and  afterwards  a  monk  in  the  Abbey  of  Monte 
Vergine.  There  he  worked  miracles,  and 
eventually  (it  would  appear  under  the  Pontifi- 
cate of  Pope  Adrian  IV),  was  chosen  Bishop  of 
Nusco.  The  year  of  his  death  is  given  as 
a.d.  1193.  But  there  are  reputable  authors 
who  date  his  Episcopate  a  century  earlier. 
AMATUS  (AMAT,  AME,  AIME)  Bp.  (Sept.  12) 
(7th  cent.)  The  son  of  noble  and  pious 
Frankish  parents,  he  resolved  to  devote  his 
life  to  the  service  of  God  in  the  priestly  ministry. 
His  ability  and  virtues  so  impressed  the  clergy 
of  Sens  that,  against  his  will,  he  was  appointed 
their  Bishop.  But  he  had  enemies  who  made 
false  accusations  against  him  to  King  Thierry 
III.  The  latter  banished  him  to  the  monastery 
of  St.  Fursey  at  Peronne,  and  afterwards  to 
Breuil  in  Flanders,  where  he  died  a.d.  690. 
The  church  of  St.  Ame  at  Douai  possesses  a 
portion  of  his  relics.  It  appears  certain  that 
St.  Amatus  died  in  exile  in  Flanders  as  above 
mentioned  ;  but  there  is  considerable  difficulty 
in  reconciling  the  accounts  given  of  his  life. 
Thus,  Alban  Butler  and  others  hold  that  he 
was  Bishop  not  of  Sens  in  France,  but  of  Sion 
in  the  Valais,  and  that  the  monastery  of  his 
exile  was  Luxeuil  and  not  Peronne. 
AMATUS  (AIME,  AME)  (St.)  Abbot.  (Sept.  13) 
(7th  cent.)  Known  as  St.  Amatus  of  Grenoble 
from  the  place  of  his  birth.  In  his  youth  he 
entered  the  monastery  of  St.  Maurice  in  Valais, 
and  at  the  age  of  thirty  retired  into  a  hermitage, 
where  his  reputation  for  a  life  of  penance  and 
prayer,  privileged  with  the  grace  of  miracle- 
working,  drew  the  attention  of  St.  Eustathius, 
Abbot  of  Luxeuil,  who  persuaded  him  to  join 
his  community.  During  his  ensuing  Apostolic 
labours  in  Lorraine,  he  converted  a  rich  and 
powerful  baron,  by  name  Rommaric,  who 
became  the  founder  of  the  famous  Abbey  of 
Rombers  or  Remiremont,  and  was  afterwards 
himself  venerated  as  a  Saint.  St.  Amatus 
ruled  this  Abbey  for  many  years,  and  established 
there  the  difficult  pious  practice  of  the  "  Laus 
perennis  "  or  Perpetual  Praise,  which  consisted 
in  the  maintaining  in  the  Church  an  uninter- 
rupted service  of  Psalmody  and  Prayer,  day 
and  night.  St.  Amatus  died  in  the  year  627, 
and  at  his  own  request  was  buried  just  outside 
the  church  door.  Later,  his  remains  were 
suitably  enshrined  under  one  of  the  altars  of 
the  same  church. 
AMBICUS,  VICTOR  and  JULIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Dec.  3) 
(4th  cent.)  Christians  who  suffered  death  at 
Nicomedia,  the  Imperial  residence  of  Dio- 
cletian, on  account  of  their  religion,  probably 
in  the  first  years  of  the  fourth  century. 
AMBROSE  (St.)  Conf.  (March  20) 

(13th  cent.)    A  Saint  of  Siena,  one  of  the 
illustrious  family  of  the  Sansedoni,  who  at  an 
B  17 


AMBROSE 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


early  age  entered  the  Order  of  St.  Dominic. 
By  Order  of  Pope  Gregory  X,  he  preached  the 
Crusade,  in  his  age  a  thankless  task.  He  met 
with  better  success  in  reconciling  the  Church 
and  people  of  Siena  with  the  Holy  See.  He 
died  at  the  age  of  sixty-six,  A.D.  1286.  In  art 
he  is  represented  as  holding  in  his  hand  a  model 
of  his  native  city. 

AMBROSE  (St.)  Bp.,  Doctor  of  the 

Church.  (Dec.  7) 

(4th  cent.)  One  of  the  four  great  Fathers 
and  Doctors  of  the  Western  Church.  Aries, 
Lyons  and  Treves  dispute  the  honour  of  being 
his  birthplace.  On  the  death  of  his  father, 
his  mother  with  her  family,  consisting  of  her 
three  children,  St.  Marcellina,  her  daughter, 
who  devoted  herself  to  the  upbringing  of  her 
brothers,  and  the  two  boys,  Ambrose  and 
Satyrrus.  The  former,  early  distinguished  by 
his  talents,  soon  attracted  the  attention  of  the 
governing  powers,  and  had  scarcely  reached 
man's  estate  when  he  was  made  Prefect  of 
Liguria,  that  is,  Governor  of  Northern  Italy. 
The  death  soon  after  of  the  Archbishop  of 
Milan,  whose  Diocese  was  torn  in  pieces  by 
rival  factions,  necessitated  the  intervention 
of  the  Prefect  to  ensure  an  orderly  election  of 
a  successor.  It  is  said  that  in  the  midst  of 
the  tumult  the  voice  of  a  child  was  heard 
crying  out  "  Ambrose  for  Bishop,"  and  the  cry, 
at  once  taken  up  by  the  multitude,  was  later 
endorsed  by  the  Emperor  Valentinian  III. 
Ambrose,  however,  was  as  yet  only  a  catechu- 
men, preparing  for  Baptism.  Nevertheless,  all 
objections  made  by  him  were  overruled.  He 
was  quickly  baptised,  confirmed,  ordained 
priest,  and  consecrated  Bishop  (Dec.  7,  A.D. 
374).  Divesting  himself  of  all  his  wealth 
in  favour  of  the  Church  and  of  the  poor,  he 
applied  himself  assiduously  to  his  pastoral 
duties  and  to  the  study  of  the  Holy  Scriptures. 
Arianism  was  rampant  in  his  Diocese,  and  in 
his  efforts  to  eradicate  it  he  experienced  many 
a  fierce  and  bitter  struggle.  He  was  the 
champion  of  religious  liberty  in  an  age  of 
usurpation  of  authority  in  spirituals  by  the 
secular  powers.  His  courage  in  reproving  and  ex- 
cluding from  the  church  services  even  the 
Emperor  Theodosius  the  Great,  guilty  of  the  cruel 
massacre  of  Thessalonica,  is  one  of  the  most 
remarkable  examples  of  Christian  heroism 
recorded  in  history.  His  writings  are  volu- 
minous, and  in  matters  of  religious  doctrine 
still  constantly  appealed  to.  They  bear  eloquent 
testimony  to  his  virtues  and  learning.  He  is 
a  prominent  figure  in  all  histories  of  the  fourth 
century.  He  died  April  4,  A.D.  397,  and  was 
buried  by  the  side  of  the  Martyrs  SS.  Gervase 
and  Protase,  whose  relics  he  had  enslirined 
at  Milan.  In  St.  Peter's  in  Rome,  his  statue 
is  represented  as  holding  up,  together  with 
those  of  SS.  Augustine  (whom  he  had  converted 
and  baptised),  Athanasius  and  Chrysostom, 
the  Chair  of  the  Prince  of  the  Apostles. 

AMBROSE  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  16) 

(4th  cent.)  A  centurion  in  the  Roman  army, 
who,  on  declaring  his  Faith  in  Christ,  was 
arrested  and  put  to  various  savage  tortures. 
Thrown  into  a  fiery  furnace,  as  had  happened 
to  the  three  holy  youths  at  Babylon,  he  re- 
mained unscathed.  Whereupon  he  was  made 
an  end  of  by  being  drowned  in  a  deep  well  at 
Ferentino  in  Central  Italy  (A.D.  303).  He  is 
represented  in  art  as  a  soldier  on  horseback. 

AMBROSE  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  16) 

(8th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Capuan  in 
the  See  of  Cahors  (South  of  France),  a  prelate 
~>f  great  learning,  piety  and  zeal.  However, 
i  is  Episcopate  was  troubled  from  beginning 
to  end.  He  was  forced  several  times  to  take 
relYge  from  his  enemies  in  flight,  and  terminated 
his  career  as  a  hermit  in  a  solitude  near  Bourges, 
towards  the  close  of  the  eighth  century. 

AMBROSE  (St.)  (Nov.  2) 

(6th  /ent)    The  Abbot  of  a  monastery  near 

18 


Lyons,  afterwards  promoted  to  the  headship 
of  the  great  Abbey  of  Agaune,  or  St.  Moritz, 
in  Switzerland.  He  was  singularly  zealous 
in  regard  to  the  due  and  complete  celebration 
of  the  Church  services,  and  especially  for  the 
continuous  Psalmody,  day  and  night,  proper 
to  certain  exceptionally  austere  Religious 
Houses.  He  died  about  A.D.  516,  and  was 
buried  in  his  Abbey  Church. 

AME  (AIME)  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  12) 

Otherwise  St.  AMATOR.,  which  see. 

AMELBERGA  (AMELIA)  (St.)  V.  (July  10) 

(8th  cent.)  A  nun  of  Bilsea,  near  Liege, 
under  the  Abbess  St.  Landrada.  She  died  in 
her  monastery  (A.D.  772),  after  a  long  life  of 
prayer  and  penance  ;  but  was  buried  at  Tamise 
in  the  Ardennes,  where  she  had  built  a  church 
on  her  family  estates.  Her  relics  were  trans- 
lated to  an  Abbey  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Ghent,  towards  the  end  of  the  eleventh  century. 

AMADEUS  (St.)  Conf.  (April  18) 

One  of  the  HOLY  SEVEN  FOUNDERS 
OF  THE  SERVITE  ORDER,  which  see. 

AMMIA  (St.)  Matron.  (Aug.  31) 

See  SS.  THEODOTUS,  RUFINA,    &c. 

AMMIANUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  4) 

See  SS.  THEODORE,  OCEANUS,    &c. 

AMMON  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept,  3) 

(4th  cent.)  Ammon,  a  deacon,  was  put  to 
death  under  the  Emperor  Licinius  (a.d.  313) 
at  Heraclea  in  Thrace,  together  with  forty 
young  women  whom  he  had  converted  to 
Christianity.  The  executioners  did  St.  Ammon 
to  death  by  placing  a  red-hot  helmet  on  his 
head.  These  Martyrs  are  especially  honoured 
in  the  Greek  Church,  but  have  had  from  ancient 
times  a  commemoration  also  in  the  West. 

AMMON,    THEOPHILUS,   NEOTERRUS 

and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  8) 

(Date  uncertain.)  Egyptian  Christians,  put 
to  death  at  Alexandria  ;  but  it  is  not  clear 
whether  they  were  previously  tried  and  con- 
demned in  virtue  of  the  Imperial  edicts  against 
Christians,  or  suffered  at  the  hands  of  the  pagan 
mob.  The  names  of  the  twenty-two  Christians 
who  shared  the  martyrdom  of  the  three  above- 
named  are  given  by  the  Bollandists,  but  we 
have  neither  date  nor  particulars.  Possibly 
they  are  the  Martyrs  mentioned  by  Eusebius 
(Bk.  vi.  ch.  34),  quoting  St.  Dionysius  of 
Alexandria. 

AMMON  (St.)  Abbot.  (Oct.  4) 

(4th  cent.)  One  of  the  most  famous  of  the 
Egyptian  Fathers  of  the  Desert.  His  cell  was 
on  Mount  Nitria,  where  Cassian  reckons  there 
were  at  the  time  fifty  monasteries  inhabited 
by  five  thousand  monks  or  hermits.  The 
working  of  many  miracles  is  attributed  to  him. 
He  died  A.D.  348,  at  the  ase  of  sixtv-two. 

AMMON.  ZENO,   PTOLOMAEUS,  INGEN 

and  THEOPHILUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Dec.  20) 

(Date  uncertain.)  St.  Dionysius  of  Alexan- 
dria relates  how  a  group  of  soldiers,  named  as 
above,  Avere  present  when  a  Christian  on  his 
trial  at  Alexandria  appeared  to  be  on  the  point 
of  denying  his  Faith.  They  publicly  showed 
contempt  of  his  cowardice,  and  on  being  arrested 
professed  themselves  Christians.  They  were 
put  to  death  on  that  account.  The  date  is 
unknown,  and  they  may  possibly  be  identical 
with  the  group  of  Martyrs  in  Egypt  commemor- 
ated on  Sept.  8,  or  rather  have  been  included 
in  their  number. 

AMMONARIA,  MERCURIA,  DIONYSIA 

and  another  AMMONARIA  (SS.)  MM.  (Dec.  12) 
(3rd  cent.)  A  band  of  holy  women  of  Alexan- 
dria, who  suffered  as  Christians  about  the  same 
time  as  SS.  Alexander  and  Epimachus,  during 
the  Decian  persecution  (A.D.  250).  Mercuria 
is  described  as  an  aged  woman,  Dionysia  as 
the  mother  of  many  children,  and  the  two 
Ammonarias  as  young  girls.  They  were  all 
beheaded ;  but  no  mention  is  made  of  the 
previous  torture  so  customary  as  to  be  almost 
general  in  such  cases. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


AN  ASTASIA 


AMMONIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  18) 

See  SS.  MOSEUS  and  AMMONIUS. 
AMMONIUS,  ALEXANDER  and  OTHERS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  9) 

(Date  uncertain.)  A  group  of  forty  Christians 
registered  in  all  the  ancient  Martyrologies,  hut 
whether  put  to  death  in  Rome  itself,  as  stated 
in  the  Roman  Martyrology,  or  in  one  of  the 
provinces,  it  is  now  impossible  to  determine. 

AMMONIUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  12) 

See  SS.  MODESTUS  and  AMMONIUS. 

AMMONIUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  14) 

See  SS.  DIONYSIUS  and  AMMONIUS. 

AMMONIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  26) 

See  SS.  THEODORE,  IRENAEUS,    &c. 

AMMONIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  26) 

See  SS.  FAUSTUS,  DIDIUS,   &c. 

AMOS  (St.)  Prophet.  (March  31) 

(8th  cent.  B.C.)  One  of  the  Minor  Prophets, 
a  shepherd  of  Koa,  near  Bethlehem.  His 
prophecy  is  one  long  denunciation  of  evildoers. 
It  was  he  who  wrote  :  "I  am  not  a  prophet, 
nor  the  son  of  a  prophet ;  but  I  am  a  herdsman 
plucking  wild  figs "  (Amos  vii.  13).  The 
Eastern  tradition  concerning  him  is  that  he 
was  scourged,  and  afterwards  had  his  temples 
pierced  with  an  iron  spike.  The  Greeks  honour 
him  on  June  14. 

AMPELIUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  11) 

See  SS.  SATURNINUS,  DATIVUS,    &c. 

AMPELIUS  and  CAIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  20) 

(4th  cent.)    They  are  presumed  to  have  been 

Sicilians  and  to  have  been  two  of  the  numerous 

Martyrs  at  Messina,  in  the  persecution  under 

the  Emperor  Diocletian,  about  a.d.  302. 

AMPHIANUS  (APPIAN,  APIAN)  (St.)  (April  2) 
(4th  cent.)  A  native  of  Lycia  (Asia  Minor) 
who,  while  still  a  youth,  when  arrested  and 
accused  of  being  a  Christian,  had  the  hardihood 
to  reproach  his  judge  with  being  an  idolater. 
The  Martyr  was  partially  burned  at  the  stake, 
and  then,  still  living,  thrown  into  the  sea  at 
Caesarea  in  Palestine  (A.D.  305). 

AMPHIBALUS  (St.)  M.  (June  24) 

(4th  cent.)  The  cleric  or  priest  of  Verulam, 
who  was  a  fellow-sufferer  with  St.  Alban  (a.d. 
304  about)  in  the  persecution  under  Diocletian, 
which,  notwithstanding  the  tolerant  clemency 
of  the  Caesar  Constantius  Chlorus,  made  some 
victims  in  Britain.  His  real  name  is  unknown  ; 
that  of  Amphibalus,  commonly  given  to  him, 
may  be  derived  from  the  circumstance  that 
St.  Alban  disguised  him  for  a  time  In  his  own 
cloak  or  "  caracalla  "  (amphibalus).  His  relics, 
with  those  of  nine  Christians  who  were  put  to 
death  in  the  neighbourhood  at  about  the  same 
time,  were  enshrined  in  St.  Alban's  Abbey 
(a.d.  1178). 

AMPHILOCHIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  27) 

See  SS.  PHILETUS,  LYDIA,    &c. 

AMPHILOCHIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  22) 

(4th  cent.)  An  Asiatic  who  gave  up  a  promis- 
ing career  as  a  lawyer  to  become  a  solitary,  and 
was  afterwards  elected  Bishop  of  Iconium. 
He  was  of  great  service  to  St.  Basil,  assisting 
and  supporting  that  Saint  in  the  government 
of  the  Church  of  Cappadocia.  St.  Gregory  of 
Nazianzen,  his  intimate  friend,  describes  him  as 
a  pontiff  without  reproach.  He  attended  the 
great  Council  of  Constantinople  (a.d.  381), 
where  he  met  St.  Jerome.  As  a  theologian  he 
vindicated  the  Divinity  of  the  Holy  Ghost  against 
the  followers  of  Macedonius,  and  it  was  to  him 
that  St.  Basil  dedicated  his  work  on  the  Third 
Person  of  the  Blessed  Trinity.  St.  Amphilo- 
chius  presided  over  a  Council  at  Sida  in  Pam- 
phylia ;  and  his  teachings  are  quoted  with 
approval  by  later  Synods.  The  date  of  his 
death  was  probably  one  of  the  closing  years  of 
the  fourth  century,  for  St.  Jerome  speaks  of 
him  as  still  living  a.d.  392. 

AMPHION  (St.)  Bp.  (June  11) 

(4th  cent.)     Sometime  Bishop  of  Epiphania 

in  Cilicia,  he  was  chosen  by  the  clergy  of  the 

important  See  of  Nicomedia  to  replace  their 


former  Pastor,  the  Arian  heretic  Euscbius. 
St.  Amphion  attended  various  Councils  of  the 
period,  and  was  one  of  the  Fathers  of  the  General 
Council  of  Nicaea.  The  year  of  his  death  is  not 
well  ascertained. 

AMPLIATUS,  URBAN  and    NARCISSUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  31) 

(1st  cent.)  These  Saints  are  the  disciples  of 
St.  Paul  mentioned  by  him  in  his  Epistle  to  the 
Romans  (xvi.  8,  9,  11).  Some  ancient  authors 
place  them  among  the  seventy-two  disciples 
chosen  as  preachers  of  the  Gospel  by  Our  Lord 
(Luke  x.  19).  Tradition  has  it  that  they 
subsequently  attached  themselves  to  the 
Apostle  St.  Andrew,  and  ultimately  were  put 
to  death  at  the  instigation  of  the  Jews.  They 
are  also  reported  to  have  been  Bishops  in 
Greece  and  the  Balkan  countries.  The  Greek 
Church  claimed  to  possess  their  relics  at  Con- 
stantinople. 

ANACHARIUS  (AUNAIRE)  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  25) 
(6th  cent.)  Of  a  rich  and  noble  family  at 
Orleans,  who  spent  his  youth  at  the  Court  of 
Gunthram,  King  of  Burgundy.  Renouncing 
the  world,  he  placed  himself  under  the  guidance 
of  St.  Syagrius,  Bishop  of  Autun  ;  and  on  the 
death  of  St.  iEtherius  was  chosen  as  his  suc- 
cessor in  the  See  of  Auxerre  (a.d.  572).  He 
attended  the  Councils  of  Paris  (a.d.  573)  and  of 
Macon  (a.d.  583).  In  a  special  Synod  (a.d. 
585)  he  added  several  disciplinary  statutes  to 
those  already  framed  by  the  Councils.  He  died 
A.D.  650. 

ANACLETUS  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (July  13) 

(2nd  cent.)  According  to  the  Liber  Ponti- 
ficalis,  St.  Anacletus  was  ordained  priest  by 
St.  Peter.  His  identity  with  St.  Cletus  has 
been  the  subject  of  great  discussion,  but  whereas 
the  latter  was  a  Roman,  St.  Anacletus  was  an 
Athenian,  according  to  the  Catalogus  Felicianus. 
The  Roman  Church  has  always  distinguished 
the  two  Popes,  keeping  the  Feast  of  St.  Cletus 
on  April  26  and  that  of  St.  Anacletus  on  July  13. 
St.  Anacletus  is  styled  a  Martyr  in  the  ancient 
Martyrologies,  and  is  said  to  have  suffered 
during  the  persecution  of  Trajan  (a.d.  107). 

ANANIAS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  25) 

(1st  cent.)  The  disciple  at  Damascus  who 
baptised  St.  Paul  (Acts  ix.),  and  who,  tradition 
tells  us,  afterwards  became  a  zealous  propagator 
of  the  Christian  Faith,  for  which  in  the  end  he 
was  arrested,  scourged,  put  to  the  torture, 
and  at  last  stoned  to  death. 

*ANANIAS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  25) 

(3rd    cent.)     Martyrs     in     Phoenicia    under 

Diocletian  (A.D.  298).     St.  Ananias  is  said  to 

have  been  a  priest,  and  the  seven  who  suffered 

with  him  Christian  soldiers. 

ANANIAS  (St.)  M.  (April  21) 

See  SS.  SIMEON,  ABDECHALAS,    &c. 

ANANIAS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  1) 

(Date  uncertain.)  The  Roman  Martyrology 
locates  his  passion  at  Arbela  in  Persia  ;  others 
at  Arbela  (Erbel)  in  Assyria,  while  the  Greeks 
maintain  that  he  was  martyred  in  Greece. 
The  Greek  Menology  relates  that  whilst  expiring 
under  the  blows  of  the  executioners  he  said 
to  those  around  him  :  "  I  see  a  ladder  reaching 
up  to  Heaven,  and  men  clothed  with  rays  of 
light  inviting  me  to  the  Kingdom  of  Joy." 

ANANIAS  (St.)  (Dec.  16) 

(7th     cent.     B.C.)       Otherwise     SIDRACH 

(SHADRACH).     One    of    the    three    children 

cast  into  the  fiery  furnace  by  order  of  King 

Nabuchodonosor  (Dan.  i.  iii.). 

ANASTASIA  (St.)  M.  (April  15) 

See  SS.  BASILISSA  and  ANASTASIA. 

ANASTASIA  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  28) 

(3rd  cent.)  According  to  the  Roman  Martyr- 
ology this  Saint  is  called  "  the  Elder,"  to 
distinguish  her  from  the  Roman  Martyr  of  the 
same  name  but  of  a  later  generation.  She 
was  brought  before  Probus,  during  the  persecu- 
tion of  Valerian,  and  after  undergoing  the  most 
frightful  tortures  and  outrages,  was  beheaded 

19 


ANASTASTA 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


(A.D.  253).  Cyril,  a  bystander,  gave  her  water 
to  drink,  and  received  as  his  reward  a  Martyr's 
crown.  St.  Anastasia  is  said  to  have  been  a 
nun  of  the  community  presided  over  by  St. 
Sophia,  by  whom  she  was  buried.  She  appears 
to  have  been  a  Greek,  though  there  are  not 
wanting  hagiographers  who  identify  her  with 
the  Roman  Martyr  above  mentioned  who  is 
far  better  known. 

ANASTASIA  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  24) 

(4th  cent.)  This  famous  Roman  matron  is 
commemorated  daily  in  the  Canon  of  the  Mass. 
Particulars  about  her  are  given  in  the  alleged 
Acts  of  St.  Chrysogonus  the  Martyr,  stated  to 
have  been  her  spiritual  director.  She  was  of 
noble  birth,  and  on  the  death  of  her  husband 
devoted  all  her  time  and  wealth  to  the  seeking 
out  and  succouring  the  poor,  more  especially 
the  persecuted  Christians.  She  followed  St. 
Chrysogonus  into  Illyria  when  that  holy  priest 
was  carried  thither  as  a  prisoner ;  but  was 
herself  seized  and  imprisoned,  to  be  in  the  end 
put  to  the  torture  and  burned  alive.  She 
suffered  under  Diocletian  (A.D.  304).  The 
scene  of  her  martyrdom  was  the  Island  of 
Palmarola  off  the  Gulf  of  Gaeta,  where  about 
the  same  time  two  hundred  and  seventy  other 
Christians  of  both  sexes  obtained  their  crown 
in  various  ways.  Her  body  was  taken  back  to 
Rome,  and  a  famous  church  was  there  dedicated 
in  her  honour.  In  it  the  Popes  have  been  accus- 
tomed to  celebrate  a  Mass  yearly  on  Christmas 
Day. 

ANASTASIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  9) 

(4th  cent.)  A  companion  in  martyrdom  of 
St.  Julian  of  Antioch,  and  said  to  have  been 
previously  by  him  miraculously  raised  from  the 
dead.  An  old  English  Martyrology  narrates 
the  legend  as  follows :  "  This  Julian  awoke 
from  death  a  heathen,  who  was  afterwards 
baptised.  This  man  told  such  a  mournful  tale 
about  the  way  to  Hell  as  never  came  to  man 
before  nor  after  since."  The  year  311  under 
Maximin  Daza  is  given  as  a  probable  date  of 
the  martyrdom  of  St.  Anastasius. 

ANASTASIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  (Jan.  11) 

(6th  cent.)  St.  Anastasius  was  a  monk  of 
Mount  Soracte  near  Viterbo  (Central  Italy), 
who  had  formerly  been  a  notary  of  the  Roman 
Church.  St.  Gregory  relates  that  on  the  day 
of  his  death  (a.d.  570)  he  heard  a  heavenly 
voice  calling :  "  Anastasius,  come."  Several 
of  his  fellow-monks  whose  names  were  also 
called  out,  also  died  on  the  same  day. 
ANASTASIUS  THE  SINAITE  (St.)  (April  21) 
(7th  cent.)  An  Anchorite  in  Palestine, 
author  of  several  ascetical  works  of  considerable 
value.  He  took  part  on  the  Catholic  side  in 
the  controversies  of  his  time,  and  at  Alexandria 
engaged  successfully  in  public  disputations 
with  the  Eutychian  heretics.  He  is  styled 
"  The  Sinaite  "  from  his  having  inhabited  a 
hermitage  on  Mount  Sinai,  where  he  died  about 
A.D.  678. 

ANASTASIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  22) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Persian  monk  who  suffered 
agonies  from  the  most  savage  and  prolonged 
torture,  and  was  finally  beheaded  because  of 
his  religion  by  Cnosroas,  King  of  Persia  (A.D. 
628).  His  head  was  brought  to  Rome  and 
deposited  in  a  church  dedicated  to  him  and  St. 
Vincent,  the  Spanish  Martyr.  Hence,  the  great 
veneration  in  which  he  is  held  in  the  West. 
In  the  Acts  of  the  Seventh  Oecumenical  Council 
(A.D.  786),  the  Acts  of  St.  Anastasius  are  men- 
tioned. They  are  believed  to  be  the  composition 
of  a  fellow  monk  of  his  who  followed  him  into 
Persia.  With  St.  Anastasius  seventy  other 
Christians  are  said  to  have  been  put  to  death. 

ANASTASIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (April  21) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Patriarch  of  Antioch  and  a 
resolute  opponent  of  the  Emperor  Justinian, 
whom  he  rebuked  on  account  of  his  various 
errors  and  misdeeds.  Justinian  threatened  the 
Saint  with  exile  and  deposition.  This  menace 
20 


was  put  into  execution  by  Justinian's  nephew 
and  successor,  Justin  II.  St.  Anastasius  was 
only  recalled  after  twenty-three  years  of 
banishment.  He  died  A.D.  598.  This  Saint 
is  wrongly  styled  "  the  Sinaite  "  by  Baronius. 
Anastasius  the  Sinaite  was  never  a  Bishop. 

ANASTASIUS  (St.)  Pope.  (April  27) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Roman  by  birth,  who  became 
Pope  in  the  year  398.  He  is  noted  for  the  zeal 
with  which  he  repressed  the  spreading  errors  of 
Origenism.  St.  Jerome  describes  him  as  "  a 
man  of  holy  life  and  rich  in  his  very  poverty." 
He  passed  away  A.D.  402. 

ANASTASIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (May  11) 
(3rd  cent.)  A  tribune  in  the  army  of  the 
Emperor  Decius,  whose  duty  it  became  to  carry 
out  the  sentences  pronounced  on  the  Christians 
on  account  of  their  religion.  Moved  by  the 
courage  under  torture  of  St.  Venantius,  St. 
Anastasius  was  converted  to  Christianity,  and 
together  with  his  wife,  children  and  some 
members  of  his  household,  was  instructed  and 
baptised  by  St.  Porphyrius.  Shortly  after  the 
death  of  the  latter,  Anastasius  and  his  family 
were  arrested  and  beheaded  (a.d.  251).  Their 
relics  are  in  the  church  of  St.  Venantius  at 
Camerino  (Central  Italy). 

ANASTASIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (May  20) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Brescia  in  Lombardy 
who,  by  his  successful  preaching,  is  said  to  have 
greatly  contributed  to  the  conversion  of  the 
Lombard  nation  from  Arianism.  The  year 
610  is  given  as  that  of  his  death.  A  solemn 
translation  of  his  relics  was  celebrated  by 
St.  Charles  Borromeo  A.D.  1604. 

ANASTASIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (May  30) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Pavia  in  Lombardy, 
commonly  called  St.  Anastasius  II,  to  distin- 
guish him  from  one  of  his  predecessors  of  the 
same  name  who  flourished  in  the  fourth  century. 
St.  Anastasius  was  a  convert  from  Arianism, 
but  distinguished  himself  by  his  zeal  as  a  Bishop 
for  the  purity  of  the  Faith  of  his  flock,  and  by 
his  pastoral  virtues  and  ability.  He  died 
A.D.  680. 

ANASTASIUS,  FELIX  and  DIGNA  (SS.) 

MM.  (June  14) 

(9th  cent.)  Anastasius,  a  priest  of  Cordova 
in  Spain,  was  put  to  death  as  a  Christian, 
together  with  St.  Felix,  a  monk  of  Aicala,  by 
one  of  the  persecuting  Mohammedan  Caliphs 
(A.D.  857).  With  them  is  associated  the  name 
of  St.  Digna,  a  Christian  maiden,  who  was  a 
witness  of  their  martyrdom  and  herself  demanded 
from  the  judge  to  share  their  fate.  The  bodies 
of  all  three  were  burned,  and  the  ashes  thrown 
into  the  river  Guadalquivir. 

ANASTASIUS  (St.)  M.  (June  29) 

See  SS.  MARCELLUS  and  ANASTASIUS. 

ANASTASIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  13) 

(7th  cent.)  Two  Saints  of  this  name  are 
mentioned  as  fellow-disciples  and  companions 
of  St.  Acacius.  In  honour  of  one  of  them  the 
Greeks  celebrate  another  festival  on  Jan.  21. 
One,  Anastasius,  was  a  monk,  the  other  a  Roman 
priest,  apocrisiarius  or  legate  of  the  Pope  of 
the  time.  The  Monothelite  heresy,  favoured 
by  the  Byzantine  Court,  was  giving  great  trouble 
to  the  Church  at  the  time,  and  both  the  Saints 
were  imprisoned  and  eventually  banished. 
Worn  out  by  sufferings,  the  one  and  the  other 
died  in  exile,  about  the  year  662. 

ANASTASIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  17) 

(6th  cent.)  Said  to  have  been  a  Syrian  who, 
coming  to  Italy,  led  the  life  of  a  hermit  in  a 
solitary  place  near  Perugia.  Promoted  to  the 
Bishopric,  he  is  described  as  a  "  most  humble 
and  virtuous  prelate,  well  versed  in  Ecclesias- 
tical doctrine,  a  lover  of  the  poor,  zealous  in 
Divine  Worship  and  a  shepherd  watchful  over 
his  flock,  exposed  to  the  snares  of  Arian  heretics 
who  were  numerous  in  the  neighbourhood." 
During  the  invasion  of  Totila,  he  was  wonder- 
fully preserved,  and  survived  to  encourage  and 
aid  his  people  in  the  work  of  rebuilding  their 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ANDREW 


houses  and  churches  demolished  by  the  bar- 
barians. He  is  believed  to  have  died  in  the 
year  553.  Owing  to  the  many  miracles  wrought 
at  his  tomb,  the  inhabitants  built  a  magnificent 
chapel,  which  they  dedicated  in  his  honour. 
ANASTASIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  21) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  military  tribune  (cornicu- 
larius)  who,  on  beholding  the  courage  of  the 
Christian  youth,  St.  Aeapitus,  tortured  for  his 
Faith,  cried  out :  "  The  God  of  Agapitus  is 
my  God."  On  that  account  he  was  arrested 
by*  order  of  the  Emperor  Aurelian  and  put  to 
death  (a.d.  274)  at  a  place  called  Salone, 
twelve  miles  from  Praeneste  or  Palestrina,  near 
Rome.  The  theory  advanced  by  some  that 
this  martyrdom  took  place  at  Salona  in  Dalmatia 
has  not  been  able  to  withstand  the  contrary 
evidence  brought  against  it.  A  St.  Anastasius 
of  Salona  in  Dalmatia  is  commemorated  on 
Sept.  7. 
ANASTASIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  7) 

(4th  cent.)  A  fuller  of  Aquileaia,  not  far 
from  Venice,  who  crossed  into  Dalmatia  during 
the  persecution  under  Diocletian.  Far  from 
concealing  his  adherence  to  the  proscribed 
Christian  religion,  he  painted  a  conspicuous 
cross  on  his  door  at  Salona.  He  was  seized 
and  drowned  (a.d.  304).  His  body  was  recov- 
ered by  some  fishermen,  and  after  the  peace 
of  the  Church  enshrined  at  Spalatro. 
ANASTASIUS,  PLACIDUS,  GENESIUS 

and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  11) 

(Date  unknown.)      A  band  of  Martyrs   put 

to  death  for  the  Faith,  probably  in  Sicily  ;   but 

excepting  their  names  (that  is,  some  of  them) 

nothing  has  come  down  to  us  concerning  them. 

ANASTASIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  5) 

(Date  unknown.)    A  Saint  of  this  name  is 

commemorated  on  Dec.  5,  in  the  Martyrologies, 

but  neither  the  place  nor  the  time  of  his  passion 

is  discoverable. 

ANASTASIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  19) 

See  SS  CYRTACUS,  PAULILLUS,   &c. 
ANASTASIUS  THE  YOUNGER  (St.) 

Bp.  M.  (Dec.  21) 

(7th  cent.)  The  successor  of  another  St. 
Anastasius  (April  21)  in  the  See  of  Antioch. 
He  devoted  himself  to  the  conversion  of  the 
Jews,  numerous  and  influential  at  Antioch, 
and  eventually  was  attacked  by  them  and 
terribly  injured.  He  died  in  consequence  of 
the  hurts  he  had  received  (a.d.  610).  He  is 
sometimes  styled  St.  Anastasius  the  Younger. 
To  him  is  attributed  a  translation  into  Greek 
of  the  work  of  St.  Gregory  the  Great  on  the 
duties  of  a  pastor  of  souls.  There  is  also  a 
treatise  on  Faith  bearing  his  name  as  author. 
ANATHALON  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  25) 

(1st  cent.)  Although  there  exists  a  certain 
amount  of  doubt  as  to  the  credibility  of  the 
Milanese  tradition  that  their  first  Bishop  was 
St.  Barnabas  the  Apostle,  it  appears  to  be 
historically  certain  that,  during  his  lifetime,  his 
disciple  St.  Anathalon  exercised  the  functions 
of  Bishop,  not  only  at  Milan,  but  also  at  Brescia, 
and  in  other  parts  of  Lombardy.  It  is  at  Brescia 
that  he  is  said  to  have  passed  away  (A.D.  61). 
ANATOLIA  and  AUDAX  (SS.)  MM.  (July  9) 

(3rd  cent.)  Anatolia,  a  Roman  maiden, 
with  her  sister  St.  Victoria,  was  denounced  as 
a  Christian  by  their  rejected  lovers,  Aurelian 
and  Eugene,  and  banished  from  Rome.  St. 
Anatolia  settled  in  a  small  town  near  Rieti, 
where  her  reputation  as  a  worker  of  miracles 
again  drew  attention  to  her,  and  she  was  put 
to  the  torture.  Audax,  one  of  the  guards  of 
the  prison  in  which  she  was  confined,  was  con- 
verted by  her,  and  the  two  were  beheaded 
on  the  same  day  (a.d.  250). 
ANATOLIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  20) 

See  SS.  PHOTINUS,  JOSEPH,    &c. 
ANATOLIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (July  3) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  native  of  Alexandria  in  Egypt, 
he  early  acquired  a  great  reputation  for  elo- 
quence, learning  and  virtue.     Chosen  (a.d.  269) 


to  succeed  his  friend  St.  Eusebius  at  Laodicea 
in  Syria,  he  survived  till  the  eve  of  the  persecu- 
tion under  Diocletian,  which  broke  out  in  the 
last  decade  of  the  third  century.  He  was  the 
author  of  some  theological  treatises  commended 
by  St.  Jerome,  together  with  other  works. 
ANATOLIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  20) 

See  SS.  EUSTACHIUS,  THESPESIUS,    &c. 
*ANCINA  (JUVENAL)  (Bl.) 

See  Bl.  JUVENAL  ANCINA. 
ANDEOL  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  15) 

Otherwise  St.  ANTIOCHUS.  which  see. 
ANDEOLUS  (St.)  M.  (May  1) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  sub-deacon  and  disciple  of 
St.  Polycarp,  the  Martyr-Bishop  of  Smyrna, 
who  sent  him  into  France  to  preach  the  Gospel. 
After  forty-two  years  of  successful  Apostolate, 
he  was  seized  by  order  of  the  Emperor  Septimus 
Severus,  scourged  and  beheaded  (a.d.  208). 
ANDOCHIUS,  THYRSUS  and  FELIX  (SS.) 

MM.  (Sept.  24) 

(2nd  cent.)  The  priest  Andochius  was  sent 
with  a  deacon,  by  name  Tyrsus,  into  Gaul  by 
St.  Polycarp,  Bishop  of  Smyrna.  Landing  at 
Marseilles,  they  journeyed  to  Lyons,  and 
finally  established  themselves  at  Autun  in  the 
house  of  a  rich  merchant  from  the  East  named 
Felix.  Their  host  not  only  assisted  them  in 
their  Apostolic  work,  but  shared  their  dangers 
and  sufferings,  and  Anally  their  triumph  (a.d. 
179).  Their  relics  were  the  object  of  great 
veneration,  not  only  in  the  Diocese  of  Autun 
but  throughout  Gaul. 
ANDREW  CORSINI  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  4) 

(14th  cent.)  A  member  of  the  Corsini  family, 
one  of  the  most  illustrious  of  Florence.  After 
an  early  life  wasted  in  dissipation,  he  entered 
the  Carmelite  Order  (a.d.  1318).  For  forty 
years  he  spent  himself  in  doing  penance  and 
in  preaching.  He  was  then  chosen  Bishop  of 
Fiesole  (a  small  town  near  Florence).  As 
Bishop  he  redoubled  his  penances  and  prayers, 
nor  sought  any  respite  from  his  energetic  labours 
as  a  pastor  of  souls,  being  in  particular  remark- 
able for  his  charity  to  the  poor.  He  died 
Jan.  6,  a.d.  1373,  and  was  canonised  a.d.  162. 
Clement  XII  of  the  Corsini  family  built  a 
magnificent  chapel  dedicated  to  him  in  St.  John 
Lateran's  in  Rome,  and  his  Feast  is  kept  in  the 
Universal  Church  on  Feb.  4. 
ANDREW  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  26) 

(5th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Zenobius 
in  the  See  of  Florence.  He  continued  the 
Apostolic  work  of  his  predecessor  so  successfully 
that  he  cleansed  his  Diocese  from  all  vestiges 
of  idolatry.  He  died  a.d.  407. 
ANDREW  (St.)  M.  (May  15) 

See  SS.  PETER,  ANDREW,    &c. 
♦ANDREW  BOBOLA  (Bl)  M.  (May  23) 

(17th  cent.)     A  Pole,  priest  of  the  Society 
of  Jesus,  who  laboured  for  many  years  at  the 
conversion  of  Heretics   and   bad   Catholics  in 
Lithuania,  and  who,  on  account  of  his  zeal  and 
success,  was  cruelly  tortured  and  at  length  put 
to  death  by  the  Greek  schismatics  (A.D.  1657). 
♦ANDREW  and  BENEDICT  (SS.)  MM.      (July  16) 
(11th    cent.)     Two    Polish    hermits    of    the 
Camaldolese  Order,  who  served  God  in  Moravia 
and  Hungary,  living  lives  of  incredible  austerity, 
but  comforted  by  the  graces  of  high  contempla- 
tion.    At  length,  assailed  by  marauders,  they 
won  the  crown  of  martyrdom  (a.d.  1020). 
♦ANDREW  OF  RINN  (St.)  M.  (July  22) 

(15th   cent.)     A    Tyrolese    child,    alleged   to 
have  been  put  to  death  by  Jews  out  of  hatred 
of  Christianity  (A.D.  1462). 
ANDREW  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Aug   19) 

(4th  cent.)  A  tribune  in  the  Greek  army, 
who,  with  many  of  his  comrades,  was  converted 
to  the  true  Faith,  owing  to  a  miracle  which 
took  place  in  connection  with  a  victory  over 
the  Persians.  Accused  of  being  Christians, 
they  were  massacred  by  the  soldiers  of  the 
President  Seleucus,  in  the  defiles  of  Mount 
Taurus  in  Cilicia  (a.d.  300).     In  the  Church  of 

21 


ANDREW 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


St.  Vincent  at  Brioude  (France)  some  of  the 
relics   of   these   martyrs   were   venerated   and 
became  the  object  of  an  annual  pilgrimage. 
*ANDREW  OF  TUSCANY  (St.)  Conf.        (Aug.  22) 

(9th  cent.)  Of  Scottish  or  Irish  birth,  he 
accompanied  St.  Donatus  to  Italy,  and,  on  the 
latter  being  appointed  Bishop  of  Fiesole,  was 
ordained  deacon.  He  died  about  A.D.  880,  and 
is  honoured  as  a  Saint. 
ANDREW  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  29) 

See  SS.  HYPATIUS  and  ANDREW. 
ANDREW,  JOHN,  PETER  and  ANTONY 

(SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  23) 

(10th  cent.)  According  to  the  Greek  Meno- 
logy,  these  Saints  were  deported  from  Syracuse 
in  Sicily  to  Africa,  by  the  Mohammedans,  in 
their  time  masters  of  Sicily.  They  were  there 
subjected  to  savage  tortures,  and  in  the  end 
were  put  to  death,  about  A.D.  900. 
ANDREW  OF  CRETE  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  17) 

(8th  cent.)  A  native  of  Crete,  where  he  was 
living  the  life  of  a  Solitary  when  the  Byzantine 
Emperor  Constantine  Copronymus  published 
his  edict  against  the  venerating  of  Holy  Images. 
Fired  with  zeal  for  the  Catholic  doctrine,  St. 
Andrew  went  to  Constantinople  and  fearlessly 
denounced  the  Imperial  heresy,  going  so  far 
as  to  force  his  way  to  the  foot  of  the  Emperor's 
throne  and  boldly  to  reproach  Constantine  for 
his  impiety.  The  enraged  monarch  ordered 
him  to  be  seized  and  put  to  the  torture,  from 
the  effects  of  which  he  died,  A.D.  761. 
ANDREW  AVELLINO  (St.)  (Nov.  10) 

(17th  cent.)  Born  at  Castelnuovo  in  the 
Kingdom  of  Naples,  he  received  in  Baptism 
the  name  of  Lancelot,  but  changed  it  to  Andrew 
on  joining  the  Order  of  the  Theatines.  His 
zeal  and  eloquence  gained  for  him  the  special 
friendship  and  esteem  of  St.  Charles  Borromeo 
and  of  other  prominent  Ecclesiastics  of  his 
time.  Commissioned  to  reform  abuses  in 
Church  discipline  and  to  establish  houses  of 
his  Order  throughout  Italy,  he  laboured  all  his 
life  with  great  success  and  advantage  to  the 
Church.  His  preaching  was  helped  by  God 
with  the  working  of  many  miracles,  and  he  had 
the  gift  of  prophecy  in  a  remarkable  degree. 
Worn  out  at  last  with  fatigue  and  old  age,  he 
died  at  the  Altar  when  beginning  Mass  (Nov.  10, 
A.D.  1608),  being  then  in  his  eightieth  year. 
He  wrote  several  ascetical  works,  and  has  left 
some  volumes  of  sermons.  His  relics  are 
enshrined  in  the  Church  of  St.  Paul  at  Naples. 
ANDREW  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  28) 

(8th  cent.)  A  holy  Solitary,  one  of  those  who, 
with  St.  Stephen  the  Younger,  were  put  to 
death  by  Constantine  Copronymus  for  main- 
taining the  Catholic  doctrine  of  the  lawfulness 
of  honouring  holv  statues  and  pictures  (AD.  756). 
ANDREW  (St.)  Apostle.  (Nov.  30) 

(1st  cent.)  A  native  of  Bethsaida  in  Galilee, 
elder  brother  of  St.  Peter,  by  profession  a  fisher- 
man. He  was  a  disciple  of  St.  John  the  Baptist, 
and  was  the  first  of  the  Apostles  to  be  called 
by  Christ.  There  is  no  certainty  as  to  the 
sphere  of  his  missionary  labours  after  the 
Ascension.  It  is,  however,  generally  agreed 
that  he  laboured  chiefly  in  Greece  and  in  the 
Balkan  countries.  The  Russians,  who  have 
taken  him  for  one  of  their  Patron  Saints,  assert 
that  in  his  travels  he  penetrated  at  least  as  far 
as  Poland.  Tradition  has  it  that  he  was 
crucified  (on  a  cross  of  the  shape  of  the  letter  X) 
at  Patras  in  Achaia  (Greece)  (A.D.  60)  during 
the  reign  of  Nero.  His  relics  were  enshrined 
at  Constantinople,  whence  St.  Gregory  the 
Great  (A.D.  590)  obtained  an  arm  for  his  monas- 
tery of  St.  Andrew  in  Rome.  Thither,  later, 
the  Apostle's  head  was  also  carried,  and  is 
venerated  in  St.  Peter's.  The  emblem  of  St. 
Andrew  usual  in  art  is  his  cross  (saltire). 
ANDRONICUS  and  ATHANASIA  (SS.)       (Oct.  9) 

(9th  cent.)  Husband  and  wife,  citizens  of 
Antioch  in  Syria,  where  the  former  was  a 
silversmith  or  banker.     On  the  death  of  their 

22 


two  children,  they  agreed  to  separate,  and 
thenceforth  led  lives  of  penance  and  prayer 
in  one  of  the  solitudes  of  Upper  Egypt.  Their 
pilgrimages  to  Jerusalem  may  account  for  the 
special  veneration  in  which  they  were  held  in 
Palestine.  The  precise  dates  of  their  deaths 
are  unknown. 
ANDRONICUS,  TARACHUS  and  PROBUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  11) 

(4th  cent.)  The  triumph  of  these  Martyrs 
has  a  prominent  place  in  the  Greek  and  Roman 
Martyrologies.  Their  Acts  are  universally 
accepted  as  genuine  and  contain  the  particulars 
of  the  triple  examination  which  they  underwent 
in  the  towns  of  Tarsus,  Mopsuestia  and  Anazar- 
bus  in  Cilicia,  together  with  an  authentic  report 
of  their  passion  written  down  by  Christian  eye- 
witnesses. The  latter  recovered  their  bodies 
and  buried  them.  They  were  beheaded  after 
unflinchingly  undergoing  excruciating  tortures 
(A.D.  304),  under  Galerius,  the  colleague  of  the 
Emperor  Diocletian. 
ANECTUS  (St.)  M.  (March  10) 

See  SS.  CODRATUS,  DIONYSIUS,    &c. 
ANECTUS  (St.)  M.  (June  27) 

(4th  cent.)     A  Martyr  of  Caesarea  in  Palestine, 
where  he  was  beheaded,  after  being  scourged 
and  mutilated  (A.D.  304). 
ANEMPODISTUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  2) 

See  SS.  ACINDYNUS,  PEGASIUS,    &c. 
ANESIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  31) 

See  SS.  THEODULUS,  ANESIUS,    &c. 
•ANEURIN  and  GWINOC  (SS.)  Conf.        (Oct.  26) 

(6th  cent.)     Welsh  monks  and  Saints,  father 
and  son,   of  whom   the  latter  has  left  some 
Celtic  poems  of  a  certain  literary  value. 
•ANGELA  OF  FOLIGNO  (Bl.)  Widow.       (Jan.  4) 

(14th  cent.)  A  penitent  of  the  Third  Order 
of  St.  Francis,  born  at  Foligno,  near  Assisi, 
who  after  her  husband's  death,  followed  by  that 
of  her  children,  sought  God's  mercy  and  pardon 
for  her  past  sins,  spending  many  years  in  prayers 
and  fastings.  Her  wonderful  Book  of  Revela- 
tions and  Visions  has  been  often  printed  ;  and 
there  has  been  issued  a  modern  translation  of 
it  into  English.  Blessed  Angela  died  a.d.  1309, 
at  the  age  of  fifty-one,  and  was  beatified  in  the 
year  1693. 
ANGELA  DEI  MERICI  (St.)  V.  (May  31) 

(16th  cent.)  The  foundress  of  the  Ursuline 
Order  of  nuns,  which  originally  was  composed 
of  women  vowed  to  devote  themselves  to  the 
care  of  the  distressed  of  their  sex,  under  the 
patronage  of  St.  Ursula.  It  has  since  developed 
into  a  Congregation  of  Sisters  spread  over  the 
world,  and  singularly  popular  in  North  America 
as  school-mistresses.  St.  Angela  was  born  near 
Brescia  in  Lombardy,  and  passed  to  a  better 
life  four  years  after  the  definite  establishment 
of  her  Order  (A.D.  1474).  She  was  canonised 
A.D.  1807.  The  day  of  her  death  was  Jan.  27  ; 
but  the  Holy  See  has  ordered  her  Feast  to  be 
kept  on  May  31.  Her  emblem  is  a  ladder 
raised  on  high,  up  which  maidens  are  ascending. 
ANGELUS  (St.)  M.  (May  5) 

(13th  cent.)  A  native  of  Jerusalem  and  the 
son  of  converted  Jews.  With  his  brother,  he 
entered  the  Monastery  of  Mount  Carmel  and 
later  retired  to  a  hermit's  cell  in  the  desert. 
John,  his  brother,  became  Patriarch  of  Jeru- 
salem, while  Angelus  received  a  Divine  call  to 
labour  for  the  conversion  of  the  Jews  in  Sicily. 
There,  he  led  many  of  these  to  embrace  Chris- 
tianity. He  met  his  death  at  the  hands  of 
assassins  hired  by  a  certain  Count  Berengarius, 
whom  he  had  rebuked  for  the  wickedness  of 
his  life  (A.D.  1225).  In  art  he  is  represented 
with  three  crowns  at  his  feet,  signifying  chastity, 
eloquence  and  martyrdom. 
ANGELUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  13) 

(13th  cent.)  One  of  seven  Franciscan  Friars 
who,  inspired  by  the  example  of  the  five  brethren 
of  their  Order,  put  to  death  for  the  Faith  in 
Morocco  on  Jan.  16,  1220,  obtained  the  per- 
mission and  blessing  of  St.  Francis  to  follow 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ANSBERT 


in  their  footsteps.  They  arrived  at  Ceuta 
on  the  African  coast,  Sept.  29,  1221.  After 
preaching  in  the  suburbs  for  three  days,  they 
entered  the  town,  and  were  there  assailed 
by  the  populace  and  brought  before  the  cadi 
or  magistrate.  He,  seeing  their  coarse  and 
strange  habit  and  their  tonsure,  judged  them 
to  be  madmen  and  put  them  in  irons  for  eight 
days.  Eventually  they  were  beheaded,  Oct.  13, 
1221. 

♦ANGILBERT  (St.)  Abbot.  (Feb.  18) 

(9th  cent.)  A  Prankish  nobleman,  married 
to  a  daughter  of  Charlemagne,  and  a  distin- 
guished and  successful  defender  of  his  country 
against  the  marauding  Norsemen.  Both  he 
and  his  wife  elected  to  end  their  days  in  religion. 
St.  Angilbert  died,  Abbot  of  the  monastery  of 
St.  Riquier,  A.D.  813. 

♦ANGUS  OF  KELD  (St.)  (March  11) 

Otherwise  St.  JENGUS,  which  see. 

ANIANUS  OF  ALEXANDRIA  (St.)  Bp.  (April  25) 
(1st  cent.)  The  disciple  and  successor  of 
St.  Mark  the  Evangelist  at  Alexandria.  He  is 
said  to  have  been  originally  a  poor  shoemaker, 
and  to  have  been  cured  of  a  diseased  hand  and 
converted  to  Christianity  by  St.  Mark.  St. 
Anianus  died  about  a.d.  86. 

ANIANUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  10) 

See  SS.  DEMETRIUS,  ANIANUS,    &c. 

ANIANUS  (AGNAN,  AIGNAN)  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  17) 
(5th  cent.)  Born  at  Vienne  (Dauphine)  of 
pious  and  noble  parents  who  were  Hungarian 
refugees  from  the  Arian  persecution  raging  in 
their  own  country,  he  retired  in  his  boyhood 
to  a  secluded  cave  where  he  spent  his  time  in 
prayer,  study  and  penitential  exercises,  until 
the  fame  of  St.  Evurtius,  Bishop  of  Orleans, 
reached  him.  Under  the  direction  of  this  holy 
prelate,  he  was  prepared  for  the  priesthood, 
and  after  ordination  was  appointed  Abbot  of 
the  monastery  of  St.  Laurence  in  the  environs 
of  the  city.  Later  he  was  promoted  to  be 
Bishop  coadjutor  of  Orleans.  When  Attila 
the  Hun  appeared  before  its  walls,  Anianus, 
by  his  courage  in  facing  the  barbarian,  saved 
the  town  and  its  inhabitants.  He  died  two  years 
later,  a.d.  453.  King  Robert  of  France,  some 
five  hundred  years  afterwards,  built  a  noble 
church  at  Orleans  in  honour  of  St.  Anianus,  in 
which  the  relics  of  the  Saint  were  enshrined, 
but  in  the  sixteenth  century  they  were  profaned 
and  destroyed  by  the  Calvinist  insurgents. 
He  is  represented  in  art  as  praying  on  the  top 
of  the  walls  of  Orleans,  against  which  are 
crowding  a  multitude  of  Huns. 

ANICETUS  (St.)  Pope.  (April  17) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Syrian,  who  succeeded  St. 
Pius  I  on  the  Chair  of  St.  Peter  (a.d.  162), 
a  year  after  the  death  of  the  Emperor  Antoninus 
Pius.  He  defended  the  Faith  with  much  zeal 
and  ability  against  Valentinus,  Marcian  and 
other  Gnostic  heretics  of  that  age.  He  welcomed 
St.  Polycarp  of  Smyrna  to  Rome,  whither  that 
Saint  had  repaired  in  order  to  settle  with  the 
Pope  the  vexed  question  of  the  date  of  Easter. 
After  a  comparatively  short  Pontificate  he  is 
said  to  have  been  put  to  death  by  order  of  the 
Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius,  whose  philosophical 
leanings  did  not  hinder  him  from  oppressing 
the  Christians  then  fast  growing  in  numbers 
and  influence. 

ANICETUS,  PHOTINUS,  and  OTHERS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  12) 

(4th  cent.)  Martyred  at  Nicomedia,  on  the 
shores  of  the  Sea  of  Marmora,  the  favourite 
residence  of  the  Emperor  Diocletian  (a.d.  304). 
SS.  Anicetus  and  Photlnus  were  brothers,  or 
(as  others  say)  uncle  and  nephew.  They,  with 
several  other  Christians,  were  put  to  the  torture 
and  afterwards  burned  at  the  stake  A  church 
in  which  their  relics  were  enshrined  was  after- 
wards built  on  the  island  of  Daphnos,  between 
Lesbos  and  Samos,  in  the  Aegean  Sea.  The 
Greek  Menology  gives  a  detailed  account  of 
their  martyrdom,  and  the  account  is  corrobor- 


ated by  independent  MSS.  now  in  the  Imperial 
Library  at  Vienna. 

ANNA  (St.)  Widow.  (Sept.  1) 

(First  cent )  A  prophetess,  the  daughter  of 
Phanuel,  of  the  tribe  of  Aser.  After  seven  years 
of  married  life  she  consecrated  her  widowhood 
to  the  service  of  God  in  the  Temple  of  Jerusalem, 
where  she  remained  night  and  day  in  prayer 
and  fasting.  At  the  age  of  eighty-four  she 
beheld  the  Presentation  of  the  Child  Jesus  in 
the  Temple  (Luke  ii.  36-38).  In  the  Greek 
Church  she  is  honoured  on  Feb.  3. 

ANNE  (St.)  Mother  of  Our  Blessed  Lady.  (July  26) 

(1st  cent.)     SS.  Joachim  and  Anne,  both  of 

the  tribe  of  Juda  and  of  the  Royal  House  of 

David,  are   venerated  by  the  Church  as  the 

Earents  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  It  is 
elieved  that  Mary  was  their  only  child,  and 
the  Mary  mentioned  in  the  Gospels  as  the  sister 
of  the  Mother  of  God  wa3  in  reality  only  her 
cousin,  such  manner  of  speaking  being  not 
unusual  in  the  East.  Holy  Scriptine  makes 
no  mention  of  SS.  Joachim  and  Anne;  but 
they  have  been  honoured  by  the  Church  \s 
Saints  from  early  times.  Churches  were 
dedicated  under  their  patronage,  and  the 
Fathers,  especially  those  of  the  Oriental 
Churches,  dilate  on  their  privileges.  The  relics 
of  St.  Anne  are  said  to  have  been  brought 
from  Palestine  to  Constantinople  in  the  eighth 
century.  St.  Anne  is  usually  represented  as 
teaching  her  little  daughter  to  read  the  Scrip- 
tures. 

ANNO  (HANNO)  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  4) 

(11th  cent.)  A  German  nobleman  who  re- 
nounced a  promising  military  career  to  become 
a  priest.  His  distinction  in  sacred  and  profane 
studies  attracted  the  attention  of  the  Emperor, 
Henry  III,  who  summoned  him  to  his  court 
and  found  in  him  a  wise  adviser.  Raised  to 
the  dignity  of  Archbishop  of  Cologne,  he  proved 
himself  a*  zealous  Pastor  of  souls.  On  the 
death  of  Henry  III,  his  widow,  the  Empress 
Agnes,  induced  St.  Anno  to  act  as  Regent 
during  the  minority  of  her  son,  the  Emperor 
Henry  IV.  This  misguided  young  man, 
however,  resenting  the  remonstrances  of  St. 
Anno,  occasioned  by  the  tyrannical  form  of 
government  he  affected,  removed  the.  holy 
prelate  from  his  Episcopal  city,  though  con- 
strained by  popular  clamour  speedily  to  restore 
him.  Nevertheless,  he  persecuted  the  Saint 
to  the  day  of  the  latter's  death  (Dec.  4,  a.d. 
1075),  Such  was  St.  Anno's  charity  to  the  poor 
that,  on  his  deathbed,  he  was  found  to  be 
destitute  of  the  wherewithal  to  purchase  food 
and  medicine.  He  was  interred  in  the  Abbey 
Church  of  Siegberg. 

ANSANO  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  3) 

Otherwise  St.  AUXANUS,  which  see. 

ANSANUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  1) 

(4th  cent.)  A  member  of  the  Roman  Patri- 
cian family  of  the  Anicii,  who,  when  only  twelve 
years  old,  secretly  asked  and  received  Baptism. 
His  father  on  discovering  that  his  boy  had 
become  a  Christian  was  so  enraged  that  he  did 
not  hesitate  himself  to  delate  him  to  the 
persecuting  Emperor  Diocletian.  Ansanus, 
however,  contrived  to  escape  from  Rome, 
and  took  refuge  at  Bagnorea,  and  afterwards 
at  Siena,  wh^re  he  was  instrumental  in  drawing 
many  Pagans  to  Christianity.  He  was  at  last 
arrested  and  condemned  to  die  at  the  stake. 
But,  by  a  miracle,  he  emerged  unharmed  from 
the  flames  and  was  in  fine  beheaded  (a.d.  303). 

ANSBERT  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  9) 

(7th  cent.)  The  Chancellor  of  the  Mero- 
vingian King  Clotalre  III.  His  wife,  having 
with  his  consent  retired  to  a  convent,  he  himself 
took  the  monastic  habit  in  the  Abbey  of  Fonten- 
elle  ;  and,  on  the  death  of  St.  Ouen,  was  chosen 
Archbishop  of  Rouen.  In  his  old  age  he 
resigned  his  See  and  went  to  die  in  a  monastery 
in  Hainault  (A.D.  095).  He  was  buried  at 
Fouteuelle. 

23 


ANSCHAR 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ANSCHAR.(ANSGAR,SCHARIES)  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.3) 
(9th  cent.)  A  native  of  Amiens  (France), 
who  at  an  early  age  entered  the  Benedictine 
Abbey  of  Corbie,  under  the  Abbot  St.  Adelard. 
Sent  out  as  a  missionary,  he  preached  the 
Gospel  with  signal  success  in  Denmark,  Sweden 
and  North  Germany,  establishing  everywhere 
churches  and  schools.  He  became  the  first 
Archbishop  of  Hamburg,  and  Pope  Gregory  IV 
appointed  him  his  legate  in  the  North  of  Europe. 
Christianity  was  on  the  point  of  dying  out  in 
Scandinavia  when  St.  Anschar  devoted  himself 
to  the  work  of  re-kindling  the  Faith  among  the 
Norsemen.  He  himself  led  a  life  of  great 
austerity,  but  was  indefatigable  in  his  charity 
to  the  poor.  He  died  at  Bremen  a.d.  865. 
ANSELM  OF  LUCCA  (St.)  Bp.  (March  18) 

(11th  cent.)  A  native  of  Mantua,  appointed 
Bishop  of  Lucca  by  his  uncle  Pope  Alexander  II. 
He  resisted  zealously  the  encroachments  of 
Henry  IV,  the  German  Emperor  of  the  time. 
Forced  to  retire  from  his  Bishopric,  he  took 
refuge  with  the  monks  of  Cluny  in  France. 
St.  Leo  IX,  who  was  carrying  on  the  work  of 
his  predecessor,  Pope  St.  Gregory  VII,  recalled 
St.  Anselm  into  Italy,  appointing  him  his  legate, 
and  entrusting  to  him  the  administration  of 
several  Dioceses.  He  died  (a.d.  1086)  at 
Mantua,  of  which  citv  he  is  a  Patron  Saint. 
ANSELM  OF  CANTERBURY  (St.)  (April  21) 
Bp.,  Doctor  of  the  Church. 
(11th  cent.)  Born  of  noble  parents  at  Aosta 
in  Piedmont  (a.d.  1033),  he  gave  early  proof 
of  exceptional  talents.  Owing  to  a  disagree- 
ment with  his  father  he  left  Italy  in  his  youth 
for  France,  and  on  the  latter's  death,  became  a 
monk  of  Bee  in  Normandy,  where  later  he  suc- 
ceeded Prior  Lanfranc  and  Abbot  Herluin  in 
their  respective  charges.  In  the  year  1093  he 
accepted  the  Archbishopric  of  Canterbury, 
but  four  years  later,  on  account  of  his  resistance 
to  the  tyranny  of  William  Rufus,  was  driven 
into  exile.  He  returned  to  France  and  thence 
passed  into  Italy,  where  he  assisted  at  several 
Councils  and  did  much  good  work  for  the 
Church.  On  the  death  of  King  William  Rufus, 
he  came  back  to  Canterbury  at  the  invitation 
of  the  new  king,  Henry  I.  But  the  claim  of 
that  monarch  to  invest  Bishops  with  their  Sees 
was  met  by  4nselm  with  unflinching  opposition. 
Hence,  a  second  exile,  terminated  by  a  trium- 
phant return  (a.d.  1106).  St.  Anselm  died  in 
the  year  1109.  His  life  was  written  by  the 
monk  Eadmer.  His  works  are  numerous,  and 
he  is  especially  to  be  noted  as  the  forerunner 
in  Theology  and  Metaphysics  of  the  Scholastics 
of  the  succeeding  centuries.  In  ability  and 
learning  he  was  far  in  advance  of  the  uncultured 
age  in  which  his  lot  was  cast. 
ANSGAR  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  3) 

Otherwise  St.  ANSCHAR,  which  see. 
ANSOVINUS  (ANSEWIN)  (St.)  Bp.  (March  13) 

(9th  cent.)  Born  at  Camerino  in  Umbria 
(Central  Italy),  first  a  canon,  and  later  Bishop 
of  his  native  city,  he  acquired  a  great  and 
widespread  reputation  for  holiness  of  life  and  for 
personal  zeal.  He  died  a.d.  816,  and  was  forth- 
with honoured  as  a  Saint  by  his  sorrowing  flock. 
*ANSTRUDE  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  17) 

(7th  cent.)    A  holy  Abbess  of  Laon  in  France, 
and  a  strenuous  upholder  of  conventual  dis- 
cipline, who  died  A.D.  688. 
*ANSEGIS  (St.)  Abbot.  (July  20) 

(9th    cent.)    A    Benedictine    monk,    Abbot 
successively  of  several  important  monasteries 
in   France.     He   is   locally   honoured   in   that 
country  as  a  Saint.     He  died  A.D.  833. 
ANTHELMUS  (St.)  Bp.  (June  26) 

(12th  cent.)  A  native  of  Savoy  who,  after 
being  Provost  of  a  Cathedral  Chapter,  entered 
the  Carthusian  Order  and  became  Prior  of  the 
Grande  Chartreuse.  During  the  Schism  of 
1159  he  defended  the  rights  of  Pope  Alexander 
II  against  the  Anti-Pope  Octavian,  and  thereby 
incurred  the  enmity  of  the  German  Emperor, 
24 


Frederick  Barbarossa.  The  Pope  consecrated 
him  Bishop  of  Belley,  and  sent  him  to  England 
as  his  legate  at  the  time  of  the  dispute  between 
King  Henry  II  and  St.  Thomas  A'Becket. 
There  he  rendered  important  services  to  the 
Church  and  to  the  country.  St.  Anthelmus 
died  dining  the  famine  which  devastated  a 
large  part  of  France  in  the  year  1178. 

ANTHEROS  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (Jan.  3) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Greek  who  occupied  the  Chair 
of  St.  Peter  for  one  year,  that  of  the  Consuls 
Severus  and  Quintilian  (A.D.  235).  He  was  put 
to  death  by  the  tyrant  Maximus  for  refusing  to 
deliver  up  a  volume  in  which  he  had  registered 
the  "Acts  of  the  Martyrs,"  and  was  buried 
in  the  catacombs  of  St.  Callistus  (a.d  236). 

ANTHES  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  28) 

See  SS.  FORTUNATUS,  CAIUS,   &c. 

ANTHIA  (St.)  M.  (April  18) 

See  SS.  ELEUTHERIUS  and  ANTHIA. 

ANTHIMUS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (April  27) 

(4th    cent.)     Martyred    at    Nicomedia,    the 

Imperial  residence  under  Diocletian  (a.d.  303). 

His  death  was  followed  by  a  wholesale  slaughter 

of  the  clergy  of  the  district  and  of  their  flocks. 

ANTHIMUS  (St.)  M.  (May  11) 

(4th  cent.)  A  priest  at  Rome,  who  is  said 
to  have  converted  the  Pagan  husband  of  the 
Christian  matron  Lucina,  well  known  for  her 
charity  to  her  imprisoned  fellow-Christians. 
St.  Anthimus,  thrown  into  the  Tiber  but 
miraculously  rescued  by  an  angel,  was  after- 
wards retaken  and  beheaded  (a.d.  303). 

ANTHIMUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  27) 

See  SS.  COSMAS  and  DAMIAN. 

ANTHOLIAN  (ANATOLIANUS)  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  6) 
(3rd  cent.)  St.  Gregory  of  Toms  numbers 
St.  Antholian  among  the  Martyrs  of  Auvergne, 
at  the  time  of  the  raid  into  Gaul  of  the  German 
chieftain  Chrocas,  which  occurred  while  the 
Emperors  Valerian  and  Gallienus  were  also 
persecuting  the  Christians,  some  time  before 
a.d.  267.  Among  his  fellow-sufferers  we  have 
the  names  of  SS.  Cassius.  Maximus,  Limininus 
and  Victorinus.    But  particulars  are  wanting. 

ANTHOLIN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  17) 

Otherwise  St.  ANTONY,  which  see. 

ANTHONIUS  (St.)  M.  (May  11) 

Otherwise  St.  ANTHIMUS,  which  see. 

ANTHONY  (St.) 

For  this  and  kindred  names  see  St.  ANTONY, 
&c. 

ANTHUSA  (St.)  V.  (July  27) 

(8th  cent.)  Various  versions  are  given  of 
the  life  of  this  Saint.  All  agree  that  she  was 
a  Greek  maiden  of  Constantinople,  distinguished 
by  her  zeal  for  the  Catholic  practice  of  the 
veneration  of  holy  pictures,  and  that  she 
thereby  incurred  the  indignation  of  the  Icono- 
clast Emperors  of  the  period.  It  also  seems 
certain  that  she  was  at  least  once  arrested 
and  put  to  the  torture.  But,  while  some  say 
that  she  died  in  exile,  others  have  it  that  she 
was  recalled  and  taken  into  favour  by  the 
Empress,  wife  of  Constantine  Copronymus, 
and  that  she  died  peacefully  at  Constantinople 
in  extreme  old  age.  There  is  further  a  tradition 
that  the  Empress  named  one  of  her  daughters 
after  this  holy  woman,  and  that  this  second 
Anthusa  also  became  a  Saint  and  was  venerated 
in  the  East  as  such.  No  reliable  dates  are 
available. 

ANTHUSA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  22) 

See  SS.  ATHANASIl  S,  ANTHUSA,    &c. 

ANTHUSA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  27) 

(Date  uncertain.)  Called  St.  Anthusa  the 
Younger,  to  distinguish  her  from  St.  Anthusa 
of  Seleucia  (Aug.  22).  She  was  probably  a 
Persian,  and  suffered  in  that  country.  She  is 
said  to  have  been  sewn  up  in  a  sack  and  drowned 
in  a  well. 

ANTIDIUS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (June  25) 

(5th  cent.)     Otherwise  known  as  St.  Antel, 

St.  Tude,   St.   Antible.    A   disciple  and  the 

successor  of  St.  Froninus  in  the  See  of  Besancon 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ANTONINUS 


(Eastern  France).  He  was  put  to  death  by  a 
horde  of  marauding  Arian  Vandals  at  a  place 
called  Ruffey,  where  his  relics  were  enshrined. 
But  there  are  serious  doubts  as  to  the  year 
and  even  the  century  in  which  he  suffered. 
ANTIGONUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  27) 

See  SS.  ALEXANDER,  ABUNDIUS,    &c. 
ANTIGONUS  (St.)  M.  (July  24) 

See  SS.  VICTOR,  STERCATIUS,    &c. 
ANTIOCH  (MARTYRS  OF). 

The  Syrian  Church  was  fertile  in  Martyrs, 
both  in  the  earlier  persecutions  under  the 
heathen  Emperors,  and  in  those  set  in  foot  in 
the  fourth  and  fifth  centuries  by  the  heretics 
of  the  period.  It  had  also  its  Martyrs,  some 
centuries  later,  at  the  hands  of  the  Moham- 
medan Arabs.  Antioch,  the  See  of  the  Patriarchs 
of  the  East,  was  the  scene  of  many  of  these 
triumphs  of  Christian  heroes.  In  several  cases 
no  particular  Saint's  name  is  registered  in  con- 
nection with  them.  Of  these  we  collect  here  a 
few  instances  from  the  Roman  Martyrology. 
ANTIOCH  (MARTYRS  OF).  (March  11) 

(4th  cent.)  Numerous  Christians  who  suffered 
death  for  their  religion  in  Syria,  about  a.d.  300, 
under  the  Emperor  Maximian  Galerius,  colleague 
of  Diocletian. 
ANTIOCH  (MARTYRS  OF)  (Nov.  6) 

(7th  cent.)  Ten  Christians  put  to  death  by 
the  Arabs  after  their  seizure  of  Antioch  (a.d. 
637).  Some  records  put  their  number  at  forty 
or  more.  In  such  cases  not  all  the  Christians 
massacred  are  reputed  as  Martyrs,  but  only 
those  previously  distinguished  for  holiness  of 
life,  and  those  who,  freedom  being  offered  to 
them  on  condition  of  renouncing  Christ,  have 
elected  to  die  for  Him. 
ANTIOCH  (MARTYRS  OF).  (Dec.  24) 

(3rd  cent.)     Forty  Christian  maidens  put  to 
death   at   Antioch,   because   of  their   religion, 
under  the  Emperor  Decius  (a.d.  250). 
ANTIOCHUS  (St.)  M.  (May  21) 

See  SS.  NICOSTRATUS  and  ANTIOCHUS. 
ANTIOCHUS  and  CYRIACUS  (SS.)  MM.  (July  11) 
(3rd  cent.)    Antiochus,  a  Christian  physician 
of  Sebaste  in  Armenia,  brother  of  the  Martyr, 
St.  Plato,  was  decapitated  for  his  religion  under 
a  governor  named  Hadrian,  towards  the  end 
of  the  third  century.     On  seeing  milk  in  place 
of  blood  miraculously  flowing  from  the  severed 
head  of  the  Martyr,  Cyriacus,  the  executioner, 
was  converted  to  Christianity,  and  forthwith 
made  to  share  the  fate  of  the  victim. 
ANTIOCHUS  (ANDEOL)  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  15) 

(5th  cent.)  When  St.  Justus,  Bishop  of 
Lyons,  had  renounced  his  Bishopric  in  order 
to  join  the  Solitaries  of  Upper  Egypt,  the 
priest  Andeol  was  sent  to  seek  him  out  and 
induce  him  to  return  to  his  sorrowing  flock. 
His  efforts,  however,  were  made  in  vain,  and  on 
his  return  to  Lyons  he  was  himself  chosen 
Bishop.  After  distinguishing  himself  by  his 
zeal  and  firmness,  he  fell  asleep  in  Christ  early 
in  the  fifth  century. 
ANTIOCHUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  13) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Sardinian  Martyr,  by  pro- 
fession a  physician,  who  suffered  under  the 
Emperor  Hadrian,  about  a.d.  110.  He  is  an 
object  of  popular  devotion  in  Sardinia,  where 
the  place  of  his  martyrdom  is  called  the  Isola 
di  Sant'  Antioco.  There  are  details  of  his 
Passion  in  one  of  the  codices  preserved  in  the 
Vatican.  His  name  appears  in  the  Litany  of 
Saints  of  the  medical  profession,  compiled  by 
William  du  Val,  Archdeacon  of  Paris. 
ANTIPAS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (April  11) 

(1st  cent.)  He  is  venerated  as  the  first  Bishop 
of  Pergamus  (Asia  Minor),  and  is  by  St.  John 
in  the  Apocalypse  (ii.  13)  styled  the  "  Faithful 
witness."  Tradition  avers  that  he  was  roasted 
to  death  in  a  brazen  ox  in  the  reign  of  the 
Emperor  Domitian  (a.d.  81-a.d.  96). 
ANTOINETTE  (St.). 

Variant  of  the  names  ANTONIA  and  ANTO- 
NINA,  which  see. 


ANTONIA  (St.)  V.M.  (April  29) 

See  SS.  AGAPIUS,  SECUNDINUS,    &c. 

ANTONIA  (St.)  V.M.  (May  4) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Christian  maiden  of  Byzan- 
tium (Constantinople),  who  after  torture  was 
burned  at  the  stake  in  one  of  the  closing  years 
of  the  third  century,  during  the  persecution  of 
the  Emperors  Diocletian  and  Galerius. 

ANTONINA  (St.)  V.M.  (March  1) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  pious  woman,  who,  in  the 
persecution  at  the  close  of  the  third  century, 
was  shut  up  in  a  cask  and  thrown  into  a  marsh 
near  the  town  of  Cea  (Beira,  Portugal).  Cea 
is  said  by  some  to  be  a  copyist's  mistake  for 
Nicaea  in  Bithynia. 

ANTONINA  (St.)  V.M.  (May  3) 

(4th    cent.)     A   Christian   maiden   who   was 

delivered  from  a  house  of  infamy  by  a  soldier, 

St.     Alexander.     They     suffered     martyrdom 

together  (a.d.  312)  at  Constantinople. 

ANTONINA  (St.)  M.  (June  11) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Martyr  of  Nicaea  in  Bithynia 
during  the  persecution  of  Diocletian.  By  order 
of  the  governor,  Priscillian,  she  was  scourged, 
placed  on  the  rack,  torn  with  iron  hooks  and 
finally  beheaded  (a.d.  290).  She  is  perhaps 
one  and  the  same  with  the  St.  Antonina  of 
March  1. 

ANTONINUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Feb.  13) 

(9th  cent.)  An  Abbot  of  the  monastery  of 
St.  Agrippinus  at  Sorrento  (Naples),  where  a 
church  was  built  in  his  honour.  He  is  a  Patron 
Saint  of  Sorrento,  and  his  Feast  is  kept  there 
on  the  anniversary  of  his  burial,  Feb.  13,  a.d. 
830. 

ANTONINUS  (St.)  M.  (April  20) 

See  SS.  VICTOR,  ZOTICUS,    &c. 

ANTONINUS  (St.)  M.  (April  24) 

See  SS.  MARCELLINUS,  CLAUDIUS,   &c. 

ANTONINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (May  10) 

(15th  cent.)  A  Florentine,  born  a.d.  1389, 
who,  embracing  the  Religious  life  in  the  Domini- 
can Order,  and  successively  governed  many 
convents,  until  he  was  raised  to  the  Arch- 
bishopric of  Florence  (a.d.  1446).  He  died 
three  years  later,  and  was  buried  in  the  church 
of  his*  Order  in  Florence.  His  learning  and 
intellectual  grasp,  conspicuous  in  his  many 
erudite  works  on  Divinity  and  Canon  Law, 
together  with  his  Apostolic  virtues,  gained  for 
him  the  respect  and  esteem  of  his  contempor- 
aries. He  enjoyed  the  confidence  of  the  Popes 
of  his  time.  Pope  Eugene  IV,  when  dying, 
sent  for  him  to  administer  to  him  the  last  Rites, 
and  Pius  II  was  present  in  Florence  at  the 
Saint's  funeral. 

ANTONINUS  (St.)  M.  (July  6) 

See  SS.  LUCY,  ANTONINUS,    &c. 
Some    authors    make   this    group   of    Saints 
identical   with  that   described   as   "  SS.   Lucy 
and  Twenty-two  Others  "  (June  25). 

ANTONINUS  (St.)  M.  (July  29) 

See  SS.  LUC1LLA,  FLORA,    &c. 

ANTONINUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  22) 

(2nd  cent.)  One  of  the  public  executioners 
in  Rome  under  the  Emperor  Commodus. 
While  awaiting  the  result  of  the  trial  of  SS. 
Eusebius  and  other  Christians  (a.d.  186),  he 
saw  a  vision  of  Angels  and,  proclaiming  himself 
a  Christian,  was  himself  beheaded,  winning 
first  of  all  that  company,  the  Martvr's  crown. 

ANTONINUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  2) 

(2nd  cent.)  This  holy  Martyr  is  sometimes 
confused  with  St.  Antoninus  of  Apamea  in  Syria, 
so  much  so  that  even  the  Bollandists  offer  no 
solution  to  the  doubt.  His  cultus  at  Apamea 
(Pamiers,  Languedoc)  in  France,  and  at  Palentia 
in  Spain,  is  undoubted.  Local  tradition  in 
France  places  his  martyrdom  at  Fredelas, 
afterwards  called  Pamiers,  which  is  also  said 
to  have  been  his  birthplace  in  the  second  half 
of  the  first  century.  He  is  supposed  to  have 
been  of  Royal  blood,  to  have  lived  for  a  time  in 
solitude,  to  have  visited  Rome,  and  to  have 
been   there   ordained   priest.     After   preaching 

25 


ANTONINUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


in  Italy  and  working  many  miracles,  he  is 
alleged  to  have  returned  to  Prance,  and  laboured 
in  the  district  of  Noble-Val  (now  called  S. 
Antonin)  and  also  in  Toulouse.  After  under- 
going torture  he  was  beheaded.  The  date  is 
too  uncertain  for  reasonable  conjecture. 
ANTONINUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  3) 

See  SS.  ARISTJSUS  and  ANTONINUS. 
ANTONINUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  30) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  soldier  of  the  Theban  Legion 
and  a  comrade  of  St.  Maurice.  He  was  martyred 
on  the  banks  of  the  Trebbia  near  Piacenza,  late 
in  the  third  century.  A  church  was  founded 
in  his  honour  in  the  year  324,  restored  in  903, 
and  rebuilt  in  1104.  His  blood,  which  is 
preserved  in  a  phial,  and  exposed  to  public 
veneration  on  his  Feast  day,  is  said  to  have  the 
same  miraculous  properties  as  that  of  St. 
Januarius  at  Naples. 
ANTONINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  31) 

(7th  cent.)  During  his  one  year  of  Episcopate 
(A.D.  660)  St.  Antoninus  Pontana,  Archbishop 
of  Milan,  gave  such  convincing  proofs  of  being 
rich  in  all  pastoral  virtues  that  even  during  his 
lifetime  his  flock  proclaimed  him  a  Saint.  He 
was  interred  in  the  Church  of  St.  Simplician, 
where  the  Milanese  Bishop3  were  as  a  ride 
buried.  In  the  year  1581,  St.  Charles  Borromeo 
after  careful  investigation,  removed  his  relics, 
enshrining  them  under  a  magnificent  altar  which 
he  had  caused  to  be  constructed  in  the  same 
church. 
ANTONINUS,    ZEBINA.    GERMANUS    and    EN- 

NATHA  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  12) 

(3rd  cent.)  Martyrs  under  Galerius,  the 
colleague  of  Diocletian,  at  Caesarea  in  Palestine 
(a.d.  297).  St.  Ennatha,  a  Christian  virgin, 
after  being  severely  scourged,  was  burned  alive. 
Her  male  fellow-sufferers,  who  boldly  reproached 
Firmilian,  the  pagan  judge,  for  his  cruelty  to 
a  woman,  were  beheaded. 
ANTONY  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  9) 

See  SS.  JULIAN,  BASILISSA,    &c. 
ANTONY  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  17) 

(4th  cent.)  The  "  Patriarch  "  of  the  mona- 
stic life,  as  was  his  contemporary,  St.  Paul, 
the  first  hermit,  of  the  eremitical.  Born  at 
Coma,  near  Heraclea  in  Upper  Egypt  (a.d.  251), 
he,  after  the  decease  of  his  parents,  well-to-do 
Egyptians,  retired  into  the  solitudes  of  the 
neighbouring  desert,  where  by  dint  of  prayer 
and  penance  he  overcame  the  most  terrible 
temptations.  Numerous  disciples  soon  flocked 
to  him,  and  (A.D.  305)  he  founded  his  first  mona- 
stery in  the  Thebais.  The  awful  persecution 
of  Christianity  at  the  close  of  the  third  century, 
by  driving  countless  men  and  women  as  fugitives 
into  the  wilds  surrounding  the  valley  of  the 
Nile,  no  doubt  quickened  the  impulse  felt  by 
many  in  all  ages  to  separate  themselves  per- 
manently from  the  world.  St.  Antony's  wise 
government  of  his  monks,  coupled  with  his 
supernatural  gifts,  spread  his  fame  both  in  the 
East  and  in  the  West  and  enabled  him  to 
contribute  efficaciously  to  the  victory  of  the 
Catholics  over  the  Arians  at  the  Council  of 
Nicaea  in  A.D.  325.  St.  Antony  died,  A.D.  356, 
at  the  age  of  one  hundred  and  five.  From  the 
submissiveness  of  animals  to  him,  he  is  regarded 
as  the  Patron  Saint  of  herdsmen.  His  life, 
written  by  St.  Athanasius,  is  a  religious  classic. 
ANTONY,  MERULUS  and  JOHN  (SS.)       (Jan.  17) 

Conf. 

(6th  cent.)  Three  holy  monks,  disciples  of 
St.  Gregory  the  Great,  in  his  monastery  of 
St.  Andrew  (now  San  Gregorlo)  in  Rome,  at  the 
close  of  the  sixth  century.  The  great  Pope 
writes  at  length  of  their  wonderful  sanctity 
and  of  the  miracles  by  which  Almighty  God 
bore  witness  to  it. 
*ANTONA,  JOHN  and  EUSTACHIUS       (April  14) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(14th  cent.)  Officials  at  the  Court  of  the 
Grand  Duke  of  Lithuania  who  with  his  subjects 
was   still   heathen,   converted  to   Christianity. 

2G 


The  tliree  Saints  were  on  that  account  put  to 
the  torture  and  afterwards  hanged  at  Wilna, 
about  a.d.  1342.  They  are  venerated  as 
Patron  Saints  of  the  city  of  Vilna. 

ANTONY,  CAULEAS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  11) 

(9th  cent.)  A  native  of  Phrygia  who  entered 
a  monastery  of  which  he  became  Abbot,  and 
who  was  elected  (A.D.  893)  Patriarch  of  Con- 
stantinople. He  presided  over  a  Council  which 
condemned  and  reformed  the  Acts  of  Photius, 
originator  of  the  Greek  Schism.  The  Patriarch 
Antony  died  in  his  sixty-seventh  year,  a.d.  896. 

ANTONY  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  14) 

See  SS.  BASSUS,  ANTONY,    &c. 

ANTONY  OF  PADUA  (St.)  (June  13) 

(13th  cent.)  A  native  of  Lisbon,  who 
received  the  name  of  Ferdinand  at  Baptism 
(A.D.  1195).  He  joined  the  Order  of  Canons 
Regulars  at  an  early  age,  but  soon  exchanged  it 
for  that  of  the  Franciscans  (A.D.  1221).  He 
received  the  religious  habit  in  the  convent  of 
St.  Antony  at  Coimbra  and  assumed  the  name 
of  Antony  in  honour  of  the  great  Hermit  Saint 
of  Egypt.  His  desire  for  martyrdom  took  him 
to  Africa,  but  illness  and  storm  brought  him  to 
Italy,  where  under  the  guidance  of  St.  Franci3, 
he  began  his  wonderful  career  as  a  preacher 
and  worker  of  miracles.  He  died  at  Padua, 
A.D.  1231,  and  was  canonised  by  Pope  Gregory 
IX  in  the  following  year.  In  art  he  is  repre- 
sented in  various  ways,  but  mostly  bearing  the 
Child  Jesus  in  his  arms. 

ANTONY,  MARY  ZACCARIA  (St.)  (July  5) 

(16th  cent.)  Born  at  Cremona  (Lombardy), 
he  was  remarkable  from  his  early  youth  for  his 
ability  and  yet  more  for  his  piety  and  zeal  for 
the  spiritual  and  temporal  good  of  his  neighbour, 
particularly  of  the  poor.  He  laboured  all  his 
life  long  for  the  restoring  of  Church  Discipline, 
and  with  that  intent  founded  the  Religious 
Order  styled  Barnabites,  under  the  patronage 
of  St.  Paul  the  Apostle.  Favoured  with  many 
supernatural  gifts  and  graces,  he  passed  away, 
a.d.  1539,  and  wa3  canonised  by  Pope  Leo  XIII 
at  the  end  of  the  nineteenth  centurv. 

♦ANTONY  IXIDA  and  OTHERS  (Bl.)  MM.  (Sept.  7) 
(17th  cent.)  Japanese  Martyrs  of  the  Society 
of  Jesus,  who  laid  down  their  lives  for  Christ 
after  enduring  many  cruel  tortures,  A.D.  1632. 
Bl.  Antony,  who  had  laboured  for  many  years 
at  the  conversion  of  his  fellow-countrymen, 
was  famous  for  his  learning  and  eloquence. 

•ANTONY  BALDINUCCI  (Bl.)  Conf.  (Sept.  7) 

(17th  cent.)     A  Jesuit  missionary  in  Central 

Italy,   famous   for   his   eloquence   and   for   his 

success  in  the  converting  of  sinners.     He  was 

beatified  by  Pope  Leo  XIII. 

ANTONY  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  23) 

See  SS.  ANDREW,  JOHN,  &c. 

ANTONY  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  7) 

See  SS.  MELASIPPUS,  ANTONY,    Sec. 

ANTONY  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  15) 

See  SS.  IRENAEUS,  ANTONY,    &c. 

ANTONY  (St.)  (Dec.  28) 

(6th  cent.)  By  birth  a  Hungarian,  who, 
after  serving  God  for  many  years  as  a  hermit 
of  the  Alps,  passed  the  last  two  years  of  a  holy 
life  in  the  monastery  of  the  Isle  of  Lerins,  off 
the  southern  coast  of  France,  where  his  relics 
were  enshrined.  Renowned  for  the  working 
of  miracles,  he  passed  away  about  the  year  526. 
St.  Ennodius,  Bishop  of  Pavia,  wrote  a  Life  of 
St.  Antony,  to  be  found  in  Surius. 

ANYSIA  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  30) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  woman  who,  by 
order  of  Dulcitius,  Governor  of  Thessalonica, 
was  arrested  on  her  entering  that  city  to  attend 
the  assembly  of  the  Faithful,  and  put  to  death 
(30th  Dec.  A.D.  304),  in  the  reign  of  the  perse- 
cuting Emperor  Maximian  Galerius,  Diocletian's 
colleague. 

ANYSIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  30) 

(5th  cent.)     The  successor  (a.d.  383)  of  the 

holy  Bishop  Ascolus  in  the  See  of  Thessalonica 

in  Macedonia.     He  was  a  friend  of  St.  Ambrose, 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


APOLLONIA 


who  wrote  to  the  clergy  and  people  of  Thes- 
salonica,  congratulating  them  on  their  choice, 
and  also  to  St.  Anysius,  exhorting  him  to  follow 
in  the  footsteps  of  the  Saint,  his  predecessor. 
Pope  St.  Damasus  showed  his  confidence  in 
St.  Anysius  by  appointing  him  his  Vicar  Apos- 
tolic in  Ulyria.  Anysius  also  was  one  among 
the  forty  Bishops  who  bravely  stood  by  St. 
John  Clirysostom  against  Theophilus  of  Alexan- 
dria. He  died  at  an  advanced  age  about  the 
year  403. 
AOUT  (St.)  Conf.  (Oct.  7) 

Otherwise  St.  AUGUSTUS,  which  see. 
APELLES  and  LUCIUS  (SS.)  Bps.,  MM.  (April  22) 
(1st  cent.)     Disciples  ot  Our  Lord,  probably 
of  the  seventy-two  chosen  by  Him  as  mission- 
aries.    Traditionally,  St.  Apelles  is  held  to  have 
been  Bishop  of  Smyrna,  and  St.  Lucius  Bishop 
of  Laodicea.     Both  are  mentioned  by  St.  Paul 
in  his  Epistle  to  the  Romans  (xvi.  10,  21). 
APELLIUS,  LUCIUS  and  CLEMENT         (Sept.  10) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(1st  cent.)  There  can  be  little  doubt  that 
SS.  Apellius  and  Lucius  are  identical  with  the 
SS.  Apelles  and  Lucius  commemorated  on 
April  22.  The  St.  Clement  who  is  added  will 
have  been  another  of  the  seventy-two  disciples 
mentioned  in  the  Gospel  as  having  been  sent 
as  missionaries  by  Christ  Himself.  By  various 
writers  this  St.  Clement  is  said  to  have  been 
Bishop  of  Sardis. 
APHRAATES  (St.)  Conf.  (April  7) 

(4th  cent.)  An  anchoret  of  Persian  birth 
who  settled  at  Edessa  in  Mesopotamia.  Later 
on  he  removed  to  Antioch,  where  he  strength- 
ened the  Faith  of  the  Catholics  by  his  sermons 
and  miracles,  during  the  Arian  persecution, 
under  the  Emperor  Valens. 
APHRODISIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  13) 

See  SS.  PETER  and  APHRODISIUS. 
APHRODISIUS,    CARALIPPUS,    AGAPITUS    and 
EUSEBIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  28) 

(1st  cent.)  According  to  the  Martyrology 
of  the  Saints  of  France,  St.  Aphrodisius  shel- 
tered the  Holy  Family  during  their  flight  into 
Egypt,  and  after  the  Ascension  joined  the 
disciples,  attaching  himself  to  St.  Peter.  Later 
he  travelled  with  St.  Paul  and  finally  became 
the  Apostle  of  Languedoc  (France),  where  he 
was  put  to  death  for  the  Faith  with  the  three 
of  his  followers  named  above.  There  is,  how- 
ever, an  opinion  that  this  holy  Bishop,  though 
undoubtedly  one  of  the  Apostles  of  Gaul,  lived 
one  or  two  centuries  later. 
APHRODISIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  30) 
(Date  unknown.)  An  Egyptian  priest  put 
to  death  for  the  Faith  at  Alexandria  with  about 
thirty  of  his  flock. 
APHTHONIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  2) 

See  SS.  ACYNDINUS,  PEGASIUS,    &c. 
APIAN  (APPHIAN)  (St.)  M.  (April  2) 

Otherwise  St.  AMPHIANUS,  which  see. 
APODEMIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  16) 

One  of  the  MARTYRS    OF    SARAGOSSA, 
which  see. 
APOLLINE  (St.)  V.M.  Feb.  9) 

Otherwise  St  APOLLONIA,  which  see. 
APOLLINARIS  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  5) 

(5th  cent.)  A  daughter  of  the  Consul  Arthe- 
nius,  who  governed  the  Empire  during  the 
minority  of  Theodosius  the  Younger.  After 
spending  several  years  as  a  solitary,  the  Saint 
took  the  name  of  Dorotheus  and  placed  herself 
under  the  guidance  of  St.  Macarius  of  Alexan- 
dria. Of  this  holy  virgin  a  legend  asserts  that 
she  obtained  the  use  of  a  hermitage  from  the 
Solitaries  by  disguising  herself  in  man's  attire. 
She  died  about  A.D.  450. 
APOLLINARIS  (St.;  Bp.  (Jan.  8) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Hierapolis  in  Phry- 
gia,  and  one  of  the  great  lights  of  the  Early 
Church.  He  refuted  the  doctrines  of  Cliristian 
Stoicism  promulgated  by  Tatian,  and  exposed 
the  hypocrisy  of  the  heretic  Montanus.  In 
the  year  177  he  delivered  Ins  famous  Apology 


for  the  Christians  to  Marcus  Aurelius,  the 
philosophic  Emperor.  He  died  about  A.D.  180. 
He  is  also  called  Claudius  Apollinaris. 

APOLLINARIS  (St.)  M.  (June  21) 

See  SS.  CYRIACUS  and  APOLLINARIS. 

APOLLINARIS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (July  23) 

(1st  cent.)  Said  to  have  come  from  Antioch 
with  St.  Peter,  and  to  have  been  appointed 
by  him  as  the  first  Bishop  of  Ravenna.  His 
life  was  one  of  continuous  suffering  at  the 
hands  of  persecutors,  but  it  was  preserved 
through  a  wnole  series  of  savage  and  deadly 
torture.  Ho  was  thrice  banished  from  Ravenna, 
and  during  his  exile  preached  the  Gospel  in 
Asia  Minor,  on  the  banks  of  the  Danube,  and 
in  Thrace  on  the  south  side  of  the  same  river. 
He  died  from  the  effects  of  torture  and  fatigue 
in  the  reign  of  Vespasian  (A.D.  79).  St.  Peter 
Damian  says  that  Apollinaris  sacrificed  himself 
as  a  living  victim  for  the  true  Faith  by  the 
continual  martyrdom  which  he  endured  for  the 
space  of  twenty-nine  consecutive  years.  He 
was  buried  at  Classe,  near  Ravenna. 

APOLLINARIS  (St.)  M.  (4ug.  23) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  gaoler  at  Rheims  (France), 
who,  on  witnessing  the  constancy  of  St.  Timothy 
and  the  heavenly  visions  with  which  he  was 
comforted,  threw  himself  at  his  feet  and  begged 
to  be  made  a  Christian.  They  were  both 
beheaded  by  the  Governor  Lampadus,  who  is 
said  to  have  been  in  punishment  struck  by 
lightning,  obsessed  by  a  devil,  and  in  the  end 
suffocated  by  the  Evil  One.  Many  churches 
were  erected  in  honour  of  St.  Apollinaris.  and 
many  miracles  wrought  at  the  tomb  at  Rheims 
of  the  Martyr  and  his  fellow-sufferer.  Some 
assert  that  St.  Apollinaris  is  a  Saint  of  the 
first  century,  but  it  is  now  commonly  admitted 
that  he  is  to  be  dated  two  hundred  years  later. 

APOLLINARIS  SIDONIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  23) 

See  St.  SIDONIUS. 

APOLLINARIS  (AIPLOMAY)  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  5) 
(6th  cent.)  One  of  the  family  of  Saints  of 
which  both  his  father  St.  Isicus  and  his  brother 
St.  Avitus  became  successively  Bishops  of 
Vienne  (France).  The  See  of  Valence  had 
been  vacant  for  many  years  when  St.  Apollinaris 
was  appointed  to  it  by  the  Bishops  of  the 
Province  (A.D.  486).  His  zeal  in  the  extirpation 
of  many  abuses  which  had  arisen  during  the 
vacancy  was  indefatigable,  in  spite  of  many 
serious  maladies  from  which  he  miraculously 
recovered.  He  was  exiled  by  King  Sigismund 
for  taking  part  in  the  sentence  ,of  excommunica- 
tion issued  against  Stephen,  the  Royal  Treasurer, 
by  the  Council  of  Lyons,  but  was  restored  to  his 
See  on  miraculously  curing  Sigismund  of  a 
mortal  malady.  He  died  about  a.d.  520. 
His  body  was  interred  in  the  Cathedral  of 
Va  ence,  which,  owing  to  the  frequent  miracles 
wrought  through  his  intercession,  assumed  the 
title  of  St.  Apollinaris.  His  relics  were  cast 
into  the  Rhone  by  the  Huguenots  in  the  sixteenth 
century. 

♦APOLLO  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  25) 

(4th  cent.)     One  of  the  Egyptian  Fathers  of 

the    Desert.     He    governed    a    community    of 

five  hundred  monks,  near  Heliopolis,  and  died 

about  A.D.  393,  being  then  over  eighty  years  old. 

APOLLO,  ISAACIUS  and  CROTATES      (April  21) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(4th  cent.)  These  Saints  are  said  to  have 
been  attendants  in  the  Palace  of  the  Empress 
Alexandra,  wife  of  Diocletian.  In  the  persecu- 
tion Crotates  (Codratus)  was  beheaded,  and  the 
others  left  to  die  of  hunger  in  prison  (a.d.  302). 

APOLLONIA  (APOLLINE)  (St.)  V.M.  (Feb.  9) 
(3rd  cent.)  A  venerable  Christian  woman  of 
Alexandria,  who  was  burned  to  death  after 
suffering  many  tortures.  Her  teeth  were 
broken  with  pincers,  and  for  this  reason  she  is 
invoked  against  toothache  and  Is  represented 
holding  a  tooth  in  pincers.  Condemned  to  die 
at  the  stake,  she  is  said  to  have  leapt  of  her 
own  accord  into  the  flames  (A.D.  249). 

27 


APOLLONIUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


APOLLONIUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb   \i) 

See  SS.  PROCULUS,  EPHEBUS,    &c. 
APOLLONIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  8) 

See  SS.  PHILEMON  and  APOLLONIUS. 

APOLLONIUS     and     LEONTIUS      (LEONTINUS) 

(SS.)  Bps.,  MM.  (March  19) 

(4th   cent.)     There  is  a  great   difference  of 

opinion  about  the  Sees  and  places  of  martyrdom 

of  these  two  Bishops.    The  most  likely  solution 

is  that  Apollonius  succeeded  Leontius  in  the 

See  of  Braga  in  Portugal.     No  particulars  of 

their  lives  and  alleged  martyrdom  are  extant.  - 

APOLLONIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  19) 

(4th  cent.)    A  priest  of  Alexandria,  who  was 

thrown  into  the  sea  with  five  other  Christians 

during  the  persecution   under   Diocletian  and 

his  colleagues.     All  particulars  are  lost. 

APOLLONIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  18) 

(2nd  cent.)    A  Roman  Senator  who,  accused 

of  being  a  Cliristian  by  one  of  his  slaves,  was 

condemned  to  be  beheaded  (a.d.  186).     He  is 

called  Apollonius  the  Apologist,  on  account  of 

his  eloquent  speech  before  the  Senate,  in  defence 

of  the  Faith.     St.  Jerome  and  Eusebius  refer 

to  this  speech  as  one  full  of  eloquence  and  of 

sacred  and  profane  learning. 

APOLLONIUS  (St.)  M.  (June  5) 

See  SS.  MARCIAN,  NTCANOR,    &c. 
APPHIAN  (St.)  M.  (April  2) 

Otherwise  St.  AMPHIANUS,  which  see. 
APOLLONIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (July  7) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Brescia  in  Lombardy, 
mentioned  in  the  Acts  of  SS.  Faustinus  and 
Jo  vita,  as  having  ordained  the  former,  priest, 
and  the  latter,  deacon.  He  is  said  to  have 
nourished  from  about  the  year  112  to  140. 
But  in  the  Analecta  Bollandiana,  both  the 
period  of  the  Episcopate  of  St.  Apollonius  and 
the  Acts  of  SS.  Faustinus  and  Jo  vita  are  called 
in  question.  However  this  may  be,  St.  Apol- 
lonius was  buried  in  the  church  of  St.  Andrew 
at  Brescia,  and  his  relics  are  preserved  there 
in  the  Cathedral  of  the  Assumption. 
APOLLONIUS  (St.)  M.  (July  10) 

(4th  cent.)  The  Menology  of  Basil  tells  us 
that  he  was  a  native  of  Sardis  in  Lydia  (Asia 
Minor),  and  that  by  his  real  and  preaching  he 
converted  many  Pagans  to  Christianity.  He 
was  summoned  before  the  Prefect  Perinius  at 
Iconium,  scourged  and  crucified,  early  in  the 
fourth  century. 
APOLLONIUS  and  EUGENE  (SS.)  MM.  (July  23) 
(Date  unknown.)  Roman  Martyrs  of  whom 
little  is  known  except  that  in  the  metrical 
Calendar  of  Dijon  St.  Apollonius  is  mentioned 
as  having  suffered  at  the  stake.  He  was  not 
burned,  but  shot  at  and  pierced  with  arrows. 
St.  Eugene  is  described  as  having  courageously, 
after  being  sentenced  to  death  as  a  Christian, 
of  his  own  accord  offered  his  neck  to  the  axe 
of  the  executioner. 
APPHIAS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  22) 

See  SS.  PHILEMON  and  APPHIAS. 
APPIANUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.         (Dec.  30) 

See  SS.  MANSUETUS,  SEVERUS,    &c. 
*APRONIA  (EVRONIE)  (St.)  V.  (July  15) 

(5th  cent.)     Sister  of  St.  Anerius,  Bishop  of 
Toul,  in  which  Diocese  she  lived  a  saintly  life, 
and  is  honoured  with  a  liturgical  cultus. 
APRONIAN  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  2) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Roman  official  who  was  con- 
verted to  Christianity  when  conducting  the 
Martyr  St.  Sisinus  before  the  Prefect  Laudieius, 
and  was  himself  thereupon  also  put  to  death 
for  the  Faith  about  A.D.  303. 
APRUS  (APER,  APRE,  EPVRE,  EVRE) 

(St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  15) 

(6th  cent.)  A  French  Saint,  born  in  the 
Diocese  of  Troyes.  He  began  life  as  a  lawyer, 
and  in  the  practice  of  his  profession  acquired 
great  fame  on  account  both  of  his  forensic 
ability  and  of  his  scrupulous  integrity.  After 
some  years  he  abandoned  the  legal  profession 
in  order  to  enter  into  the  Ecclesiastical  state, 
and  in  time  was  chosen  as  their  Bishop  by  the 
28 


clergy  and  people  of  Toul.  After  a  long 
Episcopate,  during  which  he  endeared  himself 
to  his  flock  as  well  by  his  gentleness  in  ruling 
as  by  the  vivid  example  he  gave  in  his  own 
life  of  what  he  inculcated  in  preaching,  he 
passed  away  (a.d.  507)  at  an  advanced  age, 
and  was  buried  in  the  Basilica,  which  he  was 
then  busy  in  constructing.  His  Life,  written 
soon  after  his  decease,  recounts  many  miracles 
wrought  at  his  tomb.  By  many  the  tradition 
that  he  had  been  a  lawyor  before  he  was  a 
priest  is  rejected,  and  attributed  to  his  having 
been  confused  with  another  holy  man  of  the 
same  name  who  flourished  half  a  century 
before  him. 

APULEIUS  and  MARCELLUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  7) 
(1st  cent.)  According  to  the  Roman  Martyr- 
ology,  St.  Apuleius  and  his  fellow-martyr 
(by  some  said  to  have  been  his  own  brother), 
Marcellus,  were  at  one  time  followers  of  Simon 
Magus,  but  were  converted  at  sight  of  the 
miracles  wrought  by  the  Apostle  St.  Peter. 
They  gained  the  crown  of  martyrdom  under 
a  judge  by  name  Aurelian,  and  were  buried 
without  the  walls  of  Rome.  There  is  a  tradi- 
tion that  it  was  they  who  interred  the  body  of 
St.  Peter  on  the  Vatican  Hill  after  his  cruci- 
fixion, which  they  carried  out  "  after  the 
manner  of  the  Jews,"  in  order  that  in  his 
tomb  as  in  his  death,  the  Apostle  might  be  like 
to  his  Divine  Master.  SS.  Apuleius  and 
Marcellus  are  commemorated  in  all  the  ancient 
Martyrologies  and  in  many  Liturgies. 

AQUILA  (.St.)  M.  (Jan.  23) 

See  SS.  SEVERIANUS  and  AQUILA. 

AQUILA  (St.)  (March  23) 

See  SS.  DOMITIUS,  PELAGIA,   &c. 

AQUILA  (St.)  M.  (May  20) 

(4th  cent.)  An  Egyptian  Christian,  torn  to 
pieces  with  iron  combs  (a.d.  31 1),  in  the  persecu- 
tion under  the  Emperor  Maximinus  Daza,  by 
order  of  Arianus,  Governor  of  Thebes,  who 
subsequently  himself  became  a  Christian  and 
suffered  martyrdom  in  the  same  persecution. 

AQUILA  and  PRISCILLA  (SS.)  (July  8) 

(1st  cent.)  A  husband  and  wife,  natives 
of  Pontus,  a  province  of  Asia  Minor  bordering 
on  the  Black  Sea.  They  were  tentmakers  in 
Rome  during  the  reign  of  the  Emperor  Claudius 
and  with  other  Jews  were  thence  banished. 
On  their  return  journey  to  Asia  they  halted 
at  Corinth,  and  there  met  St.  Paul  coming 
from  Athens  (Acts  xviii.  3),  and  received  him 
into  their  house.  He  was  again  their  guest  at 
Ephesus,  leaving  which  city  at  about  the  same 
time  as  the  Apostle,  they  returned  to  Rome  in 
the  fourth  year  of  the  reign  of  Nero.  In  his 
Epistle  to  the  Romans  St.  Paul  sends  his 
greeting  to  Aquila  and  Priscilla  (Rom.  xvi. 
3,  4,  5  ;  see  also  1  Cor.  xvi.  19).  They  are 
commonly  believed  to  have  returned  again  to 
Asia  Minor,  but  there  is  also  a  tradition  that 
they  suffered  martyrdom  in  Rome  as  Christians. 

AQUILA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  1) 

See  SS.  CYRIL,  AQUILA,    &c. 

AQUILINA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  13) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Christian  girl,  not  more  than 
twelve  years  old,  who  was  tortured  and  beheaded 
at  Byblos  in  Phoenicia  (A.D.  293)  in  a  first  phase 
of  the  persecution  under  Diocletian,  before  that 
Emperor  had  openly  declared  his  mind  to 
uproot  the  Christian  religion. 

AQUILINA  (St.)  V.M.  (July  24) 

(3rd  cent.)  This  Saint,  with  her  sister,  St. 
Niceta,  is  commemorated  in  connection  with 
the  Martyr  St.  Christopher,  in  whose  Acts  they 
are  mentioned.  Converted  by  him  to  Chris- 
tianity, they  are  said  to  have  shared  the  glory 
of  his  martyrdom  in  one  of  the  persecutions  of 
the  third  centurv. 

AQUILINUS,    GEMINUS,   EUGENIUS,   MARCIA- 

NUS,  QUINCTUS,  THEODOTUS  &  TRYPHON 

(SS.)  MM.  (Jan.  4) 

(5th  cent.)     A  band  of  Martyrs  put  to  death 

in  Africa  by  the  Arian  Hunneric,  King  of  the 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


AEDWYNE 


Vandals,  about  A. P.  484.     Their  Acts,  now  lost, 
seem  to  have  been  in  the  hands  of  the  Venerable 
Bede  in  the  eighth  century. 
AQUILINUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  29) 

(7th  cent.)  A  priest  who  was  put  to  death 
near  Milan  by  the  Arians.  A  Bavarian  by  birth, 
he  had  refused  more  than  one  Bishopric  out  of 
desire  to  serve  God  in  a  more  lowly  capacity. 
He  was  a  successful  preacher,  and,  his  zeal 
against  the  dangerous  heresy  of  Arianism  having 
drawn  him  to  preach  in  Lombardy,  his  enemies 
sought  and  found  an  opportunity  to  have  him 
assassinated,  about   a.d.    650.     His   relics   are 

AQUILINUS,    GEMINUS,    GELASIUS,    MAGNUS 

and  DONATUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  4) 

(3rd     cent.)     Martyrs     at    Fossombrone     in 

Central  Italy  at  the  close  of  the  third  century. 

No  particulars  are  now  discoverable. 

AQUILINUS  and  VICTORIAN  (SS.)  MM.   (May  16) 

(Date  unknown.)    Martyrs  in  the  Province  of 

Isauria  (Asia  Minor),  and  as  such  registered  in 

the  Martyrology  of  Venerable  Bede.     But  we 

have  neither  date  nor  other  particulars. 

AQUILINUS  (St.)  M.  (May  17) 

See  SS.  HEBADIUS,  PAUL,    &c. 

AQUILINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  19) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Prankish  nobleman  who 
fought  under  King  Clovis  II  against  the 
Visigoths.  On  his  return  from  this  war  he 
and  his  wife  agreed  to  separate  and  to  devote 
themselves  to  the  care  of  the  sick,  upon  whom 
they  proposed  to  expend  all  their  wealth.  On 
the  death  of  St.  JStherius,  Aquilinus  was 
chosen  Bishop  of  Evreux  and  governed  that 
Diocese  with  great  zeal  for  forty-two  years. 
He  assisted  at  the  Council  of  Rouen  under 
St.  Ansbert,  and  died  about  the  year  690, 
having  for  a  year  or  two  previously  been 
afflicted  M'ith  blindness. 

ARABIA  (MARTYRS  OF).  (Feb.  23) 

(4th  cent.)  In  Arabia,  as  in  other  countries, 
very  many  Christians  suffered  death  for  their 
religion  at  the  close  of  the  third  and  beginning 
of  the  fourth  century.  Their  number,  much 
less  their  names,  do  not  seem  to  have  been 
entered  in  any  authentic  register.  They  are, 
however,  commemorated  liturgically  on  Febru- 
ary 23rd,  and  have  been  so  honoured  from 
ancient  times.  By  the  term  Arabia  is  here 
understood,  conformably  to  the  usage  of  the 
period,  the  countries,  mainly  desert,  east  of 
the  Jordan,  and,  again,  the  mountainous  dis- 
tricts south  of  the  Dead  Sea. 

ARABIA  (St.)  M.  (March  13) 

See  SS.  THEUSITA,  HORRES,    &c. 

ARATUS,  FORTUNATUS,  FELIX,  SILVIUS  and 
VITALIS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  21) 

(Date  unknown.)  St.  Arator  was  a  priest 
of  Alexandria  in  Egypt,  put  to  death  with  the 
other  Christians  named  above,  in  one  of  the 
earlier  persecutions.  No  particulars  are  now 
extant. 

ARBOGASTES  (St.)  Bp.  (July  21) 

(7th  cent.)  Though  claimed  as  their  com- 
patriot both  by  the  Irish  and  by  the  Scotch, 
he  is  described  in  his  Life  as  a  noble  of  Aquitaine, 
who,  taking  to  the  life  of  a  hermit,  passed  several 
years  in  a  solitary  cave  in  Alsace.  In  A. P.  660, 
King  Dagobert  II  insisted  on  his  accepting 
the  Bishopric  of  Strasbourg.  St.  Arbogastus 
was  remarkable  as  a  Bishop,  and  the  object 
even  in  life  of  intense  popular  veneration. 
Among  the  many  miracles  related  as  wroueht 
by  him  is  the  raising  again  to  life  of  one  "of 
the  King's  sons,  who  had  been  accidentally 
killed  while  hunting.  The  Saint  died  in  the 
year  678,  and  was  at  his  own  request  at  first 
interred  in  the  place  set  apart  for  the  burial 
of  criminals.  A  church  was  soon  built  over  his 
tomb.  In  art,  St.  Arbogastus  is  usually  repre- 
sented as  walking  dry-shod  over  a  river. 

ARCADIUS  (St.)  M.  (.Ian.  12) 

(4th  cent.)     A  prominent  citizen  of  Caesarea 

in  Mauritania  (near  Algiers),  who,  after  having 


been   savagely   mutilated,    was   put   to   death 
in  the  persecution  under  Diocletian,  or  rather 
under    his    colleague    Maximianus    Herculeus, 
about  A.D.  302. 
ARCADIUS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (March  4) 

See  SS.  BASIL,  EUGENIUS,    &c. 
ARCADIUS,     PASCHASIUS,     PROBUS,     EUTY- 

CHIAN  and  PAULILLUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  13) 

(5th  cent.)  Spaniards  who  suffered  death 
for  the  Catholic  Faith  in  Africa,  whither  they 
had  been  deported  by  the  Arian  Genseric, 
King  of  the  Vandals.  Paulillus,  a  child, 
younger  brother  of  SS.  Paschasius  and  Euty- 
chian,  though  not  put  to  death,  but  only 
scourged  and  sold  into  slavery,  is  reckoned 
like  the  others  among  the  Martyrs.  These 
Saints  are  regarded  as  the  Proto-Martyrs  of  the 
Vandal  persecution.  Hence  Honoratus,  Bishop 
of  Constantine,  in  a  letter  to  Arcadius,  addresses 
him  by  the  title  of  "  Standard-Bearer  of  the 
Faith."  The  year  437  is  given  as  the  date  of 
their  martyrdom. 
*ARCHELAA  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  VV.MM.  (Jan.  18) 

(3rd  cent.)  Three  Christian  maidens  put 
to  the  torture  and  afterwards  beheaded  at 
Nola  in  the  south  of  Italy  (a.d.  285),  at  the 
very  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Diocletian,  and, 
it  would  appear,  without  his  express  sanction, 
but  in  virtue  of  the  persecuting  edicts  of  former 
Emperors. 
ARCHELAUS,    CYRILLUS    and    PHOTIUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (March  4) 

(Date  unknown.)     Nothing  is  known  of  these 
Saints  beyond  the  fact  of  the  insertion  of  their 
names  in  the  Roman  and  other  Martyrologies. 
ARCHELAUS,    QUIRICUS    and    MAXIMUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  23) 

(3rd  cent.)  Archelaus  was  a  deacon  ;  Maxi- 
mus,  a  priest ;  and  Quiricus,  or  Quiriacus,  a 
Bishop.  They  suffered  death  for  their  Faith 
in  Christ,  at  Ostia,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tiber, 
in  one  of  the  persecutions,  about  the  middle  of 
the  third  century.  Their  names  appear  in  all 
the  ancient  Martyrologies.  They  seem  to  have 
been  scourged  and  beheaded  without  any  of  the 
horrible  and  exquisite  tortures  to  which  Chris- 
tians were  often  subjected,  even  in  defiance 
of  the  Imperial  Law  ordering  simple  decapita- 
tion. With  St.  Archelaus  and  the  two  men- 
tioned above,  there  were  also  a  certain  number 
of  laymen  who  suffered  with  them. 
ARCHELAUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  26) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Cascus  (Charchar) 
in  Mesopotamia,  well  known  for  his  pastoral 
zeal  and  for  his  talents  and  eloquence.  A  widely 
propagated  story  has  it  that,  about  A.D.  250, 
St.  Archelaus  held  a  public  dispute  with 
the  heretic  Manes,  author  of  Manicheeism. 
He  utterly  discomfited  his  adversary ;  but 
the  dispute  was  afterwards  renewed,  always 
with  the  same  result.  St.  Archelaus  has  left 
valuable  writings  on  the  controversy  with  the 
Manichees  ;  and  St.  Jerome  on  that  account 
numbers  him  among  prominent  Ecclesiastical 
writers.  St.  Archelaus  died  about  a.d.  280. 
ARCHIPPUS  (St.)  (March  20) 

(1st  cent.)  A  fellow-worker  with  St.  Paul, 
who  mentions  him  by  name  in  two  of  his 
Epistles  (Philem.  2;  Col.  iv.  17).  Greek 
tradition  places  him  among  Christ's  seventy- 
two  disciples.  Again,  it  was  an  opinion  popular 
in  early  and  mediaeval  times  that  he  was  the 
first  Bishop  of  the  Colossians. 
ARCONTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  5) 

See  SS.  QUINCTIUS,  ARCONTIUS,    &c. 
ARDALION  (St.)  M.  (April  14) 

(4th  cent.)  An  actor  whose  mimicry  of  the 
Christian  Mysteries  was  very  popular  with 
Pagan  audiences.  During  a  performance  in  a 
city  in  Asia  Minor,  he  suddenly  proclaimed 
himself  a  Cliristian  and  was  roasted  alive  in  the 
public  square  (A. P.  300). 
*ARDWYNE  (St.)  Conf.  (July  28) 

(7th  cent.)    He  with  his  fellow-countrymen 
from  England,  SS.  Gerard,  Fulk  and  Bernard, 

29 


AREGLOE 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


while  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome,  was  carried  off 
by  death  in  the  south  of  Italy.  The  date  is 
probably  some  time  in  the  seventh  century  ; 
but  even  the  most  scientific  research,  carried  out 
carefully  in  recent  times,  has  failed  to  elucidate 
the  story  of  these  Saints.  St.  Ardwyne  is  vener- 
ated as  Patron  Saint  of  the  town  of  Ceprano. 
AREGLOE  (St.)  Bp.  (March  17) 

Otherwise  St.  AGRICOLA,  which  see. 
ARESIUS,  ROGATUS  and  OTHERS         (June  10) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  unknown.)  A  band  of  seventeen 
African  Martyrs,  particulars  concerning  whom 
have  been  lost.  Some  Martyrologies  class  them 
with  the  Roman  Martyrs,  Basilides  and  others, 
commemorated  on  the  same  day. 
ARETHAS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  1) 

(Date  unknown.)  St.  Arethas,  with  five 
hundred  and  four  others,  according  to  the 
Roman  Martyrology,  suffered  at  Rome.  They 
were  first  mentioned  by  TJsuard,  and  he  was 
copied  by  Baronius  ;  but  they  are  not  found 
in  more  ancient  documents.  Some  are  of 
opinion  that  the  Saints  of  the  same  name 
(Oct.  23)  martyred  at  Magran  or  Negran  in 
Arabia  Felix  (Aden)  are  meant. 
ARETHAS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  23) 

(6th  cent.)  St.  Arethas  was  the  Governor 
of  the  town  of  Negran  in  Arabia  Felix  (Aden), 
and  with  him  are  commemorated  innumerable 
Christians  of  both  sexes  who  Avere  the  victims 
of  the  persecution  of  a  Jewish  King  of  the 
Homerites,  by  name  Dunaan  or  Nowas  (A.D. 
523).  A  priest,  or  Bishop,  by  name  Simeon, 
wrote  a  history  of  this  persecution  a  year  after 
the  martyrdom  of  St.  Arethas.  He  describes 
the  Siege  of  Negran  by  Dhu-Nwas  and  the 
burning  of  the  Christians  and  their  churches. 
Some  of  the  women  (he  says)  were  being 
beheaded,  when  a  little  boy  professed  his  wish 
to  die  with  his  mother,  Ruoma,  and  was  slain 
with  her. 
ARETIUS    (ARECIUS,    AREGIUS)    and   DACIAN 

(SS.)  MM.  (June  4) 

(Date  unknown.)  Beyond  mention  in  the 
Martyrologies  of  the  martyrdom  of  a  St.  Aretius 
at  Rome,  with  a  St.  Dacian,  and  their  burial 
in  the  Catacombs  on  the  Appian  Way,  nothing 
else  is  known.  A  St.  Pictus  is  venerated  with 
them  in  places. 
♦ARGARIARGA  (St.)  V.  (Sept.  9) 

(7th  cent.)     An  Irish  Saint,  otherwise  known 
as  St.  Osanna,  who  led  a  holy  life  in  Brittany, 
and  whose  relics  were  enshrined  at  St.  Denis 
near  Paris. 
ARGEUS,  NARCISSUS  and  MARCELLINUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Jan.  2) 

(4th  cent.)  Three  brothers  who  suffered 
martyrdom  at  Tomis  in  Pontus  (on  the  Black 
Sea),  under  the  Emperor  Licinius,  who  obliged 
all  his  soldiers  to  offer  sacrifice  to  the  gods. 
Because  of  their  refusal,  the  three  brothers 
were  put  to  death  (A.D.  320).  Argaeus  and 
Narcissus  were  beheaded  and  Marcellinus  was 
cast  into  the  sea. 
ARGIMIRUS  (St.)  M.  (June  28) 

(9th  cent.)     A  monk  of  Cordova  in  Spain, 

who  was  martyred  during  the  persecution  under 

the  Arab  domination,  A.D.  856,  or,  according 

to  St.  Eulogius,  Archbishop  of  Toledo,  A.D.  858. 

ARIADNA  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  17) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Christian  woman,  slave  of  a 
prince  or  noble  in  Phrygia  (Asia  Minor).  She 
was  flogged  for  refusing  to  join  in  the  heathen 
rites  celebrated  on  the  anniversary  of  her 
master's  birthday,  but  fled  from  his  house  to 
the  neighbouring  hill  country.  She  evaded 
her  pursuers  until  a  rock  miraculously  opening 
offered  her  a  place  of  refuge,  closing  again  alter 
she  had  entered,  and  thus  procuring  for  her 
both  a.  tomb  and  the  crown  of  martyrdom 
(A.D.  130). 
ARIANUS,    THEOTYCHUS    and    OTHERS 

(SS.)  MM.  (March  8) 

(3rd    cent.)    Arianus,    Governor    of    Thebes 
30 


(Egypt),  with  Theotychus  and  three  others, 
was  converted  to  Christianity  on  witnessing  at 
Alexandria  the  martyrdom  of  St.  Apollonius 
and  St.  Philemon.  The  judge  ordered  them  to 
be  drowned  in  the  sea.  There  is  a  legend  that 
their  bodies  were  brought  ashore  by  dolphins. 
♦ARILDA  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  30) 

(Date    uncertain.)     A    Christian    maiden    in 

Gloucestershire,    murdered   in   defence   of   her 

chastity.     The  church  at  Oldbury  is  dedicated 

in  her  name. 

ARISTAEUS  and  ANTONINUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  3) 

(Date  unknown.)  Though  the  Roman  Mar- 
tyrology, following  those  of  Bede,  Ado  and 
Usuard,  describes  St.  Aristaeus  as  Bishop  of 
Capua  in  Italy,  modern  investigation  inclines 
to  identify  him  with  St.  Aristaeon,  an  Egyptian 
Martyr,  honoured  by  the  Greeks  on  Sept.  3. 
Similarly,  the  St.  Antoninus,  a  child-martyr 
associated  with  him,  may  be  no  other  than  the 
St.  Antoninus  of  either  Pamiers  in  France  or 
of  Apamaea  in  Syria,  commemorated  in  the 
Roman  Martyrology  on  Sept.  2,  though  the 
latter  is  usually  said  to  have  been  a  priest. 
At  Capua  there  is  no  record  of  either  Saint. 
ARISTARCHUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Aug.  4) 

(1st  cent.)  A  native  of  Thessalonica  and  a 
companion  of  St.  Paul  in  his  travels  (Acts  xx,  1 ; 
xxvii.  2).  He  was  seized  with  the  Apostle  at 
Ephesus,  and  shared  his  imprisonment.  He 
is  also  described  as  his  fellow-worker  (Philem. 
24).  Tradition  makes  of  him  the  first  Bishop 
of  Thessalonica.  Pseudo-Dorotheus  has  it  that 
he  was  beheaded  in  Rome  at  the  same  time  as 
St.  Paul. 
ARISTIDES  (St.)  (Aug.  31) 

(2nd  cent.)  Both  Eusebius  and  St.  Jerome 
speak  of  St.  Aristides  as  an  early  Christian 
writer  and  an  eloquent  philosopher,  who,  like 
his  contemporary  Quadratus,  presented  to  the 
Emperor  Hadrian  an  Apologv  for  the  Christian 
Faith  (A.D.  133).  He  is  cited  by  Usuard 
(in  his  Martyrology  for  Oct.  3)  for  his  account 
of  the  Passion  of  St.  Dionysius  the  Areopagite. 
This  work,  which  was  treasured  by  the  Athenians 
as  a  noble  monument  of  antiquity,  is  now 
apparently  lost. 
ARISTION  (St.)  (Feb.  22) 

(1st  cent.)  One  of  the  seventy-two  disciples 
of  Our  Lord.  He  is  mentioned  in  the  Acts  of 
St.  Barnabas  as  a  companion  of  the  deacon 
Timon,  in  the  latter's  Apostolic  labours  in  the 
Island  of  Cyprus.  According  to  the  Greek 
Menology  St.  Aristion  was  martyred  at  Alexan- 
dria, ;  according  to  others,  at  Salamis  in  Cyprus. 
ARISTOBULUS  (St.)  M.  (March  15) 

(1st  cent.)  Said  by  some  to  have  been  one 
of  the  seventy-two  disciples  (Luke  x.)  and  the 
brother  of  St.  Barnabas.  He  is  referred  to 
by  St.  Paul  (Rom.,  xvi.  11).  Others  make  him 
one  and  the  same  as  Zebedee,  Father  of  St. 
James  and  St.  John  the  Evangelist.  Again, 
there  is  a  legend  that  he  was  consecrated  a 
Bishop  by  St.  Peter  or  St.  Paul  and  sent  to 
Great  Britain,  where  he  was  martyred.  But 
this  last  storv  at  least  has  no  foundation. 
ARISTON,     CRESCENTIANUS,     EUTYCHIANUS, 

URBAN,  VITALIS,  JUSTUS,  FELICISSIMUS, 

FELIX,   MARCIA   and   SYMPHOROSA   (SS.) 

MM.  (July  2) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  band  of  Christian  Martyrs 
put  to  death  in  the  Campagna  (Southern  Italy) 
at  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  the  persecuting 
Emperor,  Diocletian  (A.D.  285).  Nothing  more 
is  known  about  them. 
ARISTONICUS  (St.)  M.  (April  19) 

See  SS.  HERMOGENES,  CAIUS,    &c. 
*ARMAGILLUS  (ARMEL,  ERMEL,  ERME) 

(St.)Conf.  (Aug.  16) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Briton,  related  to  St.  Paul 
de  Leon.  A  Cornish  church  is  dedicated  to 
St.  Armel.  His  sphere  of  work  was  chiefly, 
however,  in  Brittany,  where  Plou-Ermel 
perpetuates  his  holy  memory.  A.D.  562  is  given 
as  the  date  of  his  death. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ARTHEN 


*ARMEL  (St.)  Conf.  (Aug.  16) 

Otherwise  St.  ARMAGILLTJS,  which  see. 
ARMENTARIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  30) 

(8th  cent.)  He  succeeded  St.  Damian 
(A.D.  711)  in  the  See  of  Pavia  (Italy).  During 
his  Episcopate,  Pope  Constantine  declared  the 
See  of  Pavia  to  have  always  been  immediately 
subject  to  the  Holy  See,  and  not  to  the  Metro- 
politan See  of  Milan,  as  advanced  by  St.  Bene- 
dict, Archbishop  of  Milan.  St.  Axmentarius 
died  A.D.  732.  His  Acts  were  lost  or  destroyed, 
but  his  body  was  preserved  in  the  principal 
church  of  Pavia. 
*ARNOUL  (ARNULPHUS)  (St.)  M.  (July  18) 

(6th    cent.)     A    missionary    to    the    Franks, 

contemporary   of   St.    Remigius.     He   suffered 

martyrdom  between  Paris  and  Chartres  about 

A.D.  534. 

ARMOGASTES,  MASCULAS,   ARCHIMINUS  and 

SATURUS  (SS.)  MM.  (March  29) 

(5th  cent.)  African  victims  of  the  Arian 
persecution  under  Genseric,  King  of  the  Vandals. 
We  have  particulars  concerning  them  from  the 
pen  of  Victor  Vitensis,  a  trustworthy  writer  of 
the  following  century.  They  were  high-born 
nobles  at  the  Royal  Court.  Armogastes  was 
put  to  the  torture,  but  afterwards  made  to 
languish  to  death  in  slavery  "  lest  the  Romans 
should  venerate  him  as  a  Martyr."  The  other 
two  were  beheaded  about  A.D.  464. 

(See  Note  on  St.  MASCULAS.) 
ARMON  (St.)  Bp.  (July  31) 

Otherwise  St.    GERMANUS  of  AUXERRE, 
which  see. 
♦ARNOLD  (St.)  Conf.  (July  8) 

(9th  cent.)  A  Greek  by  birth,  attached  to 
the  Court  of  the  Emperor  Charlemagne.  He 
is  described  as  a  model  of  Christian  virtue, 
and  has  been  venerated  above  all  for  his 
devotedness  to  the  poor.  He  died  shortly 
after  the  year  800,  and  has  left  his  name  to  the 
village,  Arnold -Villiers. 
ARNOUL  (ARNULPHUS)  (St.)  Bp.  (July  18) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Prankish  nobleman,  born  near 
Nancy  in  Lorraine,  and  educated  in  piety  and 
learning  by  Gondulphus,  a  councillor  of  King 
Theodebert  II.  He  distinguished  himself  as 
a  soldier  and  married  Doda,  a  lady  of  quality, 
by  whom  he  had  two  sons,  Clodulph  (Cloud) 
and  Ansegisius.  When  the  See  of  Metz  became 
vacant  in  the  year  613,  clergy  and  people 
united  in  demanding  Arnoul  (whose  wife  had 
just  taken  the  veil  in  a  convent  at  Treves)  as 
their  Bishop.  He  governed  his  Diocese  with 
zeal  and  success  for  about  nine  years,  and 
during  part  of  that  time  acted  also  as  Duke 
of  Austrasia  for  King  Clotaire  II.  In  his  old 
age  he  resigned  all  his  dignities  and  retired  to 
a  cave  in  the  Vosges  mountains,  where  he  died 
attended  by  St.  Romaric  (A.D.  641).  He  seems 
to  have  been  of  the  Blood  Royal  of  the  Mero- 
vingians, and  it  is  asserted  that  through  his  son 
Ansegisius  he  transmitted  it  to  the  succeeding 
French  dynasty,  that  of  the  Carolingians. 
ARNULPHUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  15) 

(11th  cent.)  A  nobleman  of  Brabant  who 
had  distinguished  himself  as  a  soldier,  before 
entering  the  Ecclesiastical  life.  After  some 
years  passed  in  a  monasterv  at  Soissons,  he  was 
appointed  Bishop  of  that  See.  He  found, 
however,  so  many  disorders  in  Church  discipline 
obtaining  among  his  flock,  that  his  efforts  to 
cope  with  them  literally  wore  him  out,  and 
in  the  end  he  was  compelled  to  retire  to  the 
Abbey  of  Aldenberg.  There  he  died  and  was 
buried  A.D.  1087. 
*ARNULPH  (St.)  (Aug.  22) 

(9th  cent.)  Possibly  a  Huntingdonshire  Saint 
of  British  origin  who  may  have  lived  in  this 
country  in  the  ninth  century.  But  history  is 
silent  concerning  him  ;  and  it  is  not  improbable 
that  he  is  no  other  than  St.  Arnulph,  Bishop 
of  Metz,  the  veneration  of  a  portion  of  whose 
relics  at  Arnulphsbury.  or  Eynesbury,  in  Hunt- 
ingdonshire, may  have  given  rise  to  the  legend 


that  another   St.   Arnulph  lived  and  died   in 
England. 
ARPINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  9) 

Otherwise  St.  AGRIPPINUS,  which  see. 
ARSACIUS  (URSACIUS)  (St.)  Conf.  (Aug.  16) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Persian  by  birth  and  a  soldier 
by  profession,  who  on  his  conversion  to  the 
Faith  retired  to  a  high  tower  overlooking  the 
city  of  Nicomedia,  where  he  lived  the  life  of  a 
solitary  and  became  famous  on  account  of  his 
gifts  of  miracles  and  prophecy.  He  is  said 
to  have  forewarned  the  inhabitants  of  the 
destruction  of  their  city  by  the  earthquake  of 
A.D.  358.  Some  survivors  found  Arsacius  dead 
in  his  tower  in  the  attitude  of  prayer. 

ARSENIUS  (St.)  Conf.  (July  19) 

(5th  cent.)  Sprung  from  a  rich  and  noble 
Roman  family,  his  abilities  and  love  of  work 
soon  placed  him  in  the  forefront  of  the  learned 
men  of  his  age.  The  Emperor  Theodosius 
chose  him  as  tutor  of  his  two  sons,  the  future 
Emperors  Arcadius  and  Honorius.  Declining 
the  honours  which  were  offered  to  him  he  bade 
farewell  to  the  world  and  retired  to  the  desert 
of  Nitria  in  Lower  Egypt.  There,  on  account 
of  his  continuous  prayer  and  severe  fasting, 
he  became  an  object  of  wonder  even  to  his  fellow- 
hermits.  Later  he  changed  his  residence  to  a 
cell  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Memphis,  where  he 
died  in  his  ninety-fifth  year  (a.d.  450). 

ARSENIUS  (ST.)  M.  (Dec.  14) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Martyr  of  the  Decian  persecu- 
tion (A.D.  250).  St.  Dionysius  of  Alexandria 
in  a  letter  to  Fabius  of  Antioch  describes  the 
Passion  of  this  Holy  Martyr  and  of  SS.  Heron 
and  others  who  suffered  with  him.  He  is  there 
named  Ater,  changed  by  later  biographers  into 
Arsenius  and  Arsinus.  He  was  an  Egyptian, 
and  with  the  Christians,  his  companions,  was 
burned  to  death  at  Alexandria.  A  Christian 
boy,  fifteen  years  old,  was  arrested  at  the  same 
time,  but  only  scourged,  being  then  let  go  on 
account  of  his  vouth. 

*ARTEMAS  (St.)  *M.  (Jan.  25) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  Christian  bey  of  a  town 
near  Naples,  who  in  one  of  the  first  centuries 
was  on  account  of  his  religion  with  the  con- 
nivance of  those  in  authority,  murdered  by  his 
schoolfellows. 

ARTEMIUS,  CANDIDA  and  PAULINA    (June  6) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(4th  cent.)  Artemius,  gaoler  of  one  of  the 
Roman  prisons,  with  his  wife  Candida  and 
daughter  Paulina,  was  converted  to  Christianity 
by  St.  Peter  the  Exorcist,  and  baptised  by 
St.  Marcellinus.  By  order  of  Serenus  the 
judge,  Artemius  was  beheaded,  and  his  wife 
and  daughter  buried  under  a  pile  of  stones 
(A.D.  302). 

ARTEMIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  20) 

(4th  cent.)  One  of  the  soldier-martyrs  of 
the  time  of  the  Emperor  Julian  the  Apostate, 
by  whose  order  he  was  beheaded  at  Antioch 
(A.D.  363),  after  having  been  subjected  to 
various  forms  of  torture.  He  was  a  veteran 
officer  and  had  been  placed  in  high  command 
by  Constantine  the  Great.  He  was  specifically 
charged  before  Julinn  with  having  broken  down 
the  statue  of  an  idol,  something  like  which  the 
veteran  may  likely  enough  have  been  guilty 
of  in  his  irritation  at  the  cruel  persecution  to 
which  his  fellow-Christians  were  subjected. 

ARTEMON  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  8) 

(4th  cent.;  A  priest  of  Laodicea,  burned 
to  death  under  Diocletian  (A.D.  305).  There 
is  a  good  deal  of  dispute  as  to  which  of  the 
several  towns  bearing  the  name  of  Laodicea, 
St.  Artemon  belongs.  The  probabilities  fire 
in  fovour  of  Laodicea  in  Phrygia. 

♦ARTHEN  (St.) 

(Date  uncertain.)  This  Saint  seems  untrace- 
able. He  appears  to  be  one  and  the  same  with 
the  St.  Arvan  or  A  roan,  who  has  left  his  name 
at  St.  Aroans  and  Cwmcarvan  in  Monmouth- 
shire.    Stanton's  Mcnology,  following  Challoner, 

31 


ARWALD 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


identifies   St.   Arvan  with  Marnanus,   a   com- 
panion of  SS.  Banka  (or  Breaca)  and  Sennen 
(6th  cent.) 
♦ARWALD  (SS.)  MM.  (April  22) 

(7th  cent.)  Two  brothers,  sons  of  Arwald, 
a  prince  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  whose  proper 
names  are  lost.  They  were  put  to  death  by 
the  soldiers  of  King  Ceadwalla,  then  a  Pagan, 
on  the  morrow  of  their  baptism  (a.d.  686). 
ASAPH  (ASA)  (St.)  Bp.  (May  1) 

(6th  cent.)  The  first  Welsh  Bishop  of  Llan- 
elwy,  now  St.  Asaph's,  in  Flintshire.  He 
entered  the  monastery  built  by  St.  Kentigern 
of  Glasgow,  at  the  confluence  of  the  Elwy  and 
the  Clwydd  (A.D.  545),  and  was  appointed  his 
successor  as  Abbot  and  Bishop  when  St.  Kenti- 
gern returned  to  Scotland  (a.d.  573).  St. 
Asaph  governed  a  monastery  of  nearly  one 
thousand  monks,  some  of  whom  preached  and 
officiated  in  the  church,  while  the  rest  laboured 
for  the  sustenance  of  the  community  and  for 
the  civilisation  of  the  neighbourhood.  The 
exact  date  of  St.  Asaph's  death  is  not  known. 
♦ASICUS  (St.)  Bp.  (April  27) 

(5th  cent.)  One  of  the  earliest  disciples  of 
St.  Patrick  in  Ireland.  The  Apostle  placed 
him  at  the  head  of  the  monastery  and  Diocese 
of  Elphin,  of  which  he  is  venerated  as  the 
Patron-Saint.  He  lived  to  a  great  age,  dying 
after  the  year  500,  having  passed  the  evening 
of  his  life  as  a  hermit.  He  is  famous  for  his 
extraordinary  skill  as  a  metal-worker,  and 
some  remarkable  specimens  of  his  handiwork 
yet  remain. 
ASCLAS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  23) 

(4th  cent.)  He  suffered  in  the  persecution 
under  Diocletian.  After  being  put  to  severe 
torture  he  was  thrown  into  the  Nile  at  Antinoe 
in  Egypt.  His  judge  thereupon  i3  said  to  have 
become  a  Christian  and  a  Martyr. 
ASCLEPIADES  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Oct.  18) 

(3rd  cent.)  According  to  Eusebius  of  Caesa- 
rea,  St.  Asclepiades  was  the  successor  of 
St.  Serapion  in  the  See  of  Antioch  (a.d.  211). 
He  is  also  mentioned  by  St.  Jerome,  and  appears 
to  have  occupied  the  See  of  Antioch  until  his 
death  in  a.d.  217.  No  details  are  given  of  the 
manner  of  his  death  and  many  are  of  opinion 
that  he  gained  the  title  of  Martyr  by  reason 
of  the  sufferings  he  underwent  during  the 
persecution  of  Severus  and  Macrinus. 
ASCLEPIADOTUS  (ASCLEPIADORUS)  (Sept.  15) 

(St.)  M. 

See  SS.  MAXIMUS,  THEODORE,    &c. 
ASELLA  (St.)  V.  (Dec.  6) 

(5th  cent.)  Her  life  virtues  and  austerity 
are  described  in  the  Epistles  of  St.  Jerome, 
where  we  are  told  that  at  the  age  of  twelve 
years  she  began  to  dedicate  herself  entirely  to 
the  service  of  God.  The  holy  Doctor  calls  her 
"  a  flower  of  the  Lord."  Palladius  speaks  of 
having  visited  her  in  Rome  (a.d.  405),  where 
she  was  in  charge  of  a  community  of  nuns. 
ASPREN  (St.)  Bp,  (Aug.  3) 

(1st  cent.)  Although  mention  is  not  made 
of  this  Saint  in  the  ancient  Menologies,  tradition 
from  time  immemorial  and  the  records  of  the 
Neapolitan  Church  abundantly  prove  his  cultus 
from  the  Apostolic  Age.  It  is  related  that 
St.  Peter  parsing  through  Naples  on  his  way 
from  Antioch  to  Rome,  cured  St.  Aspren  of  a 
serious  malady,  instructed  and  baptised  him, 
and  on  a  return  visit  confided  to  him  the  care 
of  the  Church  in  Naples.  His  conversion, 
miracles  and  other  works  were  depicted  on  the 
walls  of  the  chapel  where  he  was  interred. 
ASTERIA  (HESTERIA)  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  10) 

(4th  cent.)  A  holy  Martyr,  held  in  great 
veneration  from  time  immemorial  at  Bergamo 
in  Lombardy.  An  ancient  epitaph  describes 
her  as  having  been  beheaded  as  a  Cliristian  under 
Diocletian,  when  she  had  already  reached  her 
sixtieth  year.  The  old  MSS.  of  Bergamo  tell 
of  her  Christian  parentage  and  education,  and 
of  her  association  with  St.  Grata  in  the  burial 

32 


of  St.  Alexander,  a  martyred  soldier  of  the 
Theban  Legion ;  also  of  her  own  death  and 
burial  in  the  church  of  St.  Alexander  (a.d.  307). 

ASTERIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  3) 

See  SS.  MARINUS  and  ASTERIUS. 

ASTERIUS  (St.)  M.  (May  20) 

(3rd  cent.)  Probably  a  Syrian.  He  was 
converted  to  Christianity  together  with  a  fellow 
executioner  on  beholding  the  invincible  fortitude 
of  the  holy  Martyr  St.  Thalalaeus,  a  Christian 
physician,  whom  they  were  employed  to  put 
to  death.  They  themselves,  with  several  other 
Christian  converts,  suffered  martyrdom  at 
Edessa  in  Mesopotamia  under  the  Emperor 
Numerian  (A.D.  284). 

ASTERIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (June  10) 

(4th  cent.)  Formerly  an  Arian,  who  after  his 
conversion,  became  Bishop  of  Petra  in  Arabia, 
and  gained  the  hatred  of  the  heretics  by  pub- 
lishing the  story  of  their  intrigues  at  the  Council 
of  Sardica  (a.d.  347).  Banished  to  Africa  by 
the  Emperor  Constantius,  but  recalled  by  Julian 
the  Apostate,  he  assisted  at  the  Council  of 
Alexandria  (a.d.  362),  and  was  chosen  to  be 
the  bearer  of  the  letter  from  the  Council  to  the 
Church  of  Antioch.  He  seems  to  have  died  a 
year  or  two  later. 

ASTERIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  23) 

(3rd  cent.)  Three  brothers  who  were  de- 
nounced by  their  step-mother  as  Christians 
to  the  Pro-consul  Lysias  at  ^Egea,  a  seaport 
in  Cilicia  (Asia  Minor).  Two  pious  women, 
Domnina  and  Theonilla,  were  at  the  same  time 
cited  before  the  tribunal.  After  subjecting 
the  brothers,  Claudius,  Asterius  and  Neon, 
to  the  most  excruciating  tortures,  Lysias 
ordered  them  to  be  crucified  outside  the  walls 
of  the  city,  and  their  remains  to  be  left  to  the 
birds  of  prey  of  the  neighbourhood.  Theonilla 
and  Domnina,  after  undergoing  many  indig- 
nities, were  drowned  (a.d.  285). 

ASTERIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  21) 

(3rd  cent.)  Registered  in  several  ancient 
Martyrologies  on  Oct.  19,  but  in  the  more  recent 
ones  on  Oct.  21,  he  is  described  as  a  Roman 
priest  ordained  by  Pope  St.  Callistus,  and  who, 
for  having  secretly  buried  the  body  of  that 
Martyr  Pope,  was  cast  into  the  Tiber  at  Ostia 
by  order  of  the  Emperor  Alexander  (a.d.  222). 
But  the  Christians  recovered  his  body  and 
interred  it  in  the  tomb  of  other  Martyrs  at 
Ostia.  In  the  year  1159  their  relics  were  more 
suitably  enshrined  in  the  Church  of  St.  Aurea, 
then  just  constructed  in  the  partially  rebuilt 
city. 

♦ASTERIUS  of  AMASEA  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  30) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Father  of  the  Church,  some  of 
whose  eloquent  sermons  are  still  extant.  He 
was  Bishop  of  Amasea  in  Pontus  (Asia  Minor), 
came  unhurt  through  the  persecution  under 
Julian  the  Apostate,  and  was  still  alive  in  a.d. 
490. 

ASTIUS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (July  7) 

See  SS.  PEREGRINUS,  LUCIAN,    &c. 

ASYNCRITUS  (St.)  Bp.  (April  8) 

(First  cent.)  Bishop  of  Hyrocania  on  the 
Caspian  Sea,  said  to  have  been  one  of  the 
seventy-two  disciples  chosen  by  Christ  and 
mentioned  by  St.  Paul  in  his  Epistle  to  the 
Romans  (xvi.  11,  14).  With  him  the  Church 
commemorates  St.  Herodion,  Bishop  of  Tarsus 
in  Cilicia,  and  St.  Phlegon,  Bishop  of  Marathon 
(Greece). 

ATHAN  (St.). 

Place-name  near  Pontyprydd.     No  record. 

ATHANASIA  (St.)  Widow.  (Aug.  14) 

(9th  cent.)  Her  parents  belonged  to  an 
ancient  Greek  family,  and  she  was  born  in  the 
Island  of  iEgina.  Her  first  husband  died  on 
the  battlefield  in  a  war  against  the  Saracens  ; 
but  her  second  husband  set  her  free  by  himself 
entering  a  monastery.  She  at  first  turned  her 
own  home  into  a  convent,  but,  soon,  desirous  of 
greater  retirement,  built  the  Abbey  of  Timia, 
where,  under  the  guidance  of  a  saintly  priest, 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ATTICUS 


she  soon  gathered  a  considerable  community. 
Her  virtues  and  wisdom  were  such  that  the 
Empress  Theodora  summoned  her  to  Constan- 
tinople. There  she  remained  seven  years, 
but  returned  to  die  at  Timia  (a.d.  860). 
ATHANASIA  (St.)  (Oct.  9) 

(5th  cent.)  The  wife  of  St.  Andronicus, 
who,  like  him,  on  the  death  of  their  children, 
embraced  the  life  of  a  solitary  in  the  desert 
of  Scete  in  Egypt.  In  some  Greek  accounts 
she  is  said  to  have  concealed  her  sex,  which  was 
revealed  after  death  by  a  paper  which  she  left 
for  her  husband,  who,  without  recognising  her, 
was  present  at  her  deathbed  (about  a.d.  450). 
ATHANASIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  3) 

See  SS.  ZOSIMUS  and  ATHANASIUS. 
ATHANASIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  Doctor  of  (May  2) 

the  Church 

(4th  cent.)  The  famous  champion  of  the 
Catholic  Faith  in  the  Blessed  Trinity,  against 
Arius,  who  denied  the  Divinity  of  Christ  and 
was  upheld  by  powerful  partisans.  Born  at 
Alexandria  in  Egypt,  St.  Athanasius  was 
ordained  deacon  by  St.  Alexander,  Patriarch 
of  that  city,  and  succeeded  him  as  Bishop 
(a.d.  326),  having  in  the  previous  year  taken 
part  in  the  great  Council  of  Nicaea.  During 
his  long  Episcopate  his  life  was  frequently  in 
danger,  and  he  had,  at  several  periods,  to  keep 
flying  from  place  to  place.  Eventually  he 
returned  in  triumph  to  his  Church,  and  died 
at  Alexandria,  a.d.  373.  His  piety,  learning 
and  unparalleled  energy  made  of  him  the  most 
conspicuous  figure  of  the  age  in  which  he  lived  ; 
and  he  has  left  many  and  valuable  writings. 
Truly,  as  St.  Gregory  Nazianzen  styles  him, 
was  he  a  "  pillar  of  the  Church." 
ATHANASIUS  (St.)  M.  (July  5) 

(5th  cent.)  A  deacon  of  Jerusalem.  He 
denounced  the  heretic  Theodosius,  who  had 
supplanted  the  Catholic  St.  Juvenal  in  the  See 
of  Jerusalem.  For  his  act  of  zeal  the  good 
deacon  was  seized  by  the  soldiery,  scourged 
and  beheaded  (a.d.  452). 
ATHANASIUS  (St.)  Bp.    '  (July  15) 

(9th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Naples,  known  as 
Athanasius  the  First,  to  distinguish  him  from 
his  unworthy  successor  of  the  same  name. 
His  brother,  Sergius  I,  Duke  of  Naples,  placed 
his  son  under  the  care  of  St.  Athanasius,  but  the 
young  man  at  the  instigation  of  his  wife  and 
courtiers  cast  his  uncle  into  prison.  The  clergy 
and  people  of  Naples  soon  forced  Sergius  to 
release  their  bishop,  but  the  young  Duke 
threatened  him  with  worse  than  imprisonment 
unless  he  abdicated.  The  Emperor  Louis  II 
then  intervened  and  sent  the  Duke  of  Amalfi 
to  conduct  Athanasius  to  a  place  of  safety. 
The  Saint  died  at  Veroli,  and  was  buried  at 
Monte  Cassino  (a.d.  872).  His  body  was  soon 
afterwards  translated  to  the  Cathedral  of  Naples. 
ATHANASIUS,    ANTHUSA    and    OTHERS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  22) 

(3rd  cent.)  St.  Athanasius  was  a  Bishop  of 
Tarsus  in  Asia  Minor,  and  famous  for  the 
holiness  of  his  life.  He  fell  a  victim  to  the 
cruelty  of  the  persecuting  Emperor  Valerian 
(about  a.d.  257).  St.  Anthnsa,  a  wealthy  lady 
of  one  of  the  various  Asiatic  cities  named 
Seleucia,  had  previously  come  to  Tarsus  to  seek 
baptism  at  the  hands  of  St.  Athanasius.  Having 
thus  become  a  Christian,  and  having  on  that 
account  been  driven  out  of  Seleucia.  she  em- 
braced the  life  of  a  solitary  in  the  desert, 
persevering  therein  until  her  death,  twenty- 
three  years  later.  Two  servants  who  had 
«+  ?  u  her  to  Tarsus  found  a  home  with 
8t.  Athanasius,  and  in  the  end  shared  his  crown 
of  martyrdom. 
*ATHELM  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  8) 

(10th  cent.)  The  uncle  of  St.  Dunstan.  He 
was  the  first  Bishop  of  Wells  in  Somerset,  and 
afterwards  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  which 
bee  lie  governed  from  a.d.  914  to  his  death  in 
a.d.  923. 


ATHENODORUS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Oct.  18) 

(3rd  cent.)  The  brother  of  St.  Gregory 
Thaumaturgus,  and  a  native  of  Neo-Caesarea 
in  Cappadocia.  They  were  both  pupils  of 
Origen,  and  together  combated  the  teaching 
of  Paul  of  Samosata  in  the  first  Council  of 
Antioch.  St.  Athenodorus  is  said  to  have  been 
put  to  death  during  the  persecution  of  Aurelian 
about  the  year  269.  No  mention  is  made  of 
the  See  of  which  he  was  Bishop,  but  it  is  com- 
monly supposed  to  have  been  Neo-Caesarea 
itself,  where  he  may  have  succeeded  his  brother. 

ATHENODORUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  11) 

(4th  cent.)  One  of  the  Christian  victims 
immolated  during  the  presidency  of  Eleusius 
in  Mesopotamia,  under  the  Emperor  Diocletian. 
He  survived  many  tortures,  and  was  bound  at 
last  to  the  stake.  But  the  fire  refused  to  burn  ; 
whereupon  the  executioner  was  summoned  to 
behead  him.  However,  the  man  fell  dead  at 
the  feet  of  the  Martyr,  and,  no  substitute  being 
found,  Athenodorus  was  suffered  to  die  in  peace. 
He  passed  away  while  engaged  in  an  ecstasy  of 
prayer,  only  a  few  hours  later  (A.D.  304). 

ATHENOGENES  (St.)  M.  (June  18) 

(2nd  cent.)  An  aged  priest,  who  while  being 
burned  at  the  stake,  somewhere  in  Pontus  (Asia 
Minor),  is  said  to  have  repeated  the  beautiful 
Evening  Hymn  which  he  had  formerly  com- 
posed, and  which  still  forms  a  striking  feature 
in  the  Greek  Vesper  service.  The  date  of  his 
martyrdom  is  given  as  A.D.  196.  St.  Basil 
quotes  him  as  an  authority  on  theological 
questions.  But  there  is  much  obscurity  about 
him.  The  learned  Cardinal  Baronius  goes  so 
far  as  to  think  he  may  be  identical  with  the 
well-known  Christian  writer  Athenagoras. 
St.  Athenogenes  has  also  been  credited  with  the 
composition  of  the  hymn,  Gloria  in  excelsis. 

ATHENOGENES  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (July  16) 

(4th  cent.)    A  Bishop  with  ten  of  his  flock, 

put  to  death  by  the  President  Hirernarchus  at 

Sebaste  in  Armenia  (a.d.  302),  during  the  great 

persecution  under  Diocletian  and  his  colleagues. 

*ATHEUS  (St.)  Conf.  (Dec.  26) 

Otherwise  St.  TATHAI,  which  see. 

*ATHILDA  (St.)  V.M.  (March  27) 

Otherwise  St.  ALKELD,  which  see. 

*ATTALA  (St.)  V.  (Dec.  20) 

(8th  cent.)  A  niece  of  St.  Odilia.  For 
twenty  years  she  was  Abbess  of  a  monastery 
at  Strasburg,  and  venerated  by  all  for  her 
piety,  prudence  and  charity.  She  died  at  the 
age  of  fifty-four,  about  A.D.  741. 

ATTALAS  (St.)  Abbot.  (March  10) 

(7th  cent.)  The  second  Abbot  of  the  famous 
Abbey  of  Bobbio  in  Lombardy,  disciple  and 
successor  of  St.  Columbanus,  whom  he  had 
followed  into  exile  from  Luxeuil,  and  near 
whose  tomb  he  was  buried  (A.D.  627). 

ATTALUS  (St.)  M.  (June  2) 

See  SS.  PHOTINUS,  VETIUS,    &c. 

ATTALUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  31) 

See  SS.  STEPHEN,  PONTIANUS,   &c. 

ATHO  (St.)  Bp.  (May  22) 

(12th  cent.)  Badajoz  in  Spam  and  Florence 
in  Italy  put  forth  rival  claims  to  have  been  the 
birthplace  of  this  Saint.  From  having  been 
Abbot  of  Vallombrosa,  he  was  chosen  Bishop 
of  Pistoia,  also  in  Tuscany,  and  occupied  that 
See  for  twenty  years.  He  died  a.d.  1153. 
He  has  left  a  work  on  the  miracles  and  relics  of 
St.  James  of  Compostella. 

ATHIUS  (ATTUS)  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  1) 

(4th  cent.)  One  of  nine  Christian  husband- 
men, among  whom  Leontius  and  Alexander  are 
also  mentioned  by  name.  They  were  beheaded 
at  Perge  in  Pamphylia  (Asia  Minor)  in  the  great 
persecution  under  Diocletian.  The  fact  that 
these  were  poor  peasants,  quite  uncultured  and 
yet  heroes  in  their  fight  for  Christ,  appears  to 
have  greatly  impressed  their  contemporaries. 

ATTICUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  6) 

(Date     unknown.)     Although     the     Roman 

Martyrology  registers  St.  Atticus  without  giving 

33 


ATTILANUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


him  the  title  of  Martyr,  various  other  reliable 
lists  describe  him  as  a  Martyr  in  Phrygia.  Fur- 
ther information  respecting  him  is  wanting. 

ATTILANUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  5) 

(11th  cent.)  Born  at  Tarragona  or  Tarascona 
in  Aragon  (Spain),  in  early  youth  he  entered 
the  Benedictine  Order  and  became  the  disciple 
of  the  holy  Abbot  St.  Froilan,  who  later  chose 
Attilanus  as  his  Prior  and  substitute.  The 
two  Sees  of  Leon  and  Zamora  becoming  vacant, 
St.  Froilan  was  appointed  to  the  former  and 
St.  Attilanus  to  the  latter,  and  they  were 
consecrated  together  on  Whit-Sunday,  a.d.  990. 
St.  Attilanus  governed  his  flock  in  a  period  of 
great  trouble  and  distress.  He  died  A.d.  909, 
and  was  canonised  A.D.  1098. 

*ATTRACTA  (St.)  V.  (Aug.  11) 

(5th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint,  probably  a 
contemporary  of  St.  Patrick.  Having  embraced 
the  religious  life,  she  founded  a  monastery  in 
the  present  County  of  Sligo  (Killaraght),  and 
another  in  the  County  of  Roscommon.  She 
was  renowned  far  and  wide  for  her  charity  to 
the  poor  and  for  the  hospitality  she  extended 
to  wayfarers  and  to  the  homeless.  Precise 
dates  cannot  be  fixed  with  any  certainty. 

AUBERT     (ALBERT,     AUDEBERTUS,     AUTH- 
BERT)  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  13) 

(7th  cent.)  One  of  the  greatest  and  most 
illustrious  Bishops  and  Saints  of  his  age  in  the 
North  of  France.  Appointed  in  the  year  633 
Bishop  of  the  United  Sees  of  Cambrai  and 
Arras,  his  position  and  character  enabled  him 
to  enlist  the  services  of  princes  and  conspicuous 
personages  in  spreading  the  Faith  through  the 
vast  districts  committed  to  his  pastoral  care. 
He  built  many  churches  and  monasteries,  and 
others  were  founded  by  the  converts  to  Chris- 
tianity he  was  daily  making.  King  Dagobert 
chose  him  for  his  adviser  in  temporal,  no  less 
than  in  spiritual  matters.  After  a  glorious 
Episcopate  of  thirty-six  years  he  passed  away, 
about  A.d.  669,  and  was  buried  in  the  church 
of  St.  Peter  near  Cambrai,  to  which  later  an 
Abbey  was  attached. 

AUBIERGE  (St.)  V.  (July  7) 

Otherwise  St.  ETHELBURGA,  which  see. 

AUBYN  (AUBIN)  (St.)  Bp.  (March  1) 

Otherwise  St.  ALBINUS,  which  see. 

AUCTUS,  TAURIO  and  THESSALONICA  (Nov.  7) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  unknown.)  Martyrs  at  Amphipolis, 
anciently  an  important  city  of  Western  Mace- 
donia. They  are  commemorated  in  both  the 
Eastern  and  Western  Calendars ;  but  neither 
reliable  particulars  nor  date  of  their  martyrdom 
can  be  found. 

AUDACTUS  (ADAUCTUS)  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  24) 

See  SS.  FELIX,  AFRICANUS,    &c. 

AUCEJAS  and  LUCEIA  (SS.)  MM.  (June  25) 

See  SS.  LUCY  and  TWENTY  OTHERS. 

AUDAS  (ABDAS)  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (May  16) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Persian  Bishop  who  is  said 
to  have  set  fire  to  a  temple  of  the  god  of  fire. 
Ordered  to  rebuild  it  at  his  own  expense,  he 
refused  to  do  so.  His  conduct  was  made  the 
pretext  for  a  relentless  persecution  of  Christian- 
ity. St.  Audas,  with  seven  priests,  nine  deacons 
and  seven  virgins,  was  among  the  first  victims 
(A.D.  420).  But  there  are  considerable  doubts 
as  to  the  date  and  particulars  of  these  martyr- 
doms. The  destruction  in  Persia  of  Christian 
property  in  any  way  connected  with  religion  was 
so  indiscriminate  that  all  records,  if  there  were 
any,  are  lost. 

AUDAX  (St.)  M.  (July  9) 

See  SS.  ANATOLIA  and  AUDAX. 

AUDIFAX  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  19) 

See  SS.  MARIUS,  AUDIFAX,  <fcc. 

AUDOMARUS  (OMER)  (St.)  P.  (Sept.  9) 

(7th  cent.)  Born  at  Ooldenthal  near  the 
Lake  of  Constance,  in  the  sixth  century,  on  the 
death  of  his  mother,  he  and  his  father  became 
monks  in  the  Abbey  of  Luxeuil,  under  S. 
Eustace.  Here  St.  Audomarus  gained  such  a 
34 


reputation  for  sanctity  and  learning  that  King 
Dagobert,  encouraged  by  the  wishes  of  the 
clergy,  advised  thereto  by  St.  Acharius,  Bishop 
of  Noyon,  chose  the  young  monk  to  rule  over 
the  extensive  Diocese  of  Terouanne  (now 
St.  Omer),  which  was  sorely  in  need  of  a  zealous 
pastor.  By  his  exemplary  life  and  untiring 
energy,  the  new  Bishop  suppressed  idolatry 
and  transformed  his  Diocese  into  one  of  the 
most  flourishing  in  France.  He  founded  the 
famous  Abbey  of  Sithiu,  later  known  as  St. 
Bertin.  In  his  old  age  he  became  blind,  but 
never  relaxed  his  endeavours  to  do  good  and  to 
win  souls  to  God.  He  died  a.d.  670,  and  was 
buried  in  the  church  which  has  since  become 
the  Cathedral  of  St  Omer. 
AUDOENUS  (AUDEON,  OUEN,  OWEN,  DADON) 
(St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  24) 

(7th  cent.)  A  French  Saint,  son  of  Autharius 
and  Aiga,  who  after  their  death  were  also,  at 
least  locally,  venerated  as  Saints,  and  to  whom 
St.  Columbanus  is  said  to  have  foretold  that 
their  son  Ouen  and  his  two  brothers,  Ardon  and 
Radon,  would  become  famous  in  Church  and 
State.  St.  Ouen  was  entrusted  with  high 
offices  at  the  Courts  of  Clotaire  and  Dagobert. 
There  he  met  and  formed  a  close  friendship 
with  St.  Eligius  (Eloi).  Both  of  these  noble- 
men resolving  on  entering  the  Ecclesiastical 
state,  they  were  consecrated  on  the  same  day 
by  Adeodatus,  Bishop  of  Macon,  Bishops 
Eloi  of  Noyon  and  Ouen  of  Rouen,  where  the 
latter  succeeded  St.  Romanus  (a.d.  640).  The 
activity  and  success  of  St.  Ouen  in  promoting 
the  cause  of  Christianity  and  civilisation  in 
the  future  province  of  Normandy  was  such 
that  in  life  as  in  death  he  was  acclaimed  as  a 
Saint.  He  passed  away  after  more  than  forty 
years  of  a  most  fruitful  Episcopate,  at  Clichy, 
near  Paris  (a.d.  683),  and  was  buried  in  the 
Abbey  of  St.  Pierre,  hear  Rouen,  to  which  his 
name  was  given.  There  have  been  several 
translations  of  his  relics,  the  last  in  the  year 
1860.  He  has  left  us  the  Life  of  his  friend, 
St.  Eligius — an  historical  treasure,  considering 
the  dark  century  in  which  it  was  written. 
AUDREY  (AWDREY)  (St.)  V.  (June  23) 

Othencise  St.  ETHELDREDA  or  EDILTEJJ- 
DIS,  ivhich  see. 
AUGULUS  (AUGUSTUS)  (St.)  Bp.  M.        (Feb.  7) 
(4th  cent.)    His  name  appears  in  the  Martyr- 
ology    of    St.    Jerome    as    a    Bishop.     Other 
ancient    authorities  describe  him  as  a  Martyr 
who  laid  down  his  life  for  Christ  in  London. 
This  would  be  in  the  persecution  under  Dio- 
cletian in  which  St.  Alban  suffered  about  A.D. 
303.     St.     Augulus     is     called     Augustus     by 
Venerable  Bede,  and  Augurius  by  some  other 
authors.     He   has   been   identified   by   French 
writers  with  St.  Ouil  or  Aule  of  Normandy. 
AUGURIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  21) 

See  SS.  FRUCTUOSUS,  AUGURIUS,   &c. 

*  AUGUSTA  (St.)  V.M.  (March  27) 

(Date  uncertain.)    The  daughter  of  one  of 

the  Barbarian  chiefs  who  overran  Italy  at  the 

time  of  the  fall  of  the  Roman  Empire.      It  is 

said  that  he,  being  a  heathen,  was  so  angered 

at  finding  that  his  child  had  become  a  Christian 

that   he   slew   her   with   his   own    hand.     St. 

Augusta  is  still  venerated  in  some  of  the  Alpine 

villages  in  the  north  of  Italy. 

AUGUSTALIS  (AUTAL)  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  7) 

(Date  uncertain.)    According  to  all  records, 

this  Saint  was  a  Bishop,  but  opinions  vary  as 

to  his  See.     The  most  probable  opinion  is  that 

he  was  Bishop  of  Aries  (third  or  fourth  century). 

The  Roman  Martyrology  simply  states  that  he 

was  a  Bishop  in  Gaul.     Saint-Marthe  and  Gams 

place  his  name  between  those  of  Ravennius  and 

Leontius  (455-462)  in  their  lists  of  the  Bishops 

of  Aries. 

AUGUSTINE  of  NICOMEDIA  (St.)  M.         (May  7) 

See  SS.  FLAVIAN,  AUGUSTINE,   &c. 
AUGUSTINE  of  CANTERBURY  (St.)  Bp.  (May  26) 
(7th  cent.)    St.  Augustine  shares  with  St. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


AUREUS 


Gregory  the  Great  the  title  of  Apostle  of  the 
English.  St.  Gregory  himself,  hefore  his 
advancement  to  the  Papal  See,  set  out  to 
convert  the  English,  but  was  recalled  to  Rome. 
Five  years  after  his  election  to  the  Pontifical 
Chair,  he  sent  forth  a  band  of  forty  monks 
from  the  monastery  of  St.  Andrew  in  Rome, 
under  their  Prior  Augustine,  to  begin  a  mission 
in  England.  They  landed  at  or  near  Ebbsfleet 
in  the  Isle  of  Thanet,  where  they  were  received 
and  listened  to  by  King  St.  Ethelbert,  who 
received  Baptism  and  established  the  holy 
missionaries  at  Canterbury  (A.D.  597).  St. 
Augustine  was  consecrated  the  first  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  it  is  said,  by  Virgilius,  the 
Metropolitan  of  Aries.  St.  Gregory,  on  hearing 
of  the  success  of  the  mission,  sent  the  pallium 
(an  ornament  distinctive  of  Archbishops)  to 
Augustine,  together  with  a  reinforcement  of 
labourers,  among  whom  were  Mellitus,  Paulinus 
and  Justus.  These  were  appointed  to  the  Sees 
of  London,  York  and  Rochester.  St.  Augustine 
died  within  a  short  time  of  St.  Gregory  Oa.d. 
604).  He  was  buried  in  the  Abbey  church  with- 
out the  walls  of  Canterbury,  which  he  had 
founded. 
AUGUSTINE  of  HIPPO  (St.)  Bp.,  (Aug.  28) 

Doctor  of  the  Church. 

(5th  cent.)  He  was  born  at  Tagasta,  a  town 
of  Numidia  (near  Algiers  in  Africa),  a.d.  354. 
In  his  youth  he  went  headlong  into  vice,  and 
all  but  became  a  Manichaean.  He  taught 
Rhetoric  at  Tagasta,  Carthage,  Rome  and 
Milan.  In  the  latter  city  he  met  St.  Ambrose 
and  attended  his  sermons,  which,  with  the  aid 
of  St.  Simplician,  a  priest,  brought  about  his 
conversion.  He  was  baptised  by  St.  Am- 
brose in  the  presence  of  his  holy  mother, 
St.  Monica  (a.d.  387).  On  his  return  to  Africa 
he  lived  in  solitude  for  three  years,  and  was 
then  consecrated  Bishop  of  Hippo.  In  this 
high  station  he  displayed  great  zeal  and  learning 
in  repelling  the  attacks  of  the  Pagans,  Mani- 
chaeans,  Arians,  Donatists  and  Pelagians.  His 
writings  fill  many  folio  volumes,  his  best-known 
work  being  the  City  of  God  and  his  Confessions. 
He  died  A.D.  430  in  his  seventy-sixth  year, 
and  was  buried  at  Hippo  in  the  church  of 
St.  Stephen.  In  the  year  498,  owing  to  the 
irruption  of  the  Vandals,  his  relics  were  trans- 
ferred to  Sardinia  by  the  exiled  African  Bishops, 
and  interred  at  Cagliari.  When  Sardinia  fell 
into  the  hands  of  the  Saracens,  his  relics  were 
carried  to  Pavia  (A.D.  772)  and  placed  in  the 
triple  crypt  of  the  Basilica  of  St.  Peter. 
AUGUSTUS  (St.)  M.  (May  7) 

See  SS.  FLAVIUS,  AUGUSTINE,    &c. 
AUGUSTUS  (St.)  Conf.  (Sept.  1) 

See  SS.  PRISCUS  and  AUGUSTUS. 

AUGUSTUS  (St.)  Conf.  (Oct.  7) 

(6th  cent.)    A  saintly  Abbot  of  Bourges  in 

France,  friend  of  St.  Germanus  of  Paris.     He  is 

chiefly  notable  for  having  discovered  the  body 

(still  incorrupt)  of  St.  Ursinus,  Apostle  of  the 

neighbourhood.     He    was    remarkable    for    his 

austere  piety,  witnessed  to  by  many  miracles. 

He  died  towards  the  close  of  the  sixth  century. 

AULAIRE  (St.)  V.M.  (Feb.  12) 

Otherwise  St.   EULALIA  of   BARCELONA, 

which  see. 

*AULD  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  4) 

Otherwise  St.  ALDATE,  which  see. 
AUNAIRE  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  25) 

Otherwise  St.  ANACHARIUS,  which  see. 
AURA  (St.)  V.M.  (July  19) 

(9th  cent.)  A  Spanish  nun  of  Cordova, 
daughter  of  intidel  parents,  who  themselves 
denounced  her  to  the  Mohammedan  officials  as 
a  convert  to  Christianity.  She  was  in  con- 
sequence beheaded  (a.d  856). 
AUREA  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  24) 

(3rd  cent.)  Out  of  many  varied  histories  of 
the  passion  of  this  Saint  it  may  be  gathered  that 
she  was  thrown  into  the  sea  at  Ostia  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Tiber,  after  undergoing  many 


tortures,  by  order  of  Alpius  Romulus,  a  Prefect 

under  the  Emperor  Claudius  (a.d.  260).     She 

appears    to    have    been    associated    with    SS. 

Quiriacus,  Maximus  and  Archelaus  (Aug.  23), 

and  to  have  been  one  of  those  devout  women 

who   used   to   visit   the   Christians   in   prison, 

attend  to  their  needs,  and  give  them  decent 

burial. 

AUREA  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  4) 

(7th    cent.)    A    Syrian    lady,    who    became 

Abbess  of  the  convent  of  St.  Martial  at  Paris, 

founded  a.d.  633  by  St.  Eligius,  in  honour  of 

St.  Martial  of  Limoges.     St.  Ouen,  in  his  Life 

of  St.  Eligius,  speaks  of  her  in  terms  of  great 

praise.     Many  miracles  during  her  life  and  after 

her    death    bore    eloquent    testimony    to    her 

sanctity.     She  died  in  the  year  666,  with  one 

hundred  and  sixty  of  her  community,  victims 

of  the  plague,  then  raging  in  France,  and  they 

were  buried  in  the  Church  of  St.  Paul  outside 

the  city  walls. 

AURELIA  and  NEOMISIA  (SS.)  VV.       (Sept.  25) 

(Date  uncertain.)     Both  are  believed  to  have 

been  of  Asiatic  origin.     They  visited  the  Holy 

Places  in  Syria  and  Palestine,  and  the  Tombs 

of  the  Apostles  in  Rome.     At  Capua  they  were 

maltreated  by  the  Saracens,  but  escaped  under 

cover  of  a  thunderstorm.     They  took  shelter 

at  Macerata,  near  Anagni,  where  they  died. 

AURELIA  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  15) 

(11th  cent.)     Said  to  have  been  a  princess  of 

France,  of  the  family  of  Hugues  Capet,  and  to 

have  fled  in  disguise  to  Strasburg,  in  order  to 

escape   a  marriage   arranged   against  her  will 

by  her  parents.     Following  the  advice  of  St. 

Wolfgang,  Bishop  of  Ratisbon,  who  penetrated 

her  disguise,  she  embraced  the  life  of  a  Solitary 

and  took  up  her  abode  in  a  hermitage  where 

she  remained  for  about  fifty-two  years.     The 

fame   of   her   sanctity,    borne    witness    to    by 

several   miracles,    was   already   widespread   at 

the  time  of  her  holy  death  in  the  year   1027. 

Her  relics   were  worthily  enshrined,   and   her 

hermitage  converted  into  a  chapel  which  became 

a  place  of  popidar  pilgrimage. 

AURELIA  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  2) 

See  SS.  EUSEBIUS,  MARCELLUS,    &c. 
AURELIAN  (St.)  Bp.  (June  16) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Saint  of  the  South  of  France, 
particulars  of  whose  early  life  are  not  extant. 
On  his  election  to  the  See  of  Aries  (a.d.  546) 
he  received  the  Pallium  from  Pope  Vigilius, 
whose  vicar  in  Gaul  he  became.  He  founded 
two  monasteries,  one  for  monks  and  one  for 
nuns,  and  wrote  a  special  Rule  for  their  guid- 
ance. He  assisted  at  the  Council  of  Orleans 
(A.D.  549),  and  died  two  years  afterwards  at 
Lvons. 
*AURELIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (July  20) 

(5th    cent.)    An    Archbishop    of    Carthage, 
fellow-worker   with    St.    Augustine   of   Hippo, 
and  the  first  to  detect  and  condemn  the  heresy 
of  Pelagius.     He  died  a.d.  423. 
AURELIUS  of  CORDOVA  (St.)  M.  (July  27) 

See  SS.  GEORGE,  FELIX,    &c. 
AURELIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  20) 

See  SS.  GEORGE  and  AURELIUS. 
{These  Saints  are  probably  identical  vrith  the 
group   in   which  the  same  names   occur,   com- 
memorated on  July  27.) 
AURELIUS  and  PUBLIUS  (SS.)  (Nov.  12) 

Bps.,  MM. 

(2nd  cent.)  Two  Bishops  who  each  wroto 
a  confutation  of  the  errors  of  the  Montanists 
or  Cata-Phrygians.  Tradition  has  it  that  both 
suffered  martyrdom,  but  whether  in  Asia  or  in 
Northern  Africa,  seems  uncertain. 
AUREUS,  JUSTINA  and  OTHERS  (June  16) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  uncertain.)  During  an  invasion  of 
Huns  or  other  savages,  St.  Aureus,  Bishop  of 
Mentz,  was  driven  from  his  See  and  was  fol- 
lowed into  exile  by  his  sister,  St.  Justina.  On 
his  return  to  Mentz,  his  zeal  for  the  restoration 
of  Christian  discipline  so  angered  certain  evil- 

35 


AUSPICIUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


doers  that  while  the  Bishop  was  celebrating 
Mass  they  murdered  him  and  his  sister.  They 
certainly  lived  before  the  seventh  century 
Apostolate  of  St.  Boniface  in  Germany,  but  no 
reliable  date  can  be  assigned  them. 
AUSPICIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (July  8) 

(2nd  cent.)  He  is  said  to  have  been  the 
fourth  Bishop  of  Treves  and  successor  to 
St.  Maternus  (about  A.D.  130).  Some  authori- 
ties, however,  assert  his  identity  with  St. 
Auspicius,  the  fifth  century  Bishop  of  Toul. 
Again,  some  refer  to  him  as  a  Martyr,  others 
simplv  as  a  Confessor. 
*  AUSTELL  (St.)  Conf.  (June  28) 

(6th  cent.)  A  disciple  in  Cornwall  of  St. 
Me  wan  or  Me  van.  He  lived  as  a  hermit  in  the 
latter  half  of  the  sixth  century,  probably  in 
the  district  where  a  place-name  preserves  his 
memory.  There  is  no  account  extant  of  St. 
Austell ;  and  some  moderns  have  conjectured 
that  Austell  (Hawystill)  is  a  woman  Saint, 
one  of  the  daughters  of  the  famous  Brychan 
of  Wales,  who  has  perhaps  left  her  name  to  Aust 
or  Awst  in  Gloucestershire. 
*AUSTREBERTA  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  10) 

(8th  cent.)  A  Saint  of  the  North  of  France 
who  fled  from  her  home  to  escape  being  forced 
into  a  marriage  against  her  will.  She  received 
the  veil  from  St.  Omer.  She  died  Abbess  of 
Pavilly  A.D.  704.  Some  of  her  relics  are  said 
to  have  been  brought  to  Canterbury  by  the 
Norman  invaders  (A.D.  1066). 
♦AUSTREGILDA  (St.)  Widow.  (Sept.  1) 

Otherwise  St.  AGIA,  which  see. 
AUSTROGISILUS     (AOUSTRILLE,     OUTRILLE) 

(St.)  Bp.  (May  20) 

(7th  cent.)  An  attendant  at  the  Court  of 
King  Gontram  at  Chalon-sur-Saone.  His 
virtues  induced  JStherius,  Bishop  of  Lyons, 
to  ordain  him  priest  and  to  appoint  him  Abbot 
of  the  monastery  of  St.  Nizier.  On  the  death 
of  St.  Apollinaris  (A.D.  612)  he  was  elected  to 
the  See  of  Bourges,  where  he  died  (A.D.  624), 
bewailed  by  his  flock  and  was  speedily  by  the 
Bishops  of  Gaul  declared  worthy  of  public 
veneration  as  a  Saint. 
*AUTHAIRE  (OYE)  (St.)  (April  24) 

(7th  cent.)  A  nobleman  of  the  Court  of 
King  Dagobert  of  France,  and  the  father  of 
St.  Ouen  of  Rouen.  St.  Authaire  distinguished 
himself  by  his  lavish  charity  to  the  poor. 
Hence  the  village  where  he  died  (Ussy  near 
La  Ferte-sous-Jouarre)  chose  him  after  his 
death  for  its  Patron  Saint. 
AUSTREMONIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  1) 

(Date  uncertain.)  According  to  traditional 
belief  in  France,  Austremontius  was  one  of  the 
missionaries  sent  into  Gaul  by  the  Apostle 
St.  Peter  himself.  His  field  of  labour  lay 
principally  in  the  province  now  known  as 
Auvergne.  After  thirty-six  years  of  successful 
missionary  work,  the  Saint  is  said  to  have  retired 
into  solitude  to  prepare  himself  for  death. 
It  is  further  asserted  that  in  the  end  certain 
evildoers,  or  perhaps  an  exasperated  mob  of 
heathens,  sought  him  out  and  did  him  to  death. 
The  modern  view  is  that  St.  Austremontius 
was  one  of  seven  missionaries  sent  from  Rome 
into  Gaul,  but  by  one  of  the  Popes  of  the  third 
century,  that  is,  two  hundred  years  later  than 
the  older  legend  set  forth.  That  Austremontius 
preached  in  Auvergne  and  may  properly  be 
regarded  as  the  first  Bishop  of  Clermont  is 
quite  in  conformity  with  the  result  of  scientific 
enquiry. 
AUSTRICLINIAN  (St.)  (June  30) 

(Date  uncertain.)  One  of  two  Roman 
priests,  the  other  being  St.  Alpinianus,  who 
accompanied  St.  Martial  into  Gaul,  where  they 
spent  their  lives  with  that  Saint  in  preaching 
Christianity  in  the  country  round  Limoges. 
But  in  this  as  in  similar  instances  of  the  preach- 
ing of  Roman  missionaries  in  ancient  France, 
it  is  now  usual  to  accept  the  facts  but  to  post- 
date the  mission  for  two  centuries.    To  explain 

36 


the  possible  error,  it  should  be  noted  that  for 
many  centuries,  messengers  and  letters  from  the 
Popes  of  Rome  were  commonly  designated  as 
coming  from  St.  Peter  himself.  Whence, 
easily  enough,  in  later  ages  they  got  to  be  ante- 
dated to  Apostolic  times. 

*AUSTRUDE  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  17) 

Otherwise  St.  ANSTRUDE,  which  see. 

AUTHBERTUS  (AUDEBERT)  (St.)  Bp.    (Dec.  13) 
Otherwise  St.  AUBERT,  which  see. 

AUTEL  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept,  7) 

Otherwise  St.  AUGUSTALIS,  which  see. 

AUTONOMUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Sept.  12) 

(4th  cent.)  Alleged  by  the  Greeks  to  have 
been  an  Italian  Bishop,  who,  to  escape  the  fury 
of  the  persecution  under  Diocletian,  fled  into 
Bithynia  in  Asia  Minor,  where  he  made  many 
converts  to  Christianity  and  afterwards  suffered 
death  for  the  Faith.  This  must  have  been 
about  A.D.  300.  The  Life  of  St.  Autonomus 
we  possess  was  not  written  till  the  sixth 
century. 

AUXANUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  3) 

(6th  cent.)  Known  in  Milan  as  SanV  Ansano, 
and  said  to  have  occupied  the  See  of  that  city 
for  two  or  three  years.  He  died  A.D.  568  and 
has  always  been  in  great  veneration  locally  as 
a  Saint  and  model  bishop. 

AUXENTIUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Feb.  14) 

(5th  cent.)  Born  in  Syria,  but  of  Persian 
ancestry,  he  served  as  a  soldier  in  the  body- 
guard of  the  Emperor  Theodosius  the  Younger. 
Later  in  life  he  retired  to  the  Desert  of  Oxea  in 
Bithynia,  where  he  gathered  disciples  around 
him.  He  appeared  to  have  done  all  that  was 
in  his  power  in  defence  of  the  Catholic  Faith 
at  the  time  of  the  Council  of  Chalcedon  ;  but 
speedily  returned  to  his  cell,  and  soon  after 
passed  away. 

AUXENTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  13) 

See  SS.  EUSTRATHIUS,  AUXENTIUS,   &c. 

AUXENTIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  18) 

(4th  cent.)  At  one  time  a  soldier  in  the  army 
of  the  Emperor  Licinius,  he  had  to  suffer,  like 
other  Christians,  for  refusing  to  take  part  in 
heathen  sacrifices.  But  he  survived  the  perse- 
cution and,  embracing  the  Ecclesiastical  state, 
in  due  course  became  Bishop  of  Mopsueste  in 
Cilicia  (A.D.  321).  The  date  of  his  death  is  not 
given. 

AUXIBIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  19) 

(1st  cent.)      Said  to  have    been    the    first 

Bishop  of  Soli  in  the  Island  of  Cyprus,  and  to 

have   been    consecrated   to   that   See   by   the 

Apostle  St.  Paul. 

♦AUXILIUS,  ISERNINUS  and  SECUNDINUS 

(SS.)  Bps.  (Dec.  6) 

(5th  cent.)  Fellow- workers  with  St.  Patrick 
in  the  evangelisation  of  Ireland  in  the  fifth 
century.  The  decree  signed  by  Patrick, 
Auxilius,  Secundinus,  and  Benignus  reminding 
the  Irish  clergy  that  appeals  from  the  judgment 
of   Armagh   may   be   made   to   Rome   is   still 

AUXILIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  27) 

See  SS.  BASILEUS,  AUXILIUS,  &c. 

♦AVENTINUS  of  CHARTRES  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  4) 
(6th  cent.)  A  French  nobleman,  Bishop, 
first  of  Chateaudun,  and  then  of  Chartres, 
remarkable  for  his  zeal  and  devotedness  to  his 
work  as  a  pastor  of  souls.  Many  miracles 
are  recounted  worked  through  his  prayers. 
He  subscribed  the  Acts  of  the  Council  of  Orleans 
(A.D.  511)  which  he  probably  survived  some 
years.  A  translation  of  his  relics  was  cele- 
brated in  the  year  1853. 

AVENTINUS  (St.)  (Feb.  4) 

(6th  cent.)  Born  in  one  of  the  Central 
Provinces  of  France,  he  acted  as  Almoner  to 
St.  Lupus,  Bishop  of  Troyes,  until,  moved  by 
a  desire  of  living  a  life  of  greater  perfection, 
he  withdrew  from  the  world  into  a  solitude, 
and  after  some  time  was  ordained  priest.  To 
the  retired  spot  where  he  lived  and  died  (A.D. 
538)  he  has  left  his  name,  St  Aventin. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


BALDERTC 


*AVENTINUS  (St.)  M.  (June  7) 

(8th  cent.)  A  holy  hermit  in  the  Pyrenees, 
put  to  death  by  the  Moors,  when  making  that 
great  inroad  of  theirs  into  France,  which  led  to 
the  total  destruction  of  their  armies  at  Poictiers 
bv  Charles  Martel  (A.d.  732). 

*AVERTINUS  (St.)  Conf.  (May  5) 

(12th  cent.)  A  Gilbertine  Canon,  the  faithful 
friend  of  St.  Thomas  of  Canterbury,  who  fol- 
lowed the  holy  Martyr  into  exile,  and  after  his 
death  devoted  himself  in  France  to  the  service 
of  the  poor.  He  died  about  a.d.  1189.  Some 
churches  in  France  are  dedicated  in  his  honour. 

AVIA  (AVA)  (St.)  V.M.  (April  29) 

(9th  cent.)  A  holy  nun,  niece  of  King  Pepin, 
who  became  Abbess  of  Dinant  in  Hainault. 
In  her  childhood  and  youth  she  was  blind,  but 
her  eyesight  was  miraculously  restored  to  her 
through  the  prayers  of  St.  Rainfrede,  sometimes 
said  to  have  been  her  sister.  We  have  no 
exact  date  given  of  her  death. 

*AYA  of  HAINAULT  (St.)  Widow.  (April  18) 

(7th  cent.)  A  relative  of  St.  Waldetrude, 
who  sanctified  herself  in  a  holy  widowhood, 
and  who  is  greatly  venerated  in  Belgium,  and 
especially  by  the  Religious  women  called 
Beguines.  Among  other  wonders  it  is  related 
of  her  that  after  her  death  she  hindered  an 
injustice  being  done  by  speaking  from  her  tomb. 

AVITUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  27) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  Saint  of  this  name  is 
honoured  as  Patron  and  Bishop  of  the  Canary 
Islands,  and  is  supposed  to  have  reached  them 
in  Apostolic  times,  to  have  preached  the  Gospel 
there,  and  finally  to  have  been  put  to  death 
for  the  Faith.  The  translation  thither  in  the 
fifteenth  century  of  the  relics  of  some  early 
Martyr  may  have  given  rise  to  the  legend. 

AVITUS  of  VIENNE  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  5) 

(6th  cent.)  Born  in  Auvergne  and  brother 
to  St.  Apollinaris,  Bishop  of  Valence.  Their 
father,  St.  Isychius,  a  Roman  Senator,  had  been 
chosen  Archbishop  of  Vienne  on  the  death  of 
St.  Mamertus.  St.  Avitus  succeeded  him  and 
presided  over  the  famous  Council  of  Epaon. 
It  was  he  who  converted  the  Burgnndian  King 
Sigismund,  who  became  a  monk  and  a  Saint. 
Only  a  few  of  the  homilies,  poems  and  letters 
of  St.  Avitus  have  been  preserved.  He  was 
buried  in  the  Cathedral  of  Vienne  (A.D.  525). 

AVITUS  (AVIT)  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  17) 

(6th  cent.)  A  monk  of  Orleans  who  suc- 
ceeded St.  Maximin  as  Abbot  of  Micy.  He 
finished  his  career  as  a  hermit  in  one  of  the 
forests  in  the  West  of  France,  where,  however, 
he  seems  to  have  gathered  around  him  a  body  of 
disciples.  The  year  530  is  given  as  that  of  his 
death. 

AVITUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Dec.  19) 

Otherwise  St.  ADJUTUS,  which  see. 

AZADANES  (St.)  M.  (April  22) 

(4th  cent.)    A  deacon  among  the  Martvra  of 

Persia,  venerated  on  this  day  with  St.  Abdiesns, 

St.   Azades,     &c.     They  suffered   under   King 

Sapor  II  (a.d.  341). 

AZAS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  19) 

(4th  cent.)     Martyrs  in  Isauria  (Asia  Minor) 

in    the    persecution    under    Diocletian    about 

a.d.  304.    They  were  Christian  soldiers,  about 

one  hundred  and  fifty  in  number. 

AZARIAS(St.)  (Dec.  16) 

(6th  cent.  B.C.)  One  of  the  three  youths  cast 
into  the  fiery  furnace  by  order  of  King  Nabucho- 
donosor  of  Babylon.  The  officials  gave  him  the 
name  of  Abedncgo.  The  relics  of  these  three 
holy  men  are  venerated  in  one  of  the  Roman 
churches. 


B 

BABILAS,  URBAN,  PRILIDION  and  EPOLONIUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Jan.  24) 

(3rd  cent.)     St.  Babilas,  for  thirteen  years 

Bishop  of  Antioch,  is  said  to  have  forbidden 


the  Emperor  Philip  (reputed  a  Christian)  the 
entrance  to  a  church  until  he  had  publicly 
repented  of  a  murder  of  which  he  was  guilty. 
St.  Babilas  died  in  chains,  awaiting  execution, 
during  the  Decian  persecution  (A.D.  250).  With 
him  are  commemorated  three  youths,  his  pupils, 
privileged  with  him  to  lay  down  their  lives  for 
Christ. 
♦BABILLA  (St.)  V.M.  (May  20) 

(3rd  cent.)  Babilla  or  Basilla  was  a  niece 
of  the  Emperor  Gallienus  and  baptised  by  Pope 
St.  Cornelius.  Accused  by  one  of  her  maids 
of  being  a  Christian  and  forced  to  choose  between 
marriage  with  a  Pagan  and  death,  she  elected 
martyrdom.  She  was  beheaded  and  buried 
in  the  catacombs  of  the  Via  Salaria,  outside 
Rome  (a.d.  270).  St.  Babilla  seems  to  be 
identical  with  the  St.  Basilla  commemorated 
in  the  Roman  Martyrology  on  May  20. 
BABOLEN  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  26) 

(7th  cent.)  A  monk  of  unknown  nationality 
but  of  the  school  of  St.  Columbanus  of  Luxeuil, 
and  allied  with  St.  Fursey.  He  laboured  for 
the  good  of  souls  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Paris 
where  he  governed  the  monastery  of  St.  Maur- 
des-Fosses. 
BACCHUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  7) 

See  SS.  SERGIUS,  BACCHUS,    &c. 
*BADARN  (PADARN)  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  1) 

Other  unse  St.  PATERNUS,  which  see. 
BADEMUS  (St.)  M.  (April  10) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Persian  Saint,  and  founder  of 
a  monastery  in  his  own  country.  He  suffered 
martyrdom  under  King  Sapor  (a.d.  376).  His 
Acts  are  extant  in  the  original  Syriac  of  St. 
Maruthas,  his  contemporary. 
*BAGLAN  (St.) 

(Date  unknown.)  There  are  two  Welsh 
Saints  of  this  name,  the  one  and  the  other 
attributed  to  the  fifth  century,  but  beyond  the 
fact  of  there  being  existing  churches  dedicated 
in  their  honour,  and  a  mention  in  an  ancient 
litany,  nothing  is  known  of  them. 
*BAIN  (St.)  Bp.  (June  20) 

(8th  cent.)  Bishop  of.Terouanne  (St.  Omer). 
After  a  fruitful  Episcopate  he  retired  to  the 
monastery  of  St.  Wandrille  (Fontenelle)  in 
Normandy,  and  later  presided,  in  addition, 
over  that  of  Fleury  or  St.  Benoit-sur-Loire. 
He  passed  away  about  A.D.  711. 
*BAISIL  (St.) 

(Date  unknown.)  Patron  of  a  church  in 
Llandaff  Diocese.  There  is  no  record  of  such 
a  Saint  in  Welsh  Hagiology.  It  may  be  that 
Baisil  is  only  a  misspelling  of  some  other  appella- 
tive. 
*BAITHIN  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  9) 

(6th  cent.)  Also  called  Comin  or  Cominus, 
and  described  as  first  cousin  to  St.  Columbkille, 
by  whom  he  was  educated,  and  whom  he 
succeeded  as  Abbot  of  Hy  or  Iona.  He  is  said 
to  have  died  (a.d.  598)  on  the  anniversary  of 
the  death  of  St.  Columba. 
BAJULUS  (St)  M.  (Dec.  20) 

See  SS.  LIBERATUS  and  BAJULUS. 
BALBINA  (St.)  V.M.  (March  31) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  daughter  of  the  Roman 
Tribune,  St.  Quirinus  the  Martyr.  She  was 
baptised  together  with  both  her  parents  by 
Pope  St.  Alexander.  It  appears  that  she 
ended  her  life  by  martyrdom,  about  a.d.  130, 
but  whether  she  was  drowned  or  buried  alive 
is  a  matter  of  dispute. 
BALDOMER  (St.)  Conf.  (Feb.  27) 

(7th  cent.)  Better  known  as  St.  Galmier. 
He  was  by  trade  a  locksmith  at  Lyons,  and  late 
in  life  retired  to  the  monastery  of  St.  Justus 
under  the  Abbot  Viventius,  and  was  ordained 
sub-deacon.  He  died  about  a.d.  650,  and  is 
represented  in  art  carrying  pincers  and  lock- 
smith's tools.  He  is  reputed  the  Patron  Saint 
of  those  of  his  old  trade. 
BALDERIC  (BAUDRY)  (St.)  Conf.  (Oct.  27) 

(7th  cent.)    He,   with  his  sister  St.   Bova, 
were  children  of  Sigebert  I,  King  of  Austrasia 

37 


BALDRED 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


(Eastern  France  and  Western  Germany).    He 
led  a  life  of  prayer  and  penance  in  a  monastery 
near  Rheims,  and  after  his  death  was  venerated 
as  a  Saint. 
*BALDRED  (St.)  Bp.  (March  6) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Scottish  Bishop  alleged  to 
have  been  the  successor  of  St.  Kentigeru  or 
Mungo,  at  Glasgow,  and  to  have  ended  his  life 
as  a  hermit  on  the  coast  of  the  Frith  of  Forth. 
The  date  usually  given  as  that  of  his  death 
would  of  course  have  to  be  corrected  if  he  could 
be  proved  to  be  (as  some  surmise)  one  and  the 
same  person  with  St.  Balther,  hermit,  also 
commemorated  on  March  6. 
BALDWIN  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  8) 

(7th  cent.)  Archdeacon  of  Laon  in  the  time 
of  Dagobcrt  I,  King  of  France.  He  was  a  son 
of  St.  Salaberga  and  brother  of  St.  Anstrude, 
Abbess  of  Laon.  He  was  murdered  about 
a.d.  680,  in  circumstances  which  have  led  to 
his  being  honoured  as  a  martyr. 
*BALIN  (BALANUS,  BALLOIN)  (St.)  (Sept.  3) 

Conf. 

(7th  cent.)  Said  to  have  been  the  brother  of 
St.  Gerald  (March  13)  and  one  of  the  four  sons 
of  an  Anglo-Saxon  king.  He  and  his  brothers, 
after  accompanying  St.  Colman  of  Lindisfarne 
to  Iona,  retired  into  Connaught  in  Ireland, 
at  Teehsaxon,  "  the  House  of  the  Saxons,"  in 
the  Diocese  of  Tuam. 
BALTHASAR  (St.)  Xing,  Bp.  (Jan.  11) 

(1st  cent.)  The  third  of  the  Three  Magi  or 
Kings  from  the  East  who  brought  their  gifts 
to  the  Infant  Saviour.  The  tradition  is  that 
he  afterwards  became  a  Christian  Bishop  and 
died  while  celebrating  Mass. 
*BALTHER  (St.)  Conf.  (March  6) 

(8th  cent.)  An  Anchoret  at  Tinningham  on 
the  Scottish  border,  where  he  lived  on  a  solitary 
rock  (Bass  Rock,  near  North  Berwick),  almost 
surrounded  by  the  sea.  He  died,  famous  for 
sanctity  and  miracle?.,  A.D.  756.  Under  King 
Canute,  his  body,  with  that  of  St.  Bilfrid,  was 
translated  to  Durham.  Some  identify  St. 
Balther  with  St.  Baldred  of  Scotland. 
*BALDUS  (St.)  (Oct.  29) 

Otherwise  St.  BOND,  which  see. 
*BANDARIDUS    (BANDERIK,   BANDERY) 

(St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  9) 

(6th  cent.)  A  French  Saint,  who,  appointed 
Bishop  of  Soissons  (a.d.  540),  was  banished  the 
country  by  King  Clothaire  I,  and  worked  for 
seven  years,  without  making  himself  known, 
as  gardener  in  an  English  Abbey.  At  length, 
Clothaire  discovered  his  place  of  refuge,  and 
recalled  him  to  his  See  (a.d.  554).  He  died 
a.d.  666,  and  was  buried  in  the  Abbey  of 
St.  Crispin,  which  he  had  founded. 
*BANKA  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  27) 

Otherwise  St.  BREACA,  which  see. 
BARACHISIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  29) 

See  SS.  JONAS  and  BARACHISIUS. 
*BARADATAS  (St.)  Hermit.  (Feb.  22) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Syrian  Solitary  of  whose 
austere  life  Theodoret  his  contemporary  has 
left  us  a  glowing  account.  He  is  otherwise 
celebrated  as  having  been  adviser  to  the  Emperor 
Leo  I  of  Constantinople,  in  regard  to  his  pro- 
ceedings at  the  Council  of  Chalcedon.  He  died 
some  years  later,  about  a.d.  460. 
*BARAT  (MADELEINE)  V.  (25  May) 

See  Bl.  MADELEINE  BARAT. 
BARBARA  (St.)  V.  M.  (Dec.  4) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  popular  Saint,  both  in  the 
Eastern  and  in  the  Western  Church.  She  is 
looked  upon  as  the  Patron  Saint  of  certain 
dangerous  crafts  and  professions,  such  as  those 
of  firework  makers,  artillerymen,  &c.  There 
is  no  reliable  account  extant  of  her  life  and 
martyrdom.  Some  authors  contend  that  she 
suffered  at  Nicomedia  in  Asia  Minor  under  the 
Emperor  Maximian  1,  about  a.d.  235 ;  while 
others  have  it  that  she  was  a  victim  like  so 
many  thousands  of  other  Christians  of  the  savage 
cruelty    of    Galerius,    colleague   of    Diocletian, 

38 


and  that  she  was  done  to  death  at  Heliopolis 
in  Egypt  as  late  as  A.D.  306. 
*BARBASCEMINUS  and  OTHERS  (Jan.  14) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(4th  cent.)  Barbasceminus,  Bishop  of 
Seleucia,  was  one  of  the  most  distinguished  of 
the  Persian  Martyrs  of  the  fourth  century  under 
the  persecuting  King  Sapor  II.  The  con- 
temporary writer,  St.  Maruthas,  has  left  us  a 
vivid  account  of  his  sufferings  and  of  those 
who  with  him  gave  their  lives  for  Christ. 
BARBATIAN  (St.)  Conf.  (Dec.  31; 

(5th  cent.)  A  priest  of  Antioch  who  came  to 
Rome  and  there  attracted  the  attention  of 
Placidia  Augusta,  mother  of  the  Emperor 
Valentinian  III.  She  induced  him  to  attend 
her  to  her  residence  at  Ravenna,  where  she 
built  him  a  church  and  monastery.  By  his 
wise  and  moderate  counsels  he  rendered  great 
services  to  the  State.  The  precise  year  of  his 
death  is  uncertain. 
BARBATUS  (BARBAS)  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  19) 

(7th  cent.)  A  citizen  of  Benevento  in  the 
South  of  Italy.  He  rendered  great  services 
to  his  native  town,  especially  when  besieged 
by  the  Emperor  Constans  of  Byzantium.  Chosen 
Bishop,  he  assisted  at  the  Council  held  by  Pope 
St.  Agatho  in  Rome,  and  also  at  the  sixth 
General  Council  against  the  Monothelites.  He 
died  Feb.  19,  a.d.  682. 
BARBE  (St.)  V.M.  (Dec,  4) 

Otherwise  St.  BARBARA,  which  see. 
BARBEA  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  29) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Syrian  woman  converted  to 
the  Faith  by  St.  Barsimeus,  Bishop  of  Edessa. 
She  was  scourged  and  then  speared  to  death  at 
Edessa,  some  time  during  the  reign  of  the 
Emperor  Trajan,  that  is,  before  a.d.  117. 
*BARDO  (St.)  Bp.  (June  10) 

(11th  cent.)  A  monk  of  Fulda,  consecrated 
Bishop  of  Mayence  (a.d.  1031).  He  was 
distinguished  not  only  for  austerity  of  life  and 
for  pastoral  zeal,  but  for  self-sacrificing  charity 
to  the  poor.  He  had  from  God  many  super- 
natural gifts,  and  in  particular  that  of  prophecy. 
He  died  on  the  day  he  had  publicly  foretold, 
June  11,  a.d.  1051. 
BARDOMIANUS,  EUCARPUS,  and  OTHERS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  28) 

(Date   uncertain.)    These   Martyrs,    twenty- 
eight  in  all,  suffered  together  in  Asia  Minor  in 
one  of  the  early  persecutions.     But  all  details 
have  been  lost. 
*BARHADBESCIALAS  (St.)  M.  (July  21) 

(4th  cent.)    A  deacon  martyred  at  Arbela  in 
Adiabene  under  the  Persian  tyrant,  Sapor  II, 
about  a.d.  854.     His  Acts,  written  in  the  Ara- 
maic language,  are  still  extant. 
BARLAAM  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  19) 

(4th  cent.)  A  pious  peasant,  who  bravely 
endured  imprisonment  and  torture  for  the 
Faith  at  Antioch  during  the  persecution  under 
Diocletian  and  Galerius  (a.d.  304).  Among  the 
works  of  St.  Basil  there  is  a  panegyric  preached 
on  the  festival  day  of  St.  Barlaam. 
BARLAAM  and  JOSAPHAT  (SS.)  Conf.   (Nov.  27) 

(4th  cent.)  St.  Barlaam,  a  monk  or  solitary 
in  Northern  India,  converted  to  the  Christian 
Faith,  Josaphat,  son  of  the  king  of  the  country, 
who,  like  Barlaam,  is  held  in  great  veneration 
in  the  East.  St.  Barlaam  worked  many 
miracles,  and  the  hermit's  cell  in  which  he 
passed  the  last  thirty- five  years  of  his  life 
became  a  place  of  pilgrimage.  Both  Saints 
are  honoured  as  Martyrs,  and  are  said  to  have 
suffered  in  the  year  383.  But  even  the  century 
in  which  they  flourished  is  uncertain.  A 
panegyric  of  St.  Barlaam  is  attributed  to  St. 
John  Damascene,  and  a  foolish  mistake  has 
placed  some  of  the  legendary  doings  of  Buddha 
to  the  credit  of  the  Saint. 
BARNABAS  (St.)  Apostle.  (June  11) 

(1st  cent.)  One  of  the  seventy-two  disciples 
of  our  Lord  (Luke  x.),  though  not  of  the  Twelve. 
Bom  in  Cyprus  and  styled  an  Apostle  by  St. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


BASIL 


Luke  and  by  the  Church  following  the  early 
Fathers,  he  is  mentioned  repeatedly  in  the 
Acts  of  the  Apostles.  He  laboured  with  St. 
Paul  at  Aotioch,  Seleucia,  Paphos,  &c,  and  is 
believed  to  have  been  stoned  to  death  in  his 
native  island  by  the  Jews,  exasperated  at  the 
success  of  his  preaching  of  the  Gospel.  St. 
Charles  Borromeo  proposed  him  as  the  Apostle 
of  Milan,  whither  a  tradition  avers  that  he 
came  in  the  course  of  his  missionary  career. 
It  is  alleged  that  several  centuries  after  his 
death,  on  his  tomb  being  opened,  his  body 
was  discovered,  holding  in  its  hands  a  copy  or 
the  original  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew,  written  in 
Hebrew. 
♦BARNOCH  (St.)  Conf.  (Sept.  27) 

Otherwise  St.  BARRUC  or  BARROG,  which 

sss 
BARONTIUS  and  DESIDERIUS  (SS.)        (May  25) 

Hermits. 

(8th  cent.)  St.  Barontius  was  a  married 
French  nobleman  of  Berri,  who,  together  with 
his  son,  leaving  the  Court  of  King  Thierr>  II, 
retired  into  the  Abbey  nf  St.  Cyran  near  Nevers. 
He  afterwards  migrated  into  Italy  and  took  up 
the  life  of  a  hermit  in  the  hill  country  near 
Pistoja  in  Tuscany.  He  was  joined  by  St. 
Desiderius  and  others.  He  died  in  a.d.  700, 
or  a  year  or  two  later. 
•BARR  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  25) 

(6th  cent.)  St.  Barr  (Finbar,  Barrocus)  was 
a  native  of  Connaught.  He  founded  a  monastic 
school  at  Lough  Eire,  thus  originating  the  city 
of  Cork,  of  which  he  became  the  first  Bishop. 
He  died  at  Cloyne  after  sixteen  years  of  Epis- 
copate, but  the  exact  date  is  not  certain. 
♦BARRFOIN  (BARRINDUS)  (St.)  (May  21) 

(6th  cent.)  Said  to  have  flourished  towards 
the  close  of  the  sixth  century  and  to  have  had 
charge  of  the  church  founded  by  St.  Columb- 
kille  at  Drum  Cullen  (King's  County),  and 
afterwards  to  have  lived  in  Donegal  at  a  place 
called  Kilbarron  near  Ballyshannon.  A  tradi- 
tion avers  that  he  reached  America  in  one  of 
his  missions  by  sea,  and  informed  St.  Brendan, 
the  Navigator,  of  his  discovery.  Some  Irish 
Calendars  style  him  a  Bishop. 
•BARROG  (BARRWG)  (St.)  Hermit.       (Sept.  20) 

(7th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  the  great  Welsh 
Saint  Cadoc,  who  had  left  his  name  (often 
spelled  Barruc  or  Barnoch)  to  Barry  Island, 
off  the  coast  of  Glamorgan,  where  he  lived  a 
holy  life  as  an  anchoret  in  the  seventh  century. 
♦BARSABIAS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.     (Oct.  20) 

(4th  cent.)    A  Persian  Abbot  and  his  eleven 

monks    put   to    death    as    Christians    by    the 

persecuting  King,  Sapor  II,  near  the  ruins  of 

Persepolis  (a.d.  342). 

BARSABAS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  11) 

(4th    cent.)    A    Persian    Abbot    who,    with 
several  of  his  monks,  suffered  death  for  the 
Faith  under  King  Sapor  II  (a.d.  342). 
BARSANUPHIUS  (St.)  Hermit.  (April  11) 

(6th  cent.)  A  monk  of  a  monastery  near 
Gaza  in  Palestine,  who,  after  some  years,  left 
it  for  a  cell  in  the  desert  (A.D.  540).  He  wrote 
against  the  Origenists.  He  is  in  great  venera- 
tion among  the  Greeks,  who  keep  his  festival 
on  Feb.  6.  His  relics  were  translated  to  a  village 
near  Sipontum  (now  called  Manfredonia)  in  the 
South  of  Italy. 
BARSEN  (BARSO,  BARSAS)  (St.)  Bp.     (Jan.  30) 

(4th  cent.)    A   Bishop  of  Edessa  in  Syria, 
banished    to    Egypt    by    the    Arian    Emperor 
Valens.     He  died  in  exile  a.d.  379. 
BARSIMAEUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Jan.  30) 

(2nd  cent.)    The  third  Bishop  of  Edessa  in 
Syria,  put  to  death  as  a  Christian  by  the  Presi- 
dent Lysias,  under  the  Emperor  Trajan,  a.d. 
114. 
♦BARTHOLOMEW  (St.)  Conf.  (June  24) 

(12th  cent.)  A  native  of  Whitby  (Yorkshire), 
whose  name  in  the  world  was  William  or  Tostig. 
Entering  a  monastery,  he  elected  to  be  hence- 
forth   known    as    Bartholomew,    and    devoted 


himself  to  Apostolic  work  as  a  missionary  to 
Norway,  where  he  was  ordained  priest.  In 
his  old  age  he  betook  himself  to  a  hermit's  cell 
in  the  Island  of  Fame  off  the  coast  of  Northum- 
berland, where  he  died  A.D.  1193. 
BARTHOLOMEW  (St.)  Apostle.  (Aug.  24) 

(1st  cent.)  One  of  the  Twelve,  by  many 
thought  to  be  the  Nathanael,  the  "  Israelite 
without  guile  "  of  St.  John's  Gospel.  Tradition 
tells  us  that  he  preached  the  Gospel  after  the 
Ascension  in  North- West  India,  and  afterwards 
in  Asia  Minor,  and  that  in  the  end  he  suffered 
martyrdom  in  Greater  Armenia.  Some  say 
that  he  was  crucified,  others  that  he  was  flayed 
alive.  His  relics  have  for  the  last  thousand 
years  been  enshrined  in  his  Church  in  Rome, 
situated  on  the  Island  in  the  Tiber. 
BARTHOLOMEW  (St.)  Abbot.  (Nov.  11) 

(11th  cent.)  Born  in  Calabria  but  of  Greek 
descent,  he  followed  St.  Nilus  to  the  foundation 
of  the  monastery  of  Grotta  Ferrata  near  Rome, 
which  is  still  peopled  with  Greek  monks  who 
retain  all  the  distinctive  features  of  the  Oriental 
rite.  St.  Bartholomew  became  Abbot  of  the 
monastery,  where  he  died  a.d.  1054.  He  has 
left  a  Life  of  St.  Nilus  of  which  he  was  the 
author. 
BARULAS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  18) 

(4th  cent.)  A  child  of  seven  years  of  age 
who  confessed  the  Faith  which  he  had  learned 
from  St.  Romanus  the  Abbot,  and  who  with 
him  was  put  to  the  torture  and  beheaded 
at  Antioch  a.d.  303. 
♦BARYPSEBAS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  10) 

(1st  cent.)  A  pious  hermit  in  the  East  who, 
according  to  the  Greek  legend,  acquired  a  vessel 
containing  a  part  of  the  Sacred  Blood  which 
had  flowed  from  the  pierced  side  of  Our  Lord 
on  the  Cross,  and  conveyed  it  to  Europe.  He  is 
averred  to  have  suffered  martyrdom  in  Dal- 
matia. 
BASIL  and  PROCOPIUS  (SS.)  Conf.  (Feb.  27) 

(8th  cent.)  Famous  for  their  resistance  at 
Constantinople  to  the  Decree  of  Leo  the  Isaurian 
ordering  the  destruction  of  holy  pictures.  They 
entered  into  their  rest  about  the  middle  of  the 
eighth  century. 
BASIL,  EUGENE,  AGATHODORUS,  ELPIDIUS, 

JETHERJUS,    CAPITO,    EPHREM,   NESTOR 

and  ARCADIUS  (SS.)  Bps.,  MM.       (March  4) 

(4th  cent.)  These  nine  holy  pastors  of  souls 
flourished  at  the  end  of  the  third  and  beginning 
of  the  fourth  centuries.  Seven  of  them  were 
sent  as  missionary  Bishops  to  the  Crimea  and 
south  of  Russia ;  but  Nestor  and  Arcadius 
had  their  Sees  in  the  Island  of  Cyprus.  All 
alike  are  honoured  as  Martyrs  by  the  Greeks  on 
March  7,  and  by  the  Latin?  on  March  4,  though 
it  is  doubtful  if  either  Nestor  or  Arcadius 
perished  at  the  hands  of  the  enemies  of  the 
Faith. 
BASIL  (St.)  Bp.  (March  6) 

(4th  cent.)    Consecrated  Bishop  of  Bologna 

by  Pope  St.  Sylvester.     He  ruled  his  Diocese 

for  twenty  years  and  passed  away,  famous  for 

his  sanctity  of  life,  a.d.  335. 

BASIL  (St.)  M.  (March  22) 

(4th  cent.)  A  priest  of  Ancyra  in  Galatia 
(Asia  Minor),  a  victim  of  the  persecution  of 
Christians  set  on  foot  by  Julian  the  Apostate 
(A.D.  364).  He  was  put  to  the  torture  at 
Constantinople  (where  under  the  Arian  Emperor 
Constantius  lie  had  distinguished  himself  by 
his  zeal  in  preaching  against  heretics),  and  was 
afterwards  thrown  to  the  wild  beasts  in  the  arena 
at  Caesarea  in  Palestine. 
BASIL  and  EMMELIA  (SS.)  (May  30) 

(4th  cent.)  This  St.  Basil,  son  of  St.  Macrina 
the  Elder,  and  St.  Emmelia  his  wife,  were  the 
parents  of  St.  Basil  the  Great,  of  St.  Gregory 
Nyssen,  of  St.  Peter  of  Sebaste,  and  of  St. 
Macrina  the  Younger.  Exiled  as  a  Christian 
with  his  wife  in  the  time  of  the  persecuting 
Emperor  Galerius  Maximianus,  he  returned 
after  the  peace  of  the  Church  to  his  native 

39 


BASIL 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


city  of  Caesarea  in  Cappadocia,  and  lived  to 
a  great  age.  He  died  some  time  before  a.d.  370. 
St.  Gregory  Nazianzen,  the  friend  of  his  children, 
styles  him  "  the  instructor  of  all  men  in  Christian 
virtue." 
BASIL   THE   GBEAT   (St.)   Bp.,  (June  14) 

Doctor  of  the  Church. 

(4th  cent.)  St.  Basil,  surnamed  the  Great, 
one  of  the  most  celebrated  of  the  Greek  Fathers, 
came  of  a  family  of  Saints,  the  best  known  of 
whom  are  his  brother,  St.  Gregory  Nyssen,  and 
Ms  sister,  St.  Macrina.  Born  at  Caesarea  in 
Cappadocia  (Asia  Minor)  he  early  distinguished 
himself  as  a  student  at  Constantinople  and  at 
Athens,  in  which  last  city  he  contracted  a  close 
friendship  with  St.  Gregory  Nazianzen,  destined 
like  him  to  become  a  Bishop  and  Doctor  of  the 
Church.  St.  Basil  was  consecrated  Bishop  of 
Caesarea  on  June  14,  A.D.  370,  and  died  Jan.  1, 
A.D.  379.  He  is  famous  for  his  defence  before 
the  Emperor  Constantius  of  the  Catholic  Faith, 
and  in  particular  of  the  word  "  Consubstantial," 
inserted  in  the  Nicene  Creed.  He  has  left 
many  writings,  among  them  his  Hexaemeron 
or  Treatise  on  Genesis,  several  hundred  letters 
and  a  series  of  Homilies.  St.  Gregory  Nazianzen 
allots  to  him  the  first  place  among  commentators 
on  the  Bible,  and  the  great  scholar  Erasmus 
declares  St.  Basil  to  have  been  the  finest  orator 
of  all  time.  St.  Basil  led  the  life  of  a  monk, 
and  wrote  a  Rule  for  his  brethren  still  followed 
in  the  East.  In  art  St.  Basil  is  represented  as 
standing  near  a  fire  with  a  dove  perched  on  his 
arm.  His  Encomium,  by  his  brother,  St. 
Gregory  Nyssen,  and  his  Life  by  Amphilochius, 
are  among  religious  classics.  Cardinal  Newman's 
Life  of  St.  Basil  should  also  be  read. 
BASIL  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  28) 

See  SS.  STEPHEN,  BASIL,    &c 
BASILEUS  (St.)  M.  (March  2) 

See  SS.  JOVINUS  and  BASILEUS. 
BASILEUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (April  26) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Amasea  in  Pontus 
(Asia  Minor),  cast  into  the  sea  by  order  of  the 
Emperor  Licinius  (a.d.  319).  One  of  his  dis- 
ciples, by  name  Elpidiphorus,  instructed  by 
an  Angel,  recovered  his  body  and  gave  it 
Christian  burial. 
BASILEUS  (St.)  M.  (May  23) 

See  SS.  EPITACIUS  and  BASILEUS. 
BASILEUS,  AUXILIUS  and  SATURNINUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  27) 

(Date  uncertain.)  The  holy  Bishop  Basileus, 
the  name  of  whose  See  has  not  reached  our  times, 
suffered  martyrdom  at  Antioch  in  Syria,  to- 
gether with  two  other  Christians,  Auxilius  and 
Saturninus ;  but  dates  and  particulars  are 
altogether  wanting.  We  have  only  the  entries 
in  the  Martyrologies  and  ancient  lists  of  Martyrs 
to  guide  us. 
BASILIAN  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  18) 

See  SS.  THEOTIMUS  and  BASILIAN. 
BASILIDES,    TRIPOS,    MANDAL    and    OTHERS 

(SS.).  (June  10) 

(3rd  cent.)  Twenty-three  Christians,  mar- 
tyred outside  the  walls  of  Borne,  on  the  Aurelian 
Way,  under  the  Emperor  Aurelian  (A.D.  270- 
A.D.  275).  There  is  much  uncertainty  about 
these  Saints.  Some  authorities  (among  them 
the  Bollandists)  think  this  Basilides  to  be  iden- 
tical with  the  better  known  Basilides  of  June  12, 
who  also  was  martyred  on  the  Aurelian  Way. 
BASILIDES,  CYRINUS,  NABOR  and  NAZARIUS 

(SS.)MM.  (June  12) 

(4th  cent.)  Celebrated  Boman  Martyrs, 
put  to  death  under  Diocletian  (a.d.  304).  They 
are  described  as  soldiers  (perhaps  officers)  of 
noble  birth  in  the  Imperial  army.  They  were 
buried  in  the  Aurelian  Way,  near  the  place  of 
their  martyrdom. 
BASILIDES  (St.)  M.  (June  30) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  soldier  of  the  Guard  of  the 
Prefect  of  Egypt.  He  defended  St.  Potamia 
from  insult,  and  in  so  doing  won  the  gift  of 
Faith  and  the  crown  of  martyrdom  at  Alexan- 

40 


dria,  in  the  time  of  the  Emperor  Septimus 
Severus  (A.D.  205). 

BASILIDES  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  23) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Christian  layman  of  Cydonia 
in  Crete.  In  the  persecution  under  the  Emperor 
Decius  (a.d.  250)  he  was  beheaded  with  St. 
Theodulus  and  eight  others.  Their  relics  are 
in  Bome,  and  they  are  known  as  the  "  Ten 
Martyrs  of  Crete." 

BASILICUS  (BASILISCUS)  (St.)  M.        (March  3) 

(4th  cent.)     A  Christian  soldier  crucified  at 

Comana  in  Pontus  (Asia  Minor),  with  two  of  his 

comrades,  Eutropius  and  Clement,  during  the 

persecution  under  Maximian  Galerius  (a.d.  308). 

BASILICUS  (St.)  M.  (May  22) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Comana  in  Pontus 
(Asia  Minor),  who  was  beheaded  and  his  body 
thrown  into  a  river  near  Nicomedia  (a.d.  312), 
under  the  Emperor  Maximin  Daza.  The  Greeks 
honour  him  on  July  30.  This  was  the  holy 
Martyr  who,  appearing  to  St.  John  Chrysostom, 
intimated  to  him  that  on  the  morrow  that 
Saint'3  work  for  God  on  earth  would  end. 

BASILISSA  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  9) 

(4th  cent.)  The  wife  of  St.  Julian  the  Martyr 
with  whom  she  is  commemorated.  They  were 
Syrians  of  Antioch,  and  had  agreed  on  taking 
a  vow  of  perpetual  chastity,  to  be  observed, 
even  though  married.  This  vow  they  faith- 
fully kept.  St.  Basilissa  died  a  natural  death  ; 
but  has  been  honoured  as  a  Martyr  both  on 
account  of  her  own  sufferings  for  the  Faith  and 
because  of  her  being  commemorated  in  one 
festival  with  St.  Julian,  whom  she  encouraged 
to  offer  the  sacrifice  of  his  life  during  the 
persecution  under  Diocletian,  in  the  first  years 
of  the  fourth  centurv. 

BASILISSA  (St.)  V.M.  (March  22) 

(3rd  or  4th  cent.)  A  young  girl,  a  Christian, 
burned  alive  with  St.  Callinica,  at  Antioch, 
under  Diocletian  (a.d.  305;,  or,  as  others  say, 
with  greater  probability,  in  Galatia,  under 
Decius  (A.D.  250). 

BASILISSA  and  ANASTASIA  (SS.)  MM.  (April  15) 
(1st  cent.)  Noble  Boman  ladies,  who  were 
among  the  first  converts  in  the  metropolis  of 
the  Empire  to  Christianity.  They  are  said  to 
have  given  honourable  burial  to  the  bodies  of 
the  Apostles  SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  and  on  that 
account  to  have  themselves  perished  in  the 
massacre  of  Christians  instigated  and  carried 
out  bv  the  Emperor  Nero  (a.d.  68). 

♦BASINOS  (St.)  Bp.  (March  4) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Abbot  of  Treves,  afterwards 
Bishop  of  that  city,  very  much  against  his  own 
will.  He  was  a  friend  and  helper  of  the  English 
missionaries  to  Germany.  His  death  took  place 
before  a.d.  680. 

BASILISSA  (St.)  V.M.  (Sept.  3) 

(4th  cent.)  A  child  of  nine  years  of  age  who 
was  martyred  at  Nicomedia,  the  Imperial 
residence,  during  the  persecution  under  Dio- 
cletian, about  a.d.  303.  As  she  was  being  led 
to  execution,  one  of  the  officials,  by  name 
Alexander,  is  said  to  have  tlirown  himself  at  her 
feet,  declaring  his  belief  in  Christ,  and  to  have 
been  forthwith  baptised  by  the  little  Martyr. 

BASILLA  (St.)  M.  (May  17) 

See  SS.  ADRIO,  VICTOR,    &c. 

BASILLA  (St.)  V.M.  (May  20) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Roman  maiden  of  noble  line- 
age, one  of  the  victims  of  the  persecution  under 
Valerian  and  Gallienus  (a.d.  257).  The  Acts 
of  her  martyrdom  are  not,  however,  such  as  to 
merit  credit  in  regard  to  details.  Her  relics 
discovered  in  the  seventeenth  century,  have 
been  translated  to  Brittany.  Possibly,  this 
St.  Basilla  is  identical  with  the  St.  Babilla  also 
commemorated  on  May  20,  of  whom  the  Roman 
Martyrology  makes  no  mention. 

BASILLA  (St.)  (Aug.  29) 

(Date     unknown.)    A    holy    woman     who, 

according  to  the  Roman  Martyrology,  died  at 

Smyrna.     Other   Martyrologies   substitute    for 

Smyrna,  Sirmium  in  Pannonia  (now  Mitrowicz, 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


BEATRICE 


in    the    Balkans).    Unfortunately,    dates    and 
particulars  are  wanting. 

BASOLUS  (St.)  (Nov.  26) 

(7th  cent.)  A  famous  hermit,  born  at 
Limoges  (France),  who  entered  a  monastery 
near  Rheims,  but  later  retired  to  a  hut  on  the 
top  of  a  neighbouring  hill,  where  he  died  and 
was  buried,  a.d.  620,  after  by  prayer  and  fasting 
overcoming  many  assaults  of  the  evil  one. 
Later  his  monastery  was  rebuilt  over  his  tomb, 
and  his  relics  enshrined  in  it,  a.d.  879. 

BASSA  (St.)  M.  (March  6) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Christian  woman,  martyred  at 
Corinth,  or  as  others  say.  at  Nicomedia.  With 
her  suffered  her  husband,  Claudianus,  and  other 
two,  Victor  and  Victorinus.  It  is  added  that 
Bassa  had  been  three  years  in  prison  before 
being  put  to  the  torture  and  executed.  There  is 
great  uncertainty  as  to  the  date  of  their  martyr- 
dom ;  and  some  opinions  are  to  the  effect  that 
this  was  a  group  of  Syrian  Saints  who  suffered 
in  their  own  country.  Perhaps  this  St.  Bassa 
is  no  other  than  the  Martyr  of  that  name 
commemorated  on  Aug.  21. 

BASSA,  PAULA  and  AGATHONICA         (Aug.  10) 
(SS.)  VV.  MM. 

(Date  unknown.)  Three  Christian  maidens 
registered  in  the  accepted  lists  as  having  given 
their  lives  for  Christ  at  Carthage. 

BASSA,  THEOGONIUS,  AGAPIUS  and  FIDELIS 
(SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  21) 

(4th  cent.)  Bassa  was  a  devout  Christian 
woman,  wife  of  a  Pagan  priest,  who,  with  her 
three  sons,  suffered  death  for  her  Christian 
Faith  at  Edessa  in  Syria,  under  one  of  Dio- 
cletian's colleagues,  about  a.d.  304.  She  suf- 
fered the  last  of  the  four,  having  herself  en- 
couraged her  children  bravely  to  die  for  Christ, 
and  been  a  witness  of  their  triumph. 

BASSIAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  19) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Sicilian  by  birth,  Bishop  of 
Lodi  in  Lombardy,  and  mentioned  with  high 
praise  by  his  friend,  St.  Ambrose  of  Milan,  with 
whom  he  had  attended  the  Council  of  Aquileia 
(a.d.  381).  St.  Bassian  died  a.d.  413,  and  was 
buried  in  the  Church  which  he  had  dedicated 
in  honour  of  the  holy  Apostles  at  Lodi,  of  which 
city  he  is  the  Patron  Saint. 

BASSIAN  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  14) 

See  SS.  CYRION,  BASSIAN,    &c. 

BASSIAN  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  9) 

See  SS.  PETER.  SUCCESSUS,    &c. 

BASSUS,  ANTONIUS  and  PROTOLICUS  (Feb.  14) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  uncertain.)  All  the  ancient  Martyr- 
ologies  make  mention  on  Feb.  14  of  these 
Saints,  and  describe  them  as  having  been  cast 
into  the  sea  at  Alexandria  in  Egypt,  on  account 
of  their  Faith.  Some  MSS.  add  the  names  of 
nine  fellow-sufferers  with  them,  but  all  parti- 
culars have  long  since  been  lost. 

BASSUS  (St.)  M.  (May  11) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Roman  Christian  who  suffered 
martyrdom  on  the  Via  Salaria,  outside  the  walls  of 
Rome,  under  Diocletian  (a.d.  304).  With  him  SS. 
Maximus  and  Fabius  won  their  heavenly  crown. 
Besides  the  Martyrologies,  the  Acts  of  St.  Anthi- 
mus  the  Martyr  make  mention  of  this  St.  Bassus. 

BASSUS,  DIONYSIUS,  AGAPITUS  and  OTHERS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  20) 

(Date    uncertain.)    A    band    of    forty-three 

Christians  put  to  death  for  their  religion  at 

Heraclea  in  Thrace.     No  particulars  can  now 

be  found. 

BASSUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Dec.  3) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Nice  in  the  middle 
of  the  third  century.  Tortured  by  the  President 
Perennius,  under  the  Emperors  Decius  and 
Valerian,  he  at  length  was  put  to  death  about 
a.d.  257  by  having  his  body  transfixed  by  two 
huge  nails  or  spikes. 

BATHILDE  (St.)  Widow.  (Jan.  26) 

(7th  cent.)    An  accredited  tradition  tells  us 

that  she  was  an  Anglo-Saxon  princess  or  lady 

of  high  degree  who,  carried  off  from  her  native 


shores,  became  a  slave  in  the  family  of  the 
Mayor  of  the  Palace,  the  highest  official  of  the 
Frankish  Merovingian  Court.  Espoused  by 
King  Clovis  II,  she  became  the  mother  of  his 
successors,  Clothaire  III,  Childeric  II,  and 
Thierry  III,  and  on  the  death  of  her  husband 
was  made  Regent  of  his  kingdom.  She  re- 
founded  St.  Clotilde's  Abbey  of  Chelles,  whither 
she  retired  when  no  longer  required  to  govern 
for  her  sons,  and  where  she  died  A.D.  680. 
Generous  and  kind  to  all,  she  was  a  veritable 
mother  to  the  poor.  On  her  deathbed  a  vision 
of  Angels  summoned  her  to  mount  by  a  shining 
ladder  to  Paradise.  Artists  represent  her  in  a 
nun's  habit,  but  wearing  a  Royal  crown. 

BAUDELIUS  (St.)  M.  (May  20) 

(2nd  or  3rd  cent.)  A  married  layman,  born 
at  Orleans,  who  laboured  in  the  propagation  of 
Cliristianity  in  Gaul  and  in  the  end  was  put  to 
death  on  that  account  by  the  persecuting 
Roman  authorities  at  Nimes  in  the  south  of 
France.  As  in  many  similar  cases  of  Saints 
engaged  in  the  conversion  of  France,  there  is 
no  agreement  among  the  learned  as  to  the  date 
of  his  Apostolate.  Some  hold  that  he  was 
beheaded  in  the  year  187  ;  others  place  him 
more  than  a  century  later,  and  date  his  martyr- 
dom in  295.  He  has  always  been  in  great 
popular  veneration.  Some  four  hundred 
churches  in  France  and  Spain  have  been  dedi- 
cated in  his  honour. 

BAVO  (St.)  Conf.  (Oct.  1) 

(7th  cent.)  A  nobleman  of  the  district  of 
Liege,  who  led  an  irregular  life,  but  on  the 
death  of  his  wife  became  a  devout  penitent. 
Retiring  to  a  cell  in  a  forest,  he  gave  himself 
up  to  prayer  and  died  there  (a.d.  654).  He  is 
the  Patron  Saint  of  Ghent  and  of  Haerlem. 

*BATHUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.         (March  26) 

(4th   cent.)    A  family  consisting  of  father, 

mother,  two  sons  and  two  daughters,  put  to 

death  as  Christians,  somewhere  in  the  Balkans 

about  A.D.  370. 

BAUDRY  (St.)  Conf.  (Oct.  27) 

Otherwise  St.  BALDERIC,  which  see. 

*BAYA  and  MAURA  (SS.)  VV.  (Nov.  2) 

(10th  cent.)  Two  holy  Recluses  in  Scotland, 
St.  Baya  being  the  instructress  of  St.  Maura, 
and  the  latter  becoming  the  guide  of  a  fervent 
community  which  attached  itself  to  her.  There 
is  some  doubt  whether  or  not  St.  Baya  may 
not  be  identical  with  St.  Begha  or  St.  Bee,  a 
Saint  much  better  known. 

*BEANDAN  (BREANDAN)  (St.)  Abbot  (Jan.  11) 
(5th  cent.)  A  native  of  Ireland  who  crossed 
into  Britain.  There  he  suffered  persecution  at 
the  hands  of  the  Pelagian  heretics,  whose  errors 
had  become  in  his  time  widespread  in  the 
island.  Constrained  to  leave  the  country,  he 
took  refuge  in  Gaul,  and  entered  a  monastery 
of  which  he  later  became  the  Abbot.  Further 
particulars  concerning  him  are  lacking. 

BEAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  16) 

(11th  cent.)  A  Scottish  Saint,  Bishop  of 
Murtlach  in  Banff,  from  which  See  he  was 
later  transferred  to  Aberdeen.  He  is  said  to 
have  been  appointed  to  Aberdeen  by  Pope 
Benedict  VIII  about  A.d.  1012. 

Another  St.  Bean,  also  commemorated  on 
Dec.  16,  was  an  Irish  Bishop  in  Leinster.  The 
Feast  of  St.  Bean  of  Murtlach  is  more  properly 
kept  on  Oct.  26,  as  in  the  old  Aberdeen  Breviary 
and  the  present  Scottish  Calendar. 

BEATA  (St.)  M.  (March  8) 

See  SS.  CYRIL  ROGATUS,   &c. 

♦BEATRICE  of  ESTE  (Bl.)  V.  (Jan.  18) 

(13th  cent.)  An  Italian  princess  who,  on  the 
eve  of  her  wedding-day,  on  receiving  the  news 
of  the  death  in  battle  of  her  affianced  husband, 
resolved  on  giving  herself  entirely  to  God,  and 
founded  a  monastery  near  Ferrara,  which  she 
governed  for  many  years,  and  where  she  passed 
away,  a.d.  1270.  An  aunt  of  this  Saint,  also 
by  name  Beatrice,  like  her,  attained  to  the 
honours  of  the  Altar. 

41 


BEATRICE 


THE  BOOK  OP  SAINTS 


BEATRICE  (St.)  M.  (July  29) 

(4th  cent.)  Her  brothers,  SS.  Siraplicius  and 
Faustinus,  were  victims  of  the  persecution  under 
Diocletian  (a.d.  304)  and  their  bodies  were 
thrown  into  the  Tiber.  Beatrice,  having  re- 
covered their  remains  and  honourably  buried 
them,  went  to  live  with  St.  Lucina,  a  noble 
Christian  lady.  Later,  Beatrice  was  herself 
arrested  as  a  Christian  and  strangled  in  prison. 
♦BEATUS  (St.)  Bp.  (March  8) 

Otherwise  St.  BEOADH,  which  see. 
BEATUS  (St.)  Conf.  (May  9) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  native  of  Italy,  he  evangelised 
several  parts  of  France,  especially  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Laon,  where  be  chose  a  cave  for 
his  hermitage  and  passed  in  prayer  and  medi- 
tation all  the  time  which  he  did  not  spend  in 
missionary  work.  He  died  at  an  advanced 
age  towards  the  end  of  the  third  century. 

Another  account,  adopted  by  Baronms  and 
other  authorities,  relates  that  he  passed  the 
closing  year  of  his  life  in  Western  France,  and 
was  there  interred.  Again,  some  writers  post- 
date St.  Beatus  to  the  fifth  century.  But  it 
seems  clear  that  the  St.  Beatus  of  Vendome  is 
other  than  the  holy  man  who  evangelised  Laon, 
though  the  Roman  Martyrology  treats  the  two 
Saints  as  cne  and  the  same  person. 
•BECAN  (BEGAN)  (St.)  Abbot.  (April  5) 

(6th  cent.)  A  distinguished  Irish  Saint 
connected  with  St.  Columbkille.  He  founded 
a  monastery  at  Kil-Beggan  (West  Meath), 
later  a  Cistercian  Abbey  of  importance.  He 
also  gave  its  name  to  the  church  and  parish 
of  Emlagh  (Meath).  He  is  reckoned  as  one 
of  the  "  Twelve  Apostles  of  Ireland." 
♦BECAN  (St.)  Conf.  (May  26) 

(6th  cent.)    An  Irish  hermit  in  the  time  of 

St.  Columbkille.     He  lived  in  the  neighbourhood 

of  Cork  and  acquired  great  fame  on  account  of 

the  austerity  of  his  life. 

♦BECHE  (JOHN)  (Bl.)  M.  (Dec.  1) 

See  Bl.  JOHN  BECHE. 
♦BEDE  THE  YOUNGER  (St.)  Conf.         (April  10) 

(9th  cent.)  A  noble  of  high  rank  at  the 
Court  of  King  Charles  the  Bald  of  France,  who 
left  the  world  to  serve  God  in  a  monastery 
near  Rovigo  in  the  North  of  Italy.  Over  and 
over  again  he  refused  Ecclesiastical  preferment, 
and  passed  away  in  great  fame  of  sanctity, 
a.d.  883.  His  relics,  enshrined  at  Genoa,  were 
about  the  middle  of  the  nineteenth  century 
translated  to  the  Benedictine  Abbey  of  Subiaco. 
BEDE  (VENERABLE)  (St.)  Doctor  (May  27) 

of  the  Church. 

(8th  cent.)  The  Venerable  Bede,  styled  by 
Leland  "  the  chief  est  and  brightest  ornament 
of  the  English  nation,"  born  a.d.  673,  was  a 
Northumbrian.  He  was  educated  at  Jarrow, 
where  he  embraced  the  monastic  life  under 
St.  Benet  Biscop,  and  was  ordained  priest  by 
St.  John  of  Beverley.  Well  versed  in  the 
Latin  and  Greek  languages,  and  for  his  time  a 
fair  poet,  he  has  left  prose  works  on  the  most 
varied  subjects,  ranging  from  clever  expositions 
of  the  science  of  his  day  to  noble  commentaries 
on  Holy  Scripture.  His  Church  History  of 
the  English  has  earned  him  the  title  of  "  Father 
of  English  History."  It  is  a  plain  unadorned 
chronicle  ;  but  that  the  author  was  thoroughly 
honest  and  most  painstaking  is  evident  to  any 
reader.  St.  Bede  was  famous  not  only  for  his 
rare  learning,  but  still  more  so  for  the  holiness 
of  his  life.  The  account  of  his  death  (a.d.  735), 
which  took  place  on  Ascension  Eve,  written  by 
one  of  his  pupils,  is  touching  in  its  loving 
simplicity.  Bede's  last  words  were  "  Gloria 
Patri  et  Filio  et  Spiritni  Sancto." 

Trithemius  supposed  that  the  prefix  "  Vener- 
able," universally  given  to  St.  Bede,  came  from 
the  circumstance  that  his  Homilies  were  read  in 
churches  during  his  lifetime,  as  the  most  res- 
pectful appellation  of  one  who  had  no  claim 
as  yet  to  the  title  of  Saint ;  but  it  is  now 
generally  accepted  that  it  was  first  used  by 

42 


Amalarius    and    other    ninth    century    writers 
long  after  St.  Bede  had  acquired  the  honours 
due   to    a    Saint.     St.    Bede's    remains    were 
enshrined  in  Durham  Cathedral. 
*BEE  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  31) 

Otherwise  St.  BEGH  or  BEGA,  which  see. 
BEGGA  (St.)  Widow.  (Dec.  17) 

(7th  cent.)  A  daughter  of  Pepin  of  Landen, 
mayor  of  the  palace  in  the  Merovingian  Court, 
sister  of  St.  Gertrude  of  Nivelle  and  grandmother 
of  Charles  Martel.  On  the  death  of  her  husband 
she  made  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome,  and  returning 
to  her  own  country  gave  herself  up  to  good 
works.  She  is  said  to  have  founded  seven 
churches,  besides  a  convent  near  Namur,  in 
which  she  died,  a.d.  698. 
*BEGH  (BEGA,  BEE)  (St.)  V.  (Sept.  6) 

(7th  cent.)  A  holy  maiden  born  in  Ireland, 
who  crossed  over  to  Cumberland,  where  the 
promontory,  St.  Bee's  Head,  still  perpetuates 
her  memory,  as  does  the  name  of  the  village 
Kilbees  in  Scotland.  She  received  the  religious 
veil  from  St.  Aidan,  and  founded  a  monastery 
at  Copeland,  near  Whitehaven.  Distinguished 
in  life  for  charity  to  the  poor,  for  centuries 
after  her  death  she  was  in  the  greatest  venera- 
tion in  the  north-west  of  England,  and  her 
fame  spread  as  far  as  Norway.  There  were 
several  Saints  of  the  same  period  with  histories 
not  unlike  that  of  St.  Bee.  She  may  possibly 
be  the  virgin  Hieu,  mentioned  by  Venerable 
Bede.  Baring-Gould  distinguishes  three  St. 
Bees ;  the  first,  the  Irish  Saint  mentioned 
above ;  the  second  a  nun  in  Yorkshire  ;  and 
the  third  the  Abbess  of  Kilbees. 
*BELINA  (St.)  V.M.  (Feb.  19) 

(12th  cent.)    A  peasant  girl  of  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Troyes  (France),  who  died  in  defence 
of  her  chastity,  threatened  by  the  feudal  lord 
of  the  territory  (A.D.  1135). 
BELLINUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Nov.  26) 

(12th  cent.)    A  Bishop  of  Padua,  who  suffered 

death  in  the  faithful  discharge  of  his  pastoral 

duties  in  the  year  1151,  and  was  canonised  three 

centuries  later  by  Pope  Eugene  IV. 

BENEDICTA  (St.;  V.M.  (Jan.  4) 

(4th  cent.)     A  nun  or  "religious  woman," 

beheaded  in  the  time  of  Julian  the  Apostate 

(a.d.  364).    Fellow-sufferers  with  her  in  Rome 

were  Priscus,  a  priest,  and  Priscillian,  a  cleric. 

BENEDICTA  (St.)  V.  (May  6) 

(6th  cent.)  A  holy  nun  of  marvellously 
ascetic  life,  an  inmate  of  the  convent  founded  in 
Rome  by  St.  Galla,  of  whom  St.  Gregory  the 
Great  narrates  that  her  death  was  foretold  by 
St.  Peter,  seen  in  a  vision. 
BENEDICTA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  29) 

(3rd  cent.)  Martyred  at  Sens  in  France 
under  the  Emperor  Aurelian  (a.d.  273).  Her 
brother,  St.  Sanctian,  and  another  Martyr,  a 
St.  Augustine,  were  beheaded  at  the  same  time. 
They  are  said  to  have  all  been  natives  of  Spain, 
whence  they  had  passed  into  France.  Surius, 
with  others,  refuses  to  accept  tins  account  of 
St.  Benedicta,  nor  does  the  Roman  Martyrology 
number  her  among  the  Martyrs.  According  to 
the  moderns,  the  St.  Benedicta  (or  St.  Beata) 
venerated  at  Sens  was  in  all  likelihood  a  holy 
nun  of  the  locality,  though  it  is  possible  that 
there  may  have  been  there  an  earlier  Saint  of 
the  same  name. 
BENEDICTA  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  8) 

(3rd  cent.)  The  daughter  of  a  Roman 
senator  who,  inspired  with  a  desire  for  martyr- 
dom by  what  she  had  heard  of  the  triumph  of 
St.  Quentin,  settled  at  Origny-sur-Oise  in  the 
Diocese  of  Soissons,  where  she  was  instrumental 
in  propagating  Christianity.  Mathoclus,  her 
father,  enraged  at  her  miraculous  recovery 
from  the  many  tortures  he  had  had  inflicted 
upon  her,  is  said  himself  to  have  seized  the 
executioner's  axe  and  to  have  beheaded  her 
with  his  own  hands  (A.D.  262). 
BENEDICT  BISCOP  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  12) 

(7th  cent.)    A  Northumbrian  of  noble  birth 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


BENEDICT 


who,  after  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome,  embraced  the 
monastic  life  in  the  Isle  of  Lerins  (an  island  off 
the  Mediterranean  coast  of  France).  When 
again  in  Borne,  Fope  St.  Vitalian  ordered  him 
to  conduct  back  to  England  St.  Theodore,  Just 
made  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.  On  their 
arrival  he  himself  was  appointed  Abbot  of  St. 
Augustine's  monastery  at  Canterbury.  Other 
visits  to  Rome  followed,  and  in  the  end  North  - 
umbria  became  the  scene  of  St.  Benedict's 
labours  for  the  good  of  souls.  There  he  founded 
the  monasteries  of  Wearmouth  and  of  Jarrow. 
He  died  Jan.  12,  A.D.  690.  He  is,  above  all, 
celebrated  for  his  learning  and  for  his  zeal  in 
reforming  English  Church  discipline  in  con- 
formity with  that  obtaining  in  Rome  and  in 
general  in  the  West. 

♦BENEDICT  of  ANIANA  (St.)  Abbot.  (Feb.  11) 
(9th  cent.)  Born  in  Languedoc  in  the  eighth 
century,  he  has  been  styled  "  the  second 
Benedict  "  and  "  the  second  father  of  mona- 
sticism  in  the  West."  He  laboured  all  his 
lifelong  for  the  good  of  the  Church,  especially 
in  France.  Leaving  the  Court  of  Charlemagne, 
he  entered  the  monastery  of  St.  Seine  in  a  forest 
of  Burgundy ;  but  on  being  chosen  Abbot 
there,  fled  to  his  native  province  and  built 
himself  a  cell  in  the  gorge  of  the  stream  Aniane 
(Corbieres,  where  afterwards  arose  the  famous 
Abbey  of  St.  Sauveivr).  Later  he  passed  to 
the  neighbourhood  of  Aix-la-Chapelle,  where, 
on  the  banks  of  the  river  Inde,  the  Emperor 
Louis  le  Debonnaire  built  for  him  the  great 
Abbey  known  as  Cornelius-Munster.  He  at- 
tended the  Councils  of  Aries  (A.D.  813)  and  of 
Aix-la-Chapelle  (A.D.  817),  over  the  latter  of 
which  he  presided.  He  died  and  was  buried  at 
Inde  (a.d.  821).  His  writings  comprise  a  Code 
of  Monastic  Rules,  some  Homilies  and  a  Peni- 
tential. In  art,  he  is  often  represented  in  the 
act  of  clothing  St.  William  of  Aquitaine  with 
the  monastic  habit. 

BENEDICT  (St.)  Bp.  (March  11) 

(8th  cent.)  An  Archbishop  of  Milan,  of  the 
family  of  the  Crespi,  famous  all  over  Italy  for 
his  sanctity,  pastoral  zeal  and  charity.  He 
delivered  the  funeral  discourse  of  Ceadwalla 
of  Wessex,  the  Anglo-Saxon  king  baptised 
in  the  year  687  by  Pope  Sergius  in  Rome.  He 
died  a.d.  725,  in  the  forty-fourth  year  of  his 
Episcopate. 

BENEDICT  (SI.)  Abbot.  (March  21) 

(6th  cent.)  The  Patriarch  of  the  Western 
monks,  born  at  Norcia  in  Central  Italy  (a.d. 
480),  of  the  noble  family  of  the  Anicii.  In 
early  youth  he  retired  into  a  cave  in  the  moun- 
tains of  Subiaco  near  Rome,  where,  clothed 
with  the  religious  habit,  fed  and  instructed  by 
St.  Romanus,  a  Solitary  of  the  vicinity,  he  led 
a  hermit's  life.  After  three  years  of  solitude, 
he  built  at  Subiaco  twelve  monasteries  for  the 
numerous  disciples  that  had  gathered  round 
him.  In  the  year  529  he  left  Subiaco  for  Monte 
Cassino,  on  the  road  to  Naples,  and  there 
founded  the  great  Abbey  of  that  name,  an  event 
which  marked  in  some  sense  a  landmark  in  the 
history  of  religious  life  in  Europe.  St.  Gregory 
the  Great,  who  wrote  the  Life  of  St.  Benedict, 
mentions  also  a  monastery  of  nuns  presided 
over  by  the  Saint's  sister,  St.  Scholastica.  The 
Rule  written  by  St.  Benedict,  in  the  course  of 
a  hundred  years  or  so,  was  accepted  by  all  the 
Western  monks.  It  shows  the  way  to  religious 
perfection  by  the  practice  of  humility,  obedi- 
ence, prayer,  silence  and  retirement  from  the 
concerns  of  the  world.  St.  Benedict  died 
(a.d.  543),  standing  before  the  Altar,  immedi- 
ately after  having  received  Holy  Communion. 
In  art  he  is  represented  holding  a  book  on 
which  Is  a  serpent,  In  allusion  to  one  of  the 
miracles  he  wrought,  or  with  a  raven  at  his 
feet. 

BENEDICT  (St.)  (March  23) 

(6th  cent.)    A  monk  of  Campania,  mentioned 

by  St.  Gregory  the  Great,  whom  the  Goths, 


under  Totila,  when  devastating  Italy,  tried  to 
burn  alive,  but  were  miraculously  prevented 
from  effecting  their  purpose  (a.d.  550).  This 
St.  Benedict  was  a  contemporary  of  the  great 
St.  Benedict  of  Nursia,  and  was  personally 
known  to  him. 
BENEDICT  (St.)  (April  3) 

(16th  cent.)  Surnamed  the  "  Black,"  or  the 
Negro.  He  was  born  (a.d.  1526)  of  negro  par- 
ents at  a  village  near  Messina  in  Sicily.  His 
father  and  mother  were  slaves ;  but  he  was 
made  a  freeman.  An  Order  of  Hermits  which 
he  had  joined  being  suppressed  by  Pope  Pius 
IV,  he  entered  a  convent  of  Franciscan  Friars 
at  Palermo,  and,  though  only  a  lay-brother, 
was,  on  account  of  his  eminent  holiness  of  life, 
elected  Guardian  or  Superior  and  Master  of 
Novices.  He  died  April  4,  1589,  and  many 
years  afterwards,  when  his  coffin  was  opened, 
his  remains  were  found  incorrupt.  He  was 
beatified  a.d.  1743,  and  canonised  A.D.  1807.  . 
BENEDICT  JOSEPH  LABRE  (St.)  (April  16) 

(18th  cent.)  The  son  of  poor  parents  of 
Amettes  In  Artois  (France),  he  first  purposed 
to  enter  Into  some  Religious  Order,  but  after- 
wards realised  that  his  call  from  God  was  to 
a  life  of  utter  solitude.  He  made  several 
pilgrimages,  visiting  the  sanctuaries  of  France, 
Italy,  Switzerland  and  Germany.  He  every- 
where begged  his  food,  constantly  refusing 
money,  and  spent  his  time  in  almost  continuous 
prayer  before  the  Blessed  Sacrament.  He  died 
in  Rome  during  Holy  Week,  a.d.  1783.  He 
was  canonised  by  Pope  Plus  IX  In  1860, 
though  the  popular  veneration  of  the  poor 
mendicant  was  universal  in  Rome  long  before 
he  had  even  passed  from  this  world.  His  funeral 
cortege  resembled  a  triumphal  procession,  and 
up  to  our  own  time  his  shrine  Is  one  of  the  most 
frequented  In  Rome. 
•BENEDICT  (BENET)  OF  THE  BRIDGE 

(St.)  (April  28) 

(12th  cent.)    A  holy  man  of  Avignon,  locally 

venerated  as  having  been  aided  by  an  Angel 

to  construct  a  bridge  at  a  dangerous  ford  over 

the  river  Rhone.     He  died  a.d.  1184. 

BENEDICT  II  (St.)  Pope.  (May  7) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Roman  by  birth,  who  in  early 
life,  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  the  Holy 
Scriptures  and  of  the  Ecclesiastical  chant. 
On  the  death  of  St.  Leo  II  (a.d.  683)  he  was 
elected  Pope,  but  his  enthronement  was  delayed 
for  a  year  while  awaiting  the  confirmation  of  the 
Emperor  of  Constantinople,  up  to  that  time 
usually  sought.  It  was  mainly  on  account  of 
the  case  of  this  Pope  that  the  then  Emperor 
Constantine  Pogonatus  consented  that  thence- 
forth such  Imperial  approval  need  no  longer 
be  sought.  Pope  Benedict  died  A.d.  685,  and 
was  buried  in  St.  Peter's. 
BENEDICT  XI  (St.)  Pope.  (July  7) 

(14th  cent.)  Born  at  Treviso,  a.d.  1210, 
he  In  his  youth  joined  the  Dominican  Order,  of 
which  he  eventually  became  the  Master  General. 
Created  Cardinal  and  Bi«hop  of  Ostla,  he  was 
employed  by  Pope  Boniface  VIII  as  his  Nuncio 
and  peacemaker  in  England,  France,  Hungary, 
Poland,  Austria,  Denmark,  Servia  and  other 
countries.  Everywhere  he  conciliated  respect, 
and  acquired  fame  and  veneration  from  princes 
and  people  alike,  on  account  of  his  simple  piety 
and  spirit  of  self-sacrifice.  He  was,  moreover, 
a  man  of  first-rate  abilities,  and  well  versed  In 
the  learning  of  his  age.  He  was  elected  Pope, 
Oct.  21,  1303,  but  died  at  Perugia  in  the  July 
of  the  following  year.  In  the  few  months  of 
his  Pontificate  he  had  done  much  to  reform 
Church  discipline  and  to  repress  abuses.  Hence 
probably,  the  belief  current  at  the  time  that  he 
had  died  by  poison. 
BENEDICT  (St.)  (Oct.  23) 

(4th  cent.)  Described  as  Bishop  of  Samaria 
or  Sebaste  in  Palestine.  His  flock  was  dis- 
persed by  Julian  the  Apostate.  St.  Hilary  of 
Poitiers    received    him    and    gave    him    land, 

43 


BENEDICT 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


whereon  he  built  a  hermitage,  which  later 
became  the  Abbey  of  St.  Benedict  of  Quincay 
(a.d.  654).  His  relics,  hidden  in  the  fourteenth 
century  during  the  wars  between  France  and 
England,  were  never  afterwards  discovered. 
But  the  Bollandists  throw  doubts  on  the 
legendary  account  of  this  St.  Benedict,  certainly 
seriously  interpolated.  The  Church  com- 
memorates him  as  a  Saint,  but  not  as  a  Bishop. 
BENEDICT,     JOHN,     ISAAC,     MATTHEW     and 

CHRISTINUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  12) 

(11th  cent.)  Holy  men  of  the  Order  of  the 
Camaldolese  Hermits,  who  followed  St.  Bruno 
(otherwise  St.  Boniface)  into  Russia  to  preach 
the  Gospel.  They  with  some  others  were  put 
to  death  by  the  Pagans  at  Gnesen  in  Poland 
(a.d.  1004),  and  were  canonised  many  centuries 
later  bv  Pope  Julius  II. 
♦BENEDICTINE  MARTYRS  (BB.)  (Dec.  1) 

See     Bl.     RICHARD     WHITING,     HUGH 
FARINGDON,  JOHN  BECHE. 
*BENEZET  (St.)  Conf.  (April  14) 

Otherwise  St.  BENEDICT  OF  THE  BRIDGE, 
which  see. 
BENIGNUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  13) 

(4th  cent.)    A  priest  of  Todi  in  Umbria  (Italy) 
who  was  tortured   and  put  to  death  in  the 
persecution  under  Diocletian,  about  a.d.  303. 
BENIGNUS  (St.)  M.  (April  3) 

(Date  uncertain.)  Martyred  in  the  city  of 
Tomis  or  Tomois  on  the  Black  Sea,  near  the 
mouths  of  the  Danube.  His  name  is  joined 
with  that  of  a  Saint  Evagrius,  and  in  some 
MSS.  with  several  others. 
BENIGNUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (June  28) 

(6th  cent.)  A  French  Saint,  Bishop  probably 
of  Chartres,  who  is  mentioned  in  a  Decretal  of 
Pope  Pelagius  II  as  desirous  of  resigning  Ins 
See.  He  appears  to  have  retired  afterwards 
to  Utrecht.  St.  Gregory  of  Tours,  his  con- 
tempory,  refers  to  an  apparition  of  the  Saint. 
His  relics  were  rediscovered  at  Utrecht,  A.D. 
996. 
BENIGNUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  1) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Greek  of  Smyrna,  said  to  have 
been  sent  into  Gaul  by  St.  Poly  carp  and  to 
have  become  the  Apostle  of  Burgundy.  He 
planted  the  Faith  at  Autun  and  at  Langres, 
making  Dijon  the  centre  of  his  activity.  He 
was  tortured  and  put  to  death  in  the  persecu- 
tion under  the  Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius  (a.d. 
178).  Over  his  tomb  at  Dijon  has  been  erected 
the  noble  Abbey  Church  (now  Cathedral)  of 
St.  Benigne. 
♦BENIGNUS  (BENEN)  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  9) 

(5th  cent.)  A  favourite  disciple  of  St. 
Patrick,  and  his  siiccessor  in  the  See  of  Armagh. 
He  is  sometimes  styled  "  Benen,  son  of  Sessenen, 
St.  Patrick's  Psalmsinger."  The  Martyrology 
of  Donegal  gives  an  account  of  his  virtues, 
dwelling  particularly  on  his  piety  and  gentleness. 
Many  too  were  the  miracles  by  which  Almighty 
God  bore  witness  to  his  sanctity.  He  appears 
to  have  resigned  his  pastoral  charge  some  time 
before  his  holy  death,  which  took  place  about 
a.d.  469.  His  reputed  sojourn  at  Glastonbury 
is  probably  fictitious. 
BENIGNUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  20) 

(5th  cent.)  A.  Bishop  of  Milan,  who  displayed 
great  fortitude  and  devotedness  to  his  flock 
during  the  inroads  of  the  barbarian  assailants 
of  the  ancient  Roman  civilisation.  He  died 
A.D.  477. 
BENILDES  (St.)  M.  (June  15) 

(9th  cent.)  A  holy  woman  of  Cordova, 
who  was  so  moved  by  the  fortitude  displayed 
by  St.  Athanasius,  a  Spanish  priest,  during 
his  martyrdom  at  the  hands  of  the  Moorish 
invaders  of  the  country,  that  she  braved  death 
at  the  stake  on  the  following  day  (a.d.  853). 
Her  ashes  were  thrown  into  the  river  Guadal- 
quivir. 
*BENINCOSA  (Bl.)  Conf.  (June  20) 

(15th  cent.)    A  Saint  of  the  Servite  Order 
who  lived  a  life  of  penance  and  prayer,  as  a 
44 


hermit,  in  a  ceil  in  the  hilly  country  near  Siena, 
where  he  died  A.D.  1426. 
BENJAMIN  (St.)  M.  (March  31) 

(5th  cent.)  A  deacon  of  the  Church  in  Persia, 
who  having  been  imprisoned  for  the  Faith,  on 
refusing  as  a  condition  of  his  release  the  ceasing 
of  his  preaching  of  Christianity,  was  tortured  to 
death  (a.d.  424)  under  King  Varanes  (Bahran)  V. 
BENNET  (BENOIT,  BENET). 

Forms  of  the  name  BENEDICTUS  or  BENE- 
DICT. 
BENNO  (St.)  Bp.  (June  16) 

(11th  cent.)  Also  called  Benedict.  An  Abbot 
of  Hildesheim  in  Germany,  who,  appointed 
Bishop  of  Meissen,  was  much  persecuted  by  the 
Emperor  Henry  IV,  on  account  of  his  attach- 
ment to  Rome.  He,  almost  alone  of  the 
German  Bishops,  attended  St.  Gregory  the 
Seventh's  Council,  which  condemned  Henry's 
usurpation  of  Church  Rights.  Returned  to  his 
See,  he  died  after  a  long  and  fruitful  Episcopate, 
ad.  1106. 
*BENNO  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  3) 

(10th  cent.)  A  prince  of  the  Royal  House  of 
Burgundy,  who  embraced  the  Ecclesiastical 
state  and  became  Canon  of  Strasburg.  This 
dignity,  however,  he  soon  renounced,  and 
retired  into  solitude  in  Switzerland,  where, 
over  the  ruined  cell  of  St.  Meinrad  the  Martyr, 
he  built  a  monastery  for  himself  and  his  disciples, 
and  thus  founded  the  famous  Abbey  of  Einsie- 
deln.  The  Emperor  Henry  the  Fowler  called 
him  to  the  See  of  Metz,  where,  however,  his 
zeal  met  with  such  hostility  that  he  was  as- 
saulted,  blinded,  and  driven  out  of  the  city. 
Returning  to  Einsiedeln,  he  survived  for  eleven 
years,  and  on  his  death  (a.d.  940)  was  buried 
in  the  Ladye-Chapel  of  the  Abbey  Church. 
BENVENUTUS  (St.)  Bp.  (March  22) 

(13th  cent.)  A  Franciscan  Friar  of  holy  life, 
who  was  created  Bishop  of  Osimo  in  Central 
Italy  by  Pope  Urban  IV,  and  governed  that 
Diocese  for  thirteen  years  in  the  difficult  times 
of  the  Guelph  and  Chibelline  warfare.  Knowing 
beforehand  his  death  to  be  at  hand,  he  dis- 
tributed all  his  goods  to  the  poor,  and  lay  down 
to  die  before  the  High  Altar  of  his  Cathedral 
(a.d.  1276).  Many  miracles  having  been 
wrought  at  his  tomb,  he  was  canonised  by  Pope 
Martin  IV. 
*BEOADH  (BEATUS)  (St.)  Bp.  (March  8) 

(6th  cent.)  Aeodh  (Aidus),  an  Irish  Saint, 
acquired  the  prefix  Bo  on  accoimt  of  the 
greatness  of  his  virtues,  and  was  appointed 
Bishop  of  Ardcarne  (Roscommon).  Little  is 
known  of  his  Acts,  but  the  tradition  of  his 
piety  and  miracles  remains.  He  went  to  his 
reward  between  a.d.  518  and  a.d.  523.  The 
"  Bell  of  St.  Beoadh,"  a  beautiful  work  of  art, 
was  long  in  veneration  as  a  relic. 
*BEOCCA,  ETHOR  and  OTHERS  (April  10) 

(SS.)  MM 

(9th  cent.)  Monks  of  Chertsey  Abbey, 
burned  in  their  monastery  by  the  heathen 
Danes,  out  of  hatred  for  the  Christian  Faith, 
quite  as  much  as  because  they  were  Anglo- 
Saxons  (a.d.  878),  and  for  that  reason  venerated 
in  England  as  Martyrs. 
*BERACH  (BARACHIAS,  BERACHIUS) 

(St.)  Abbot.  (Feb.  15) 

(6th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Kilbarry 
(Co.  Dublin).  His  future  sanctity  having  been 
predicted  by  St.  Patrick,  St.  Berach  from  his 
birth  was  placed  under  the  care  of  his  uncle, 
St.  Freoch.  He  afterwards  became  St.  Kevin's 
disciple,  and  made  a  monastic  foundation  at 
Cluain-coirpthe  in  Connaught.  He  is  said  to 
have  survived  into  the  sixth  century,  but  the 
date  of  his  death  is  uncertain. 
BERARD,  PETER,  ACCURSIUS,  ADJUTUS  and 

OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Jan.  16) 

(13th  cent.)  Franciscan  Friars,  sent  by 
St.  Francis  himself  into  Spain  to  evangelise  the 
Moors.  From  Aragon  they  went  to  Coimbra 
in   Portugal,   and  then   passed   into   Morocco, 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


BERNARD 


where  they  were  put  to  the  torture  and  beheaded 
(A.D.  1220).  Their  relics  are  at  Coimbra,  and 
they  were  canonised  in  the  fifteenth  century 
by  Pope  Sixtus  IV. 

BERCHARIUS  (St.)  Abbot,  M.  (Oct.  16) 

(7th  cent.)  Born  in  Aquitaine  and  placed 
by  St.  Nivard  of  Rheims  under  the  care  of 
St.  Remaclus  of  Maestricht,  he  after  some  years 
embraced  the  monastic  life  in  the  monastery  of 
Luxeuil,  and  later  still  founded  the  Abbey  of 
HautvUliers  with  two  other  monasteries.  But 
in  that  of  Moutier-en-Der  he  was  stabbed  by 
an  unworthy  monk  whom  he  had  sharply  re- 
buked, and  died  of  the  effects  of  the  wound  on 
Easter  Eve,  A.D.  696. 

♦BERCTHUN  (BERTIN)  (St.)  Abbot.  (Sept.  24) 
(8th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  St.  John  of  Beverley, 
and  by  him  appointed  first  Abbot  of  Beverley, 
where  he  died,  A.D.  733. 

*BERCTUALD  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan  9) 

Otherwise  St.  BRITHWALD,  which  see. 

*BERE  (RICHARD)  (Bl.)  M.  (May  4) 

See  CARTHUSIAN  MARTYRS. 

•BERENICE  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  4) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  maiden,  who,  with 
her  mother,  St.  Domnina,  and  sister,  St. 
Prosdoce,  suffered  for  the  Faith  in  Syria,  during 
the  persecution  under  Diocletian  and  his 
colleagues  (a.d.  303-310).  Eusebius,  St.  John 
Chrysostom  and  other  early  writers  make 
mention  of  this  holy  martyr. 

*BERLINDA  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  3) 

(7th  cent.)  A  French  maiden  who  led  a  life 
of  prayer  and  penance  in  a  monastery  near 
Alost.  She  passed  away  at  the  close  of  the 
seventh  century,  and  is  still  in  great  popular 
veneration. 

BERNARD  (St.)  Bp.  (March  12) 

(12th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Carinola  in  the 
Italian  Province  called  Terra  di  Lavoro,  a  suf- 
fragan See  of  Capua,  now  united  to  the  Bishopric 
of  Sessa,  which  St.  Bernard  himself  had  trans- 
ferred from  the  ancient  city  of  Forum  Claudii. 
He  died  in  extreme  old  age  at  Capua  (A.D.  1109), 
and  is  still  famous  for  the  miracles  wrought 
at  his  tomb. 

♦BERNARD  cf  TIRON  (St.)  Abbot.  (April  14) 

(12th  cent.)  A  French  monk  of  Poitou  who, 
after  leading  for  some  time  an  Eremitical  life, 
and  later  devoting  himself  to  preaching,  retired 
into  the  Forest  of  Tiron,  and  there  founded  a 
monastery  which  became  the  Head  House  of 
a  Benedictine  Congregation.  St.  Bernard  died 
A.D.  1117  at  the  age  of  seventy.  His  Con- 
gregation spread  to  the  British  Isles,  among  its 
monasteries  being  that  of  the  Isle  of  Caldey. 

♦BERNARD  of  CORLEONE  (Bl.)  (April  29) 

(17th  cent.)  A  Capuchin  lay-brother,  a  native 
of  Sicily,  who,  having  been  in  his  youth  a  soldier, 
at  the  age  of  twenty-seven  embraced  the  Religi- 
ous life,  and  till  his  death  (A.D.  1667),  thirty-five 
years  later,  passed  his  days  in  the  practice  of 
severe  penance,  doing  good  to  his  neighbour 
by  his  example,  and  by  his  wise  counsels ;  for 
the  giving  of  which,  to  the  many  who  addressed 
themselves  to  him,  Almighty  God  bestowed 
special  graces  on  the  poor  unlettered  Saint. 

♦BERNARD  of  OFFIDA  (Bl.)  (Aug.  22) 

(17th  cent.)  An  Italian  peasant  who  became 
a  Capuchin  lay-brother.  He  was  distinguished 
for  his  charity  to  the  poor  and  for  the  wonderful 
graces  lavished  upon  him  by  Almighty  God. 
He  died  a.d.  ]  694  at  the  age  of  ninety. 

BERNARD  (BERNWARD)  of  HILDESHEIM  (St.) 
Bp.  (Oct.  26) 

Otherwise  St.  BERWARD,  which  see. 

BERNARD  of  MENTHON  (St.)  (June  15) 

(11th  cent.)  Born  in  Savoy  A.D.  923,  and 
styled  Bernard  of  Menthon  or  Mentone,  his 
birthplace,  a  village  near  Annecy.  He  studied 
under  Peter  of  Aosta  and  was  elected  Arch- 
deacon of  that  Diocese.  He  founded  the 
Hospices  of  the  Great  and  Little  St.  Bernard, 
and  began  a  community  of  Hospitallers  under 
the  Rule  of  St.  Augustine,  earning  himself  by 


his  zeal  and  charity  to  poor  travellers  and  to 
the  mountaineers  of  those  regions  the  title  of 
"  Apostle  of  the  Alps."  He  died  at  Novara  in 
Piedmont  A.D.  1008,  and  was  at  once  popularly 
venerated  as  a  Saint,  though  not  formally 
canonised  till  the  Pontificate  of  Innocent  XI 
(A.D.  1681).  The  community  he  established 
in  the  Alps,  as  is  well  known,  still  continues  the 
charitable  work  he  set  them. 

BERNARD  (St.)  Abbot.     Doctor  (Aug.  20) 

of  the  Church. 

(12th  cent.)  This  famous  French  Saint, 
surnamed  the  "  mellifluous  Doctor,"  was  born 
at  Fontaines,  near  Dijon  (A.D.  1091).  At  the 
age  of  twenty-three  he  consecrated  himself  to 
God  under  the  leadership  of  the  holy  English 
Abbot,  St.  Stephen  Harding,  in  the  newly 
instituted  Abbey  of  Citeaux,  and  became  the 
second  founder  of  the  austere  Cistercian  Order, 
of  which  the  Trappists  are  now  the  best  known 
branch.  In  obedience  to  St.  Stephen,  Bernard, 
in  the  year  1115,  founded  the  Abbey  of  Clair- 
vaux,  of  which  he  remained  Abbot  for  the  rest 
of  his  life,  besides  erecting  several  other  mona- 
steries. He  preached  the  Second  Crusade  in 
France  (a.d.  1146),  exerted  a  strong  and  healthy 
influence  on  the  European  politics  of  his  age, 
and  by  his  prudence  and  zeal  healed  more  than 
one  incipient  schism.  He  passed  away  at 
Clairvaux,  Aug.  20,  1153,  and  was  buried  in 
the  Ladye-Chapel  of  his  Abbey.  Since  its 
destruction  in  1792  his  relics  have  been  vener- 
ated in  the  neighbouring  parish  church.  Alex- 
ander III  canonised  St.  Bernard  twelve  years 
after  his  death  ;  and  Pius  VIII  proclaimed  him 
a  Doctor  of  the  Church.  Notable  among  his 
writings  are  his  noble  Treatise  on  the  Canticle 
of  Canticles,  and  his  book,  Be  Consideratione, 
addressed  to  Pope  Eugene  III,  who  had  been 
one  of  his  monks.  To  him  also  is  attributed 
the  familiar  Hymn,  "  Jesu  dulcis  memoria " 
(Jesus,  the  only  thought  of  Thee).  His  tender 
devotion  to  Our  Blessed  Lady  has  led  to  the 
liturgical  use  of  his  Homilies  on  her  festival 
days.  He  is  often  represented  with  three 
mitres  on  a  book,  or  at  his  feet,  in  allusion 
to  his  refusal  of  three  Bishoprics — or  with  a 
beehive  near  him — or  again,  with  an  Angel 
holding  his  crozier. 

♦BERNARD  DE  ALZIVA  and  OTHERS  (SS.) 

MM.  (Aug.  21) 

(12th  cent.)    A  converted  Moslem  Prince  in 

Spain,  put  to  death  for  the  Faith  (A.D.  1180) 

with  his  two  sisters,  who  had  like  him  embraced 

Christianity. 

BERNARD  PTOLOMEI  (St.)  Abbot.  (Aug.  21) 
(14th  cent.)  A  citizen  of  Siena,  educated 
by  his  relative,  Christopher  Ptolemy,  a  learned 
Dominican  Friar.  He  retired  from  the  world, 
choosing  the  Rule  of  St.  Benedict  as  that  to 
be  followed  by  himself  and  such  of  his  friends 
as  elected  to  place  themselves  under  his  direc- 
tion. He  thus  founded  the  Congregation  of  the 
Olivetans,  vowed  to  the  Eremitical  life.  It  was 
approved  by  several  of  the  Popes  of  the  period, 
and  still  exists.  The  brethren  are  robed  in 
white  from  head  to  foot.  St.  Bernard  died 
A.D.  1348  in  his  sixty-sixth  year. 

BERNARD  (St.)  (Oct.  14) 

(11th  cent.)  Some  writers  say  that  this  holy 
man  was  by  birth  an  Englishman  ;  others  that 
he  was  of  French  parentage.  He  appears  to 
have  come  as  a  pilgrim  to  Rome,  and  after- 
wards to  have  lived  a  hermit's  life  near  Arpino 
in  Latium,  where  he  died.  His  relics  are  in 
high  veneration  in  the  neighbouring  town  of 
Arce,  whither  they  were  translated.  He 
probably  died  in  the  latter  half  of  the  eleventh 
century. 

BERNARD  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  4) 

(12th  cent.)  A  Florentine  of  the  noble  family 
of  the  Uberti,  who  sacrificed  a  brilliant  career 
to  become  a  poor  monk  of  the  Order  of  Vallom- 
brosa,  in  its  monastery  of  San  Salvio.  So  remark- 
able was  he,  however,  not  only  for  sanctity, 

45 


BERNARDINE 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


but  for  intellectual  ability  and  skill  in  business, 
that  he  was  chosen  as  Abbot  General  of  his 
Order,  and  later  created  Cardinal  by  Pope 
Urban  II,  who  again  and  again  employed  him 
as  his  Legate.  He  was  indefatigable  in  putting 
down  simony,  at  that  period  rife  in  Italy.  Con- 
secrated Bishop  of  Parma  (a.d.  1106)  by  Pope 
Paschal  II,  he  died  (A.d.  1132)  after  an  Epis- 
copate singularly  distinguished  by  his  success 
in  promoting  Christian  piety.  He  is  said  to 
have  steadfastly  continued  the  austerities 
practised  in  his  Order  to  the  very  day  of  his 
death. 
BERNARDINE  of  SIENA  (St.)  (May  20) 

(15th  cent.)  Born  at  Massa  of  the  noble 
family  of  the  Albizeschi  of  Siena  (a.d.  1380), 
after  spending  himself  in  the  service  of  the 
sick  in  the  public  hospitals,  he  entered  the 
Franciscan  Order,  which  he  illustrated  by  his 
religious  fervour.  Famous  for  his  devotion  to 
our  Blessed  Lady,  the  Feast  of  whose  Nativity 
was  the  date  of  his  own  birth,  of  his  religious 
profession,  of  his  first  Mass  and  of  his  first 
sermon,  he  successively  refused  the  Bishoprics 
of  Siena,  of  Ferrara  and  of  Urbino.  But, 
elected  Vicar- General  of  his  Order,  he  was  the 
author  of  a  great  reform  among  its  members. 
He  died  at  Aquila  in  the  south  of  Italy  (A.d. 
1444)  and  was  canonised  five  years  after  his 
death  by  Pope  Nicholas  V.  He  has  left  many 
valuable    ascetic    writings,    and    instituted    or 

Jropagated  the  cultus  of  the  Holy  Name  of  Jesus, 
n  art,  he  is  usually  represented  in  the  Fran- 
ciscan habit,  holding  to  his  breast  the  monogram 
IHS  (the  three  first  letters  of  the  Greek  form  of 
that  Most  Holy  name),  with  a  mitre  at  his  feet. 
He  is  also  pictured  with  the  Infant  Jesus  in  his 
arms. 
♦BERNARDINO  REALINI  (BI.)  (July  3) 

(18th  cent.)  An  Italian  Saint  of  the  Society 
of  Jesus,  one  of  those  who  in  the  seventeenth 
and  eighteenth  centuries  devoted  themselves 
to  the  reformation  of  the  lives  of  the  Christian 
people     by     preaching     and     manifold     self- 

*BERNO  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  13) 

(10th  cent.)  Born  in  Burgundy  about  the 
middle  of  the  ninth  century,  he  took  the 
religious  habit  in  the  Abbey  of  St.  Martin  of 
Autun,  and  fifty  years  later  founded  those  of 
Gigny  and  Baume.  But  he  is  chiefly  known  as 
the  first  Abbot  of  Cluny  near  Macon,  a  famous 
Benedictine  monastery,  cradle  of  the  great 
Religious  Congregation  of  the  same  name.  In 
his  old  age  St.  Berno  resigned  his  crozier  to 
his  disciple  St.  Odo  (a.d.  926),  dying  in  the 
following  year. 
BERONICUS,  PELAGIA  and  OTHERS  (SS.) 

MM.  (Oct.  19) 

(Date  uncertain.)  A  group  of  fifty-nine  Chris- 
tians put  to  death  at  Antioch  in  one  of  the  early 
persecutions.  Though  all  the  ancient  Martyro- 
logies  register  them  on  Oct.  19,  no  particulars 
concerning  them  are  now  extant. 
*BERTELLIN  (St.)  (Sept.  9) 

(Date  uncertain.)    An  English  Saint,  a  hermit, 

in  the  neighbourhood  of  Stafford,  whose  legend 

is  too  unsatisfactory  to  allow  of  any  reliable 

particulars  about  bim  being  drawn  from  it. 

*BERTHA  (St.)  Widow.  (July  4) 

(8th  cent.)  A  holy  woman  of  English 
extraction  who  built  a  monastery  in  the 
north  of  France  over  which  she  presided  as 
Abbess,  and  where  she  died  about  a.d.  725. 
Bertha,  the  Christian  Queen  of  King  Ethelbert 
of  Kent,  has  never  been  honoured  as  a  Saint. 
*BERTHANC  (BERCHAN)  (St.)  Bp.  (April  6) 

(9th  cent.)  A  Saint  of  this  name  occurs  in 
all  the  Scottish  Kalendars.  He  is  described  as 
Bishop  of  Kirkwall  in  the  Orkneys,  and  is  said 
to  have  passed  his  youth  in  the  celebrated 
monastery  of  St.  Columba  at  Iona.  He  seems 
to  have  died  in  Ireland  about  a.d.  840 ;  and 
his  tomb  was  shown  at  Inishmore  on  the  Bay 
of   Gal  way.    Hence   perhaps   his   surname   of 

46 


Fer-da-Leithe  (the  man  of  two  parts  or  coun- 
tries). 

♦BERTHOLD  (St.)  (June  16) 

(6th  cent.)  In  the  Breviary,  St.  Berthold  or 
Bertaud  is  said  to  have  come  from  Ireland 
with  a  St.  Amandus,  and  to  have  settled  at 
Chaumont  in  the  Diocese  of  Rheims,  where  he 
was  ordained  priest  by  St.  Remigius.  He 
died  at  the  age  of  seventy-three,  A.D.  540. 

*BERTHOLD  (St.)  (Oct.  21) 

(11th  cent.)  An  Anglo-Saxon  whose  parents 
had  fled  from  England  at  the  Norman  Con- 
quest (A.D.  1066)  and  settled  in  Italy,  first  at 
Milan  and  afterwards  at  Parma,  where  the 
Saint  was  born.  He  became  a  lay-brother  in 
the  monastery  of  St.  Alexander,  where  he  lived 
a  humble  and  saintly  life,  and  where  his  relics 
are  preserved.     He  died  about  the  year  1101. 

*BERTHWALD  (BRITHWALD)  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  9) 
(8th  cent.)  A  Benedictine  monk  who,  it  is 
said,  resigned  the  dignity  of  Abbot  of  Glaston- 
bury in  order  to  seclude  himself  in  the  insigni- 
ficant monastery  of  Reculver  in  the  Isle  of 
Thanet.  He  was  not,  however,  able  to  avoid 
acceptance  of  the  Archbishopric  of  Canterbury 
(a.d.  692)  in  succession  to  St.  Theodore.  He 
assisted  at  the  Synod  of  Nidd,  in  which  St. 
Wilfrid  was  justified  and  restored  to  his  See. 
He  consecrated  St.  Aldhelm  to  the  West  Saxon 
Bishopric  of  Sherborne.  After  a  long  and 
strenuous  Eniscopate  St.  Brithwald  died 
A.D.  731. 

♦BERTILIA  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  3) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Belgian  Saint  who  lived  as  a 
recluse  in  a  cell  adjoining  a  church  she  had 
built  at  Marolles,  where  she  died  A.D.  687. 

BERTIN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Sept.  5) 

(8th  cent.)  A  monk  at  Luxeuil  in  Eastern 
France,  under  his  kinsman,  the  Abbot  St.  Omer, 
who  preached  the  Gospel  in  various  parts  of 
France.  Besides  other  monasteries,  he  founded 
the  Abbey  of  Sithin  (now  St.  Omer),  and 
became  its  first  Abbot.  In  the  end,  owing  to 
his  advanced  age,  he  resigned  this  position,  and 
betook  himself  to  a  hermit's  cell,  where  he  died 
a  centenarian  (a.d.  709).  Baronius  and  others 
alter  this  date  to  A.D.  698. 

*BERTIN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Sept.  24) 

Otherwise  St.  BERCTHUN,  which  see. 

♦BERTOARA  (St.)  V.  (Dec.  12) 

(7th  cent.)    A  French  Saint  enriched  with 

many    supernatural    gifts,    who    founded    at 

Bourges  a  monastery  under  the  austere  Rule 

of  St.  Columbanus,  dying  there  about  a.d.  689. 

♦BERTRAM  (St.)  Conf.  (Sept.  9) 

Otherwise  St.  BETTELIN,  which  see. 

•BERTRAND  (BERTRAM,  BERTI-CHRAMNUS) 
(St.)  Bp.  (July  3) 

(7th  cent.)  Appointed,  because  of  his  merits, 
Archdeacon  by  St.  Germanus  of  Paris,  and 
afterwards  promoted  to  the  Bishopric  of  Le 
Mans.  In  troublous  times  he  laboured  much 
and  successfully  in  the  interests  of  both  Church 
and  State.     His  death  is  placed  A.D.  623. 

*BERTRAND  of  COMMINGES  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  16) 
(12th  cent.)  A  saintly  prelate  who  governed 
the  Diocese  of  Comminges  (France)  for  fifty 
years.     He  died  about  a.d.  1120. 

*BERTUIN  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  11) 

(7th  cent.)  Said  by  some  to  have  been  an 
Irishman,  by  others  of  a  noble  English  family. 
He  was  brought  up  in  an  English  monastery, 
and  the  tradition  is  that  he  was  consecrated 
Bishop  while  still  in  England,  probably  as  a 
Missionary  Prelate,  as  he  proceeded  to  Belgium 
and  settled  on  the  banks  of  the  Sambre,  where 
he  built  a  church  and  abbey  which  he  dedicated 
to  Our  Blessed  Lady  at  a  place  called  Maloigne, 
near  Namur.  a.d.  698  is  given  as  the  date  of 
his  death. 

*BERTULPH  (St.)  Abbot.  (Feb.  5) 

(8th  cent.)    An  Abbot,  the  accounts  of  whose 

life   are   unfortunately   untrustworthy.     He  is 

venerated    in    the    north   of    France    and    in 

Belgium. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


BLAAN 


BERWARD  (BERNWARD,  BERNARD) 

(St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  26) 

(11th  cent.)  A  celebrated  Bishop  of  Hildes- 
heim  in  Saxony.  Famous  for  his  learning  and 
virtues,  it  was  to  him  that  the  Emperor  Otho  II 
on  his  deathbed  entrusted  the  guardianship 
of  his  son  and  successor,  Otho  III.  St.  Berward 
died  in  the  year  1021  (or  1023),  and  was  canon- 
ised by  Pope  Celestine  III  in  1194.  St.  Ber- 
ward caused  to  be  cast  the  fine  metal  gates 
of  Hildesheim  Cathedral,  where  is  also  preserved 
a  splendid  copy  of  the  Gospels,  written  and 
illuminated  by  the  Saint's  own  hand. 
BESAS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  27) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  soldier  who  suffered  at  Alex- 
andria in  Egypt  under  the  Emperor  Decius  for 
having  shown  the  indignation  he  felt  at  the 
sight  of  the  horrible  torments  inflicted  on  the 
Martyrs,  SS.  Julian  and  Euno. 
BESSARION  (St.)  Conf.  (June  17) 

(4th  cent.)  One  of  the  Fathers  of  the 
Egyptian  Desert.  His  virtues  and  miracles 
were  such  that  Greek  writers  compare  him  to 
Moses,  Elias,  and  others  of  the  prophets.  He 
must  have  died  before  A.d.  400.  The  Greeks 
keep  his  Feast  on  June  6. 
♦BETTELIN  (BETHLIN,  BETHELM)  (Sept.  9) 
(St.)  Conf. 

(8th  cent.)  Supposed  to  be  the  same  as  the 
St.  Bertram  whose  memory  is  preserved  at  Ham 
in  Staffordshire,  where  there  exist  a  chapel, 
a  spring  and  a  well,  each  called  after  him.  He 
was  a  disciple  of  St.  Guthlac  and  lived  in  a 
hermitage  near  Croyland.  It  is  presumed  that 
his  relics  were  conveyed  to  Stafford  before  the 
destruction  of  Croyland  by  the  Danes,  and  that 
this  accounts  for  the  veneration  in  Catholic 
times  of  St.  Bettelin  in  that  neighbourhood. 
We  have  no  means  of  fixing  the  precise  date  of 
the  death  of  this  Saint. 
♦BEUNO  (St.)  Abbot.  (April  21) 

(7th  cent.)  Of  a  princely  family  in  ancient 
Wales,  educated  in  the  monastery  of  Bangor, 
and  in  his  afterlife  founder  and  ruler  of  several 
monasteries  in  North  Wales ;  Clynnog  in 
Carnarvonshire  was  his  chief  residence.  He 
died,  and  was  buried  there  some  time  in  the 
first  half  of  the  seventh  century.  Butler  notes 
some  curious  customs,  vestiges  of  the  ancient 
cultus  of  St.  Beuno,  existing  in  his  time  in 
Carnarvonshire ;  but  the  memory  of  the  Saint 
has  happily  been  revived  in  our  own  age  by 
the  foundation  of  the  important  Ecclesiastical 
establishment  known  as  St.  Beuno 's  College. 
BEUVE  (St.)  (April  24) 

Otherwise  St.  BOVA,  which  see. 

*BERTILLA  (St.)  V.  (Nov.  5) 

(7th  cent.)    An  Abbess  of  the  Benedictine 

Order    in   the    monastery    of   Jouarre    in   the 

Diocese  of  Meaux.     She  was  chosen  to  be  the 

first  Abbess  of  Chelles,  where  she  died,  having 

presided  over  her  community  for  more  than 

forty-six    years    (A.D.    692).     Queen    Bathilde, 

the  foundress,  took  the  veil  at  Chelles,  as  did 

St.  Hereswitha  or  Hereswide,  Queen  of  East 

Anglia  and  sister  of  St.  Hilda  of  Whitby. 

BIANOR  and  SYLVANUS  (SS.)  MM.         (July  10) 

(4th  cent.)    Christians  martyred  in  Pisidia 

(Asia  Minor)  under  an  Imperial  magistrate,  by 

name     Severian.     They     were    tortured     and 

beheaded.    They    probably    suffered    at    the 

beginning  of  the  fourth  century,  but  the  extant 

Greek  Acts  are  not  trustworthy. 

BIBIAN A  (VIBIANA,  VD7IAN)  (St.)  V.M.   (Dec.  2) 

(4th  cent.)    St.   Bibiana  was  the  daughter 

and  sister  of  Martyrs.     Her  father,  St.  Flavian, 

her    mother,    St.    Daphrosa,    and    her    sister, 

St.    Demetria,    all   laid   down   their   lives    for 

Christ.     St.   Bibiana  herself  was  scourged  to 

death  at  Rome  in  the  persecution  under  Julian 

the  Apostate  (A.D.  363).     A  very  long  account 

is  given  of  her  sufferings  in  a  composition  much 

accredited   in   the   Middle   Ages ;     but   which 

resists    badly   scientific  criticism.    Her    name, 

with  the  place  and  fact  of  her  martyrdom, 


are  all  that  can  be  asserted  with  certainty. 
Her  fame  has  been  widespread  from  early  ages. 
She  is  Patron  Saint  of  churches  in  Spain  and  in 
Germany.  Her  church  in  Rome  was  dedicated 
by  Pope  St.  Simplicius,  about  one  hundred 
years  after  her  passion ;  and  she  is  liturgically 
commemorated  yearly  in  the  Universal  Church 
on  the  anniversary  of  her  martyrdom.  In  art, 
she  is  often  represented  holding  in  her  hand  a 
green  branch  covered  with  twigs  and  foliage. 

*BIBLIG  (PEBLIG)  (St.)  (July  3) 

(5th  cent,  probably.)  A  Welsh  Saint  con- 
nected with  Carnarvon,  but  particulars  con- 
cerning whom  are  lacking. 

BIBLIS  (St.)  V.M.  (June  2) 

(2nd  cent.)  One  of  the  Martyrs  of  Lyons, 
under  the  Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius  (a.d.  177). 
These  were  the  Bishop  St.  Photinus,  the  virgin 
St.  Blandina,  and  forty-four  other  Christians. 
St.  Biblis  was  put  to  the  torture  to  force  her  to 
admit  the  crime  of  cannibalism  very  commonly 
at  that  period  imputed  to  Christians.  At  the 
outset,  terrified  at  the  horrors  of  the  torture 
chamber,  she  showed  signs  of  weakness,  but 
strengthened  by  prayer  and  the  example  of 
her  fellow-sufferers,  she  in  the  end  bravely  laid 
down,  like  them,  her  life  for  Christ. 

*BIEUZY  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  24) 

(7th  cent.)    A  native  of  Great  Britain,  who 

followed  St.  Gildas  to  Brittany.     We  have  no 

particulars  of  his  life  or  of  the  martyrdom  which 

*BILFRID(BILLFRITH)  (St.)  (March  6) 

(8th  cent.)  A  hermit,  a  skilled  goldsmith, 
who  bound  in  gold  the  Lindisfarne  copy  of  the 
Gospels,  written  and  illuminated  by  Bishop 
Eadfrid.  In  life  and  in  death  he  was  in  great 
popular  veneration  on  account  of  the  austere 
sanctity  of  his  life.  His  death  took  place 
between  a.d.  740  and  A.D.  756  ;  but  the  day 
is  uncertain.  March  6  is  the  anniversary  of  the 
Translation  of  his  relics,  together  with  those 
of  St.  Balther  to  Durham. 
♦BILHILD  (St.)  Widow.  (Nov.  27) 

(8th  cent.)    A  holy  woman  who,  after  the 

death  of  her  husband,  founded  a  monastery  at 

Mainz   in    Germany,    where   she   died   a   holy 

death,  the  crown  of  a  pious  and  charitable  life. 

BIRILLUS  (St.)  Bp.  (March  21) 

(1st  cent.)  Said  to  have  been  consecrated 
first  Bishop  of  Catania  in  Sicily  by  St.  Peter 
the  Apostle,  with  whom  he  had  travelled  from 
Antioch,  about  A.d.  42.  By  his  preaching  and 
miracles,  it  is  added,  St.  Birillus  converted  a 
vast  number  of  pagans  to  Christianity,  and 
died  in  extreme  old  age. 
BIRINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  3) 

(7th  cent.)  A  missionary  sent  by  Pope 
Honorius  to  convert  the  West  Saxons  to 
Christianity,  and  consecrated  Bishop  by 
Asterius,  Bishop  of  Genoa.  One  of  his  first 
converts  was  King  Cynegils  of  Wessex,  at 
whose  baptism  another  monarch,  St.  Oswald 
of  Northumbria,  officiated  as  godfather.  St. 
Birinus  died  at  Dorchester  in  Oxfordshire, 
where  he  had  fixed  his  Episcopal  See,  a.d.  650, 
whence  Bishop  Hedda  translated  his  body  to 
the  Church  of  St.  Peter  at  Winchester  (a.d.  686). 
*BIRNSTAN  (BRISTAN,  BRYNSTAN)        (Nov.  4) 

(St.)  Bp. 

(10th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Frithestan 
in  the  See  of  Winchester  and  a  disciple  of 
St.  Grimbald.  He  was  famous  for  his  devotion 
to  the  Holy  Souls  in  Purgatory  ;  and  it  was  his 
daily  custom  to  wash  the  feet  of  the  poor.  He 
was  suddenly  called  away  from  his  labours 
on  earth  to  the  higher  life  of  Heaven,  Nov.  4, 
A.D.  934. 
♦BITHEUS  and  GENOCUS  (SS.)  Conf.      (April  18) 

(6th  cent.)    Two  British  monks  who  accom- 
panied St.  Finnian  of  Clonard  to  Ireland,  and 
there  passed  away  in  peace  and  in  great  repute  of 
sanctity.     Nothing  more  is  known  about  them. 
*BLAAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  10 

Otherwise  St.  BLANE,  which  see. 

47 


BLADUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


*ELADUS  (St.)  Bp.  (July  3) 

(Date  uncertain.)  The  tradition  concerning 
him  is  to  the  effect  that  he  was  one  of  the  early 
Bishops  of  the  Isle  of  Man,  and  that  by  his 
pastoral  zeal  he  merited  to  be  by  his  flock 
honoured  as  a  Saint. 
BLASE  (BLAISE)  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Feb.  3) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Sebaste  in  Armenia, 
famous  for  the  miracles  he  wrought,  among 
which  was  his  having  with  a  word  saved  from 
imminent  death  a  boy  choking  from  having 
half  swallowed  a  fishbone  so  placed  that  its 
extraction  was  impossible.  St.  Blaise,  a  man 
of  saintly  life,  was  accused  and  tried  as  a 
Christian,  and  as  chief  of  his  fellow-believers 
in  the  persecution  continued  in  the  East  after 
the  Emperor  Constantine  had  given  peace  to 
the  Church  elsewhere,  by  his  colleague  Licinius. 
The  Saint  was  put  to  the  torture  and  beheaded 
at  Sebaste  A.d.  316.  His  Feast  is  kept  with 
much  solemnity  in  Greece  and  in  Asia  Minor. 
The  Crusaders  propagated  devotion  to  him  in 
Europe.  In  some  places  bread  is  blessed  on 
his  Feast  Day,  of  which  a  morsel  is  swallowed 
while  invoking  him.  In  others,  oil  is  blessed, 
and  with  it  a  priest  makes  the  sign  of  the  cross 
on  the  throats  of  the  Faithful.  He  is  the 
recognised  Patron  Saint  of  wool-combers, 
whether  because  he  was  tortured  by  having  his 
flesh  torn  with  the  iron  combs  used  in  the 
trade,  or  for  some  other  reason,  is  uncertain. 
♦BLAITHMAIC     (BLATHMAC,     BLAITHMALE) 

(St.)  M.  (Jan.  19) 

(9th  cent.)  The  son  of  one  of  the  Irish  kings 
who  became  a  monk,  and  at  last  the  Abbot  of 
his  monastery.  Thirsting  for  the  glory  pi 
martyrdom,  he  left  his  native  country  and 
crossed  over  to  Great  Britain,  then  in  prey  to 
the  heathen  Danes.  He  was  murdered  by  these 
barbarians  on  the  altar  steps  in  St.  Columba's 
monastery  at  Iona  (a.d.  823).  The  Benedictine 
Walafridus  Strabo  has  written  in  verse  the  Life 
of  St.  Blathmac. 
♦BLANCHE  (GWEN)  (St.)  (July  5) 

See  SS.  FRAGAN  and  GWEN. 
BLANDA  (St.)  M.  (May  10) 

See  SS.  CALEPODIUS,  PALMATIUS,    &c. 
BLANDINA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  2) 

(2nd  cent )  One  of  the  most  famous  of  the 
Martyrs  of  Lyons,  who  with  St.  Photinus  suffered 
death  for  Christ  (A.D.  177),  in  the  time  of  the 
Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius.  St.  Blandina,  a 
young  girl,  never  ceased  from  encouraging  her 
fellow-sufferers,  even  while  herself  in  the  hands 
of  the  torturers.  She  was  scourged,  mauled 
by  wild  beasts,  made  to  sit  on  a  red-hot  iron 
chair,  gored  by  a  bull,  and  finally  beheaded. 
The  blood  of  these  holy  men  and  women  was 
the  seed  of  Christianity  in  Gaul. 
♦BLANE  (BLAIN,  BLAAN)  (St.)  Bp.         (Aug.  10) 

(7th  cent.)  A  celebrated  Scottish  Saint  who 
is  said  to  have  been  Bishop  of  Kingarth  in  Bute 
at  the  end  of  the  sixth  or  beginning  of  the 
seventh  century.  He  was  buried  at  Dunblane, 
where  the  Cathedral  and  several  other  churches 
were  dedicated  in  his  honour.  But  the  dates 
commonly  given  are  altogether  uncertain. 
His  reputed  connection  with  St.  Comgall  and 
St.  Kenneth  would  put  that  of  his  birth  after 
a.d.  550,  whereas  Butler,  Dempster  and  others 
insist  that  he  flourished  in  the  fifth  century. 
The  Bollandists,  on  the  other  hand,  describe 
him  as  having  flourished  in  the  tenth  or  eleventh 
century,  surmising  a  confusion  of  names  between 
St.  Kenneth  and  King  Kenneth,  his  namesake. 
Hence,  the  modern  hypothesis  that  there  were 
two  St.  Blanes,  of  whom  one  lived  in  the  fifth 
and  the  other  in  the  eleventh  century.  Hymns 
and  prose  compositions  bearing  the  name  of 
St.  Blane  are  still  extant. 
BLASIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  29) 

(1st  cent.)  Associated  by  tradition  with 
St.  Mary  Salome  in  planting  the  first  seeds  of 
the  Christian  Faith  at  Veroli  and  Frosinone, 
between  Rome  and  Naples.     He  is  said  to  have 

48 


been  put  to  death  for  being  a  Christian,  as 
early  as  a.d.  42.  A  St.  Demetrius  and  twenty 
others  are  named  as  having  suffered  with  him. 
But  there  is  now  a  tendency  among  scholars  to 
dissociate  altogether  St.  Blasius  from  St.  Mary 
Salome  and  her  Apostolate,  and  to  date  his  life 
several  hundred  years  later. 
*BLATH  (FLORA)  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  29) 

(6th  cent.)  In  the  Irish  Martyrologies, 
several  Saints  are  registered  under  the  name 
Blath  (Latinised  Flora).  The  one  best  remem- 
bered was  a  humble  lay-sister  in  St.  Brigid's 
monastery  at  Kildare,  where  she  was  in  high 
repute  of  sanctity.  The  year  523  is  assigned 
in  the  Martyrology  of  Donegal  as  that  of  her 
death. 
*BLEDRWS  (St.) 

(Date    unknown.)    There    is    a    church    in 

Cardiganshire  titled  after  a  St.  Bledrws.      But 

it  has  not    been    found    possible    to    identify 

the  Saint. 

*BLEIDDAN  (BLE WDIAN)  (St.)  Bp.         (July  29) 

Otherwise  St.  LUPUS  of  TROYES,  which  see. 
♦BLENWYDD  (St.) 

(Date  unknown.)    The  dedication  of  a  chapel 
to  him  in  the  Isle  of  Anglesea  is  all  that  perpetu- 
ates his  memory. 
*BLITARIUS  (BLIER)  (St.)  (June  11) 

(7th  cent.)  A  native  of  Scotland  who  passed 
over  into  France  with  St.  Fursey,  and  settled 
at  Seganne  in  Champagne.  He  is  still  in  great 
local  veneration,  and  is  described  as  having 
been  a  man  whose  whole  life  was  spent  in 
penance  and  prayer.  His  relics  were  burned  by 
the  Calvinists  in  the  sixteenth  century. 
*BOETHIUS  (St.)  (Dec.  7) 

Otherwise  St.  BUITHE,  which  see. 
*BOBO  (St.)  (May  22) 

(10th  cent.)  A  soldier  of  Provence  (France) 
who  distinguished  himself  in  the  defence  of 
his  country  against  the  Moorish  raiders,  the 
terror  of  the  south  of  France,  and  who  later 
gave  himself  up  to  a  life  of  piayer  and  penance. 
He  died  at  Pavia  in  Lombardy  (A.D.  985)  while 
on  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome. 
*BODAGISIL  (St.)  (Dec.  18) 

(6th  cent.)  A  noble  Frank  who,  after  a  life 
spent  in  the  service  of  his  King  and  country, 
founded  a  monastery  on  the  banks  of  the 
Meuse,  where  he  died  (a.d.  588).  Venantius 
Fortunatus,  St.  Gregory  of  Tours,  and  other 
contemporary  writers  are  loud  in  the  praises 
of  his  sanctity. 
*BODFAN  (BODUAN)  (S.) 

(7th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Abern  in 
Carnarvon.  He  is  believed  to  have  flourished 
in  the  seventh  century,  but  we  have  no  parti- 
culars of  his  life,  except  the  tradition  that  the 
great  inundation  which  formed  Beaumaris  Bay 
impelled  him,  with  his  father  and  some  other 
relatives,  to  embrace  the  Religious  life. 
*BOETIAN  (St.)  (May  22) 

(7th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  St.  Fursey  and  an 
Irishman  by  birth.  He  built  his  monastery 
at  Pierrepont,  near  Laon,  in  France,  and  was 
eventually  murdered  there  by  miscreants  whom 
he  had  sternly  rebuked  for  their  vices.  His 
shrine  is  still  a  place  of  pilgrimage,  and  he  is 
specially  invoked  in  behalf  of  sick  children. 
*BOISIL  (St.)  Abbot.  (Feb.  23) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Prior  of  Melrose  Abbey  and 
successor  there  of  Abbot  Eata.  Bede  describes 
him  as  a  man  of  great  virtue  and  as  endued  with 
the  gift  of  prophecy.  Among  his  disciples  were 
St.  Cuthbert  and  St.  Egbert.  The  Holy  Name 
of  Jesus,  pronounced  so  as  to  touch  the  hearts 
of  all  who  heard  him,  was  ever  on  his  lips.  He 
passed  away  during  the  great  pestilence  of  the 
year  664. 
*BOLCAN  (OLCAN)  (St.)  Bn.  (Feb.  20) 

(5th  cent.)  Baptised  by  St.  Patrick  and  sent 
by  him  to  study  in  France,  he  was  subsequently 
by  the  same  Saint  consecrated  Bishop  of  Derkan 
in  the  North  of  Ireland.  His  school  of  learning 
there  was  one  of  the  most  distinguished  in  the 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


BONIFACE 


island.  He  died  after  a.d.  480.  Another  St. 
Bolcan  is  venerated  in  the  parish  of  Kill-Chule 
in  the  Diocese  of  Elphin.  He  is  known  as 
St.  Olcan  of  Kilmoyle. 

BOLONIA  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  16) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  maiden  of  fifteen, 
who  was  tortured  and  put  to  death  about 
A.D.  362  in  the  persecution  under  Julian  the 
Apostate,  and  who  has  left  her  name  to 
the  village  of  St.  Boulogne  in  the  Haute 
Marne. 

BONA  (BOVA)  and  DODA  (SS.)  VV.MM.  (April  24) 
(7th  cent.)  St.  Bona  or  Bova  (Fr.  Beuve) 
was  a  daughter  of  King  Sigebert  of  Austrasia 
(Eastern  France).  She  took  the  veil  in  a 
convent  near  Rheims,  founded  by  the  holy 
Queen  Clotilde,  and,  with  her  brother,  St. 
Baudry  (Balderic),  built  the  Abbey  of  St.  Peter 
within  the  walls  of  Rheims,  of  which  she  became 
the  first  Abbess.  During  her  government  of 
twenty-three  years  her  patience  and  humility 
won  all  hearts,  and  even  during  her  lifetime  she 
was  regarded  as  a  Saint.  Sbe  died  a.d.  673, 
and  was  succeeded  by  her  niece,  St.  Doda, 
likewise  venerated  as  one  of  the  Blessed. 

BONAJUNCTA  (St.)  Conf.  (Aug.  31) 

One  of  the  HOLY  SEVEN  FOUNDERS  OF 
THE  SERVITE  ORDER,  which  see. 

BONAVENTURE  (St.)  Bp.,  Doctor  (July  14) 

of  the  Church. 

(13th  cent.)  Known  as  the  "  Seraphic 
Doctor."  Born  A.D  1231,  at  Bagnorea  in 
Tuscany,  he  entered,  at  the  age  of  twenty, 
the  Order  of  St.  Francis.  He  studied  and 
afterwards  taught  at  Paris,  in  company  of  St. 
Thomas  Aquinas.  After  being  General  of  his 
Order,  he  was  created  by  Pope  Gregory  X 
Cardinal  Bishop  of  Albano.  He  died  during  the 
General  Council  of  Lyons  (A.D.  1274),  and  was 
canonised  two  hundred  years  later,  becoming  a 
Doctor  of  the  Church  a  century  later.  Besides 
noble  Commentaries  on  Holy  Scripture  and  on 
the  work  of  the  Master  of  Sentences  (the  theo- 
logical and  philosophical  text-book  in  use  in 
his  age),  we  have  from  the  pen  of  St.  Bona- 
venture  many  ascetical  and  mystical  treatises, 
and  a  touchingly  beautiful  Life  of  St.  Francis 
of  Assisi,  the  Founder  of  his  Order.  Clement 
IV  had  chosen  him  for  the  Archbishopric  of 
York ;  and  only  the  humility  of  the  Saint 
hindered  the  English  people  from  being  able 
to  number  the  "  Seraphic  Doctor "  among 
their  national  glories. 

♦BOND  (BALDUS)  (St.)  Hermit.  (Oct.  29 

(7th  cent.)  A  penitent  and  Saint  venerated 
at  Sens  in  France. 

BONFILIUS  (St.)  Conf.  (Jan.  1) 

One  of  the  HOLY  SEVEN  FOUNDERS  OF 
THE  SERVITE  ORDER,  which  see. 

♦BONIFACE  of  LAUSANNE  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  9) 
(13th  cent.)  A  Cistercian  monk  of  the 
Abbey  of  Cambre,  near  Brussels.  He  was 
distinguished  for  his  learning,  and  lectured  at 
Paris  and  at  Cologne.  Appointed  Bishop  of 
Lausanne,  he  laboured  indefatigably  at  the 
reform  of  Church  discipline.  In  his  old  age  he 
retired  to  die  (A.D.  1265)  in  his  monastery  at 
Cambre. 

BONIFACE  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  5) 

Alleged  to  have  been  the  name  of  one  of  the 
Christians  who  suffered  with  SS.  PALMATIUS 
and  OTHERS,  which  see. 

•BONIFACE  (Bl.)  Bp.  (March  13) 

(13th  cent.)  A  member  of  the  Ducal  House 
of  Savoy,  who  became  a  Carthusian  monk  and 
Prior  of  one  of  the  houses  of  his  Order,  whence, 
so  great  was  the  fame  of  his  sanctity,  he  was, 
at  the  request  of  King  Henry  III  of  England, 
by  the  Pope  raised  to  the  See  of  Canterbury 
in  succession  to  St.  Edmund.  He  died  while 
on  a  visit  to  his  native  country,  and  was  buried 
in  the  Ducal  vault  at  Hautecombe  (A.D.  1270). 
Three  centuries  later  his  body  was  found  to  be 
still  incorrupt.  His  cultus  was  authorised  by 
Pope  Gregory  XVI  in  the  nineteenth  century. 


♦BONIFACE  (St.)  Bp.  (March  14) 

(7th  cent.)  A  leader  of  a  band  of  missionaries 
sent  from  Rome  to  evangelise  the  Picts  and 
Scots.  He  is  venerated  as  Bishop  of  Ross, 
and  is  said  to  have  founded  one  hundred 
and  fifty  churches.  He  passed  away  about 
A.D.  630. 

BONIFACE  (St.)  Bp.  (May  14) 

(6th  cent.)  Bishop  of  Ferenti  or  Ferentino 
in  Tuscany  (not  the  better  known  town  of  the 
same  name  in  Latium)  in  the  time  of  the 
Emperor  Justin.  His  holiness  and  miracles 
are  commemorated  by  St.  Gregory  the  Great. 

BONIFACE  (St.)  M.  (May  14) 

(4th  cent.)  Beheaded  as  a  Christian  at  Tarsus 
in  Cilicia,  whither  he  had  gone  from  Rome  to 
recover  the  bodies  of  certain  Martyrs.  His 
own  relics  repose  in  the  church  dedicated  to 
him  in  Rome  on  the  Aventine,  together  with 
those  of  St.  Aglae,  a  woman  associated  with 
him  both  before  and  after  their  conversion  to 
Christianity.  The  year  307  is  given  as  that  of 
their  death. 

BONIFACE  IV  (St.)  Pope.  (May  25) 

(7th  cent.)  Born  in  the  South  of  Italy,  he 
embraced  the  monastic  life  in  the  monastery 
of  St.  Sebastian  in  Rome.  Elected  Pope, 
A.D.  608,  he  dedicated  to  Our  Blessed  Lady  and 
to  all  the  Saints,  the  Pantheon  built  by  Marcus 
Agrippa  as  the  temple  of  all  the  heathen  gods 
of  Rome,  and  enriched  it  with  the  relics  of 
Martyrs  from  the  Catacombs.  He  held  a 
Council  (A.D.  610),  at  which  St.  Mellitus,  Bishop 
of  London,  was  present.  He  died  A.D.  615, 
and  was  buried  in  Old  St.  Peter's,  under  the 
altar  of  St.  Thomas  the  Apostle,  or,  as  some 
say,  in  the  atrium  or  courtyard  before  the 
BfLsilicft 

BONIFACE  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (June  5) 

(8th  cent.)  An  Anglo-Saxon,  born  at  Crediton 
in  Devonshire,  who  received  in  Baptism  the 
name  of  Winfried.  Educated  in  monasteries 
at  Exeter  and  Winchester,  he  lived  for  many 
years  as  a  Benedictine  monk ;  but,  feeling 
himself  called  to  a  missionary  career,  set  forth 
(a.d.  716)  to  preach  the  Gospel  to  the  heathen 
people  of  Friesland.  Later,  Pope  St.  Gregory 
II  consecrated  him  Bishop,  and,  giving  him  the 
name  of  Boniface,  sent  him  to  evangelise 
Germany,  of  which  country  he  is  venerated  as 
the  Apostle.  Having  chosen  Mainz  as  his 
Metropolitan  See,  he  gave  himself  indefatigably 
to  his  work,  which  was  wonderfully  blessed  by 
Almighty  God.  Twenty-two  years  later  he 
resigned  his  Archbishopric  in  order  to  return 
to  his  unfinished  task  in  Friesland.  There, 
together  with  fifty-two  companions,  he  suffered 
martyrdom  at  the  hands  of  the  pagans,  A.D.  755. 
His  body  reposes  in  the  Abbey  of  Fulda,  and 
innumerable  miracles  have  been  wrought  at 
his  tomb.  One  of  his  achievements  in  Germany 
was  the  felling  of  an  enormous  oak  tree,  the 
centre  of  the  idolatrous  worship  of  the  natives, 
which  led  to  a  conversion  en  masse  of  all  the 
spectators.  Hence,  in  art,  he  is  often  repre- 
sented with  axe  in  hand  at  the  foot  of  an 

BONIFACE  (St.)  Bp.  (June  19) 

(11th  cent.)  The  Apostle  of  Livonia  and  of 
the  West  of  Russia,  better  known  as  St.  Bruno. 
He  succeeded  St.  Adalbert  of  Prague  in  the 
headship  of  the  School  of  Magdeburg,  and  was 
for  some  time  chaplain  to  his  relative,  the 
Emperor  Otho  III.  Leaving  the  Imperial 
Court,  he  entered  the  Camaldolese  Order  of 
monks,  and  retired  to  Italy.  Thenceforward 
he  lived  in  solitude  till,  by  order  of  Pope  John 
XVIII,  he  took  up  the  work  of  evangelising 
the  Northern  countries.  With  great  gain  of 
souls  he  preached  in  Poland  and  succeeded 
in  penetrating  into  Russia  proper,  where 
however,  he  fell  a  victim  to  the  fury  of  the 
heathen.  He  was  seized,  and  with  eighteen 
Christians,  his  fellow-workers,  beheaded  a.d. 
1009. 

49 


BONIFACE 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


BONIFACE  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  30) 

(3rd  cent.)  An  African  Christian  martyred 
with  his  wife  St.  Thecla  and  their  twelve 
children  at  Hadrumetum  in  the  persecution 
under  Decius  (a.d.  250).  There  are,  however, 
some  of  the  learned  in  these  matters  who 
post-date  their  martyrdom  for  half  a  century, 
and  maintain  that  they  were  victims  of  the 
great  persecution  under  Diocletian  and  his 
colleague  Maximinian  Herculeus.  Again,  there 
are  authors  who  hold  that  they  escaped  both 
persecutions,  and  survived  to  die  natural 
deaths.  It  is  controverted  whether  the  twelve 
children  of  SS.  Boniface  and  Thecla  are  not  the 
Twelve  Holy  Brothers  commemorated  in  the 
Liturgy  on  Sept.  1. 

BONIFACE  I  (St.)  Pope.  (Oct.  25) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Roman  priest  of  saintly  life, 
elected  Pope  (A.D.  418),  in  succession  to  St. 
Zozimus,  notwithstanding  his  reluctance. 
Though  pre-eminently  "  a  man  of  peace,"  he 
vindicated  bravely  and  successfully  the  rights 
of  the  Holy  See  against  the  Anti-Pope  Eulalius, 
and  against  the  pretensions  of  the  Patriarchs 
of  Constantinople.  He  ordered  the  singing  of 
the  Gloria,  in  excelsis  on  Maundy-Thursday,  and 
regulated  several  points  of  Church  discipline. 
He  passed  away  towards  the  close  of  the  year 
423,  and  was  buried  in  an  Oratory  of  St. 
Felicitas,  which  with  many  other  sacred  buildings 
he  had  restored  and  embellished. 

BONIFACE  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Dec.  6) 

(5th  cent.)  An  African  Martyr  put  to  death 
with  several  others  by  the  Arian  Hunneric, 
King  of  the  Vandals.  Among  them  were 
Dionysia  and  her  son  Majoricus,  Dativa,  her 
sister,  and  iEmilian  her  cousin,  a  physician. 

BONIFACE  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  29) 

(Date  unknown.)  Martyred  in  Rome  with 
SS.  Calixtus  and  Felix. 

BONIFACE  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  17) 
(5th  cent.)  St.  Boniface  was  a  deacon 
martyred  at  Carthage  in  the  time  of  Hunneric, 
Arian  King  of  the  Vandals  (a.d.  477  to  a.d.  488). 
His  fellow-sufferers  were  SS.  Liberatus,  an 
Abbot,  Servus  and  Austicus,  sub-deacons, 
Rogatus  and  Septimus,  monks,  and  Maximus, 
a  boy,  all  members  of  the  community  of  monks 
established  at  Capsa  near  Tunis.  After  having 
undergone  cruel  tortures,  they  were  scourged 
to  death. 

BONITUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  15) 

(8th  cent.)  Born  in  Auvergne  A.D.  623,  he 
became  Chancellor  to  King  Sigebert  III, 
afterwards  Governor  of  Provence  and  nine 
years  later  Bishop  of  Clermont  in  Auvergne. 
After  a  zealous  Episcopate  he  retired  into  a 
monastery,  and  in  the  eDd  died  at  Lyons 
(A.D.  710),  while  returning  from  a  pilgrimage 
to  Rome.  He  is  known  in  France  as  St.  Bont 
or  Bonet.  His  relics  are  in  the  Cathedral  at 
Clermont. 

BONONIUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Aug.  30) 

(11th  cent.)  A  Benedictine  Abbot  of  Vercelli  in 
Piedmont,  who  preached  the  Gospel  in  the  East, 
and  who  died  at  Bologna  in  Italy  (a.d.  1026). 

BONOSA  (St.)  V.M.  (July  15) 

(3rd  cent.)  Martyred  at  Porto  Romano, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Tiber,  under  Severus 
(A.D.  207),  with  her  brother  Eutropius,  and  her 
sister  Zozima.  Modern  discoveries  made  at 
Porto  Romano  go  to  negative  the  old  opinion 
post-dating  the  martyrdom  of  St.  Bonosa  to  the 
time  of  the  Emperor  Aurelian. 

BONOSUS  and  MAXIMIANUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  21) 
(4th  cent.)  Bonosus,  an  officer  of  the  Her- 
culean Legion,  serving  under  Count  Julian, 
uncle  of  the  Apostate,  was  tortured  and  put  to 
death  with  his  comrade  Maximinian  or  Maxi- 
milian, for  refusing  to  change  the  Christian 
banner,  the  Labarum  of  Constantine,  for  the 
idolatrous  standard  of  heathen  times  (a.d.  362). 

BONUS,  FESTUS.MAURUS  and  OTHERS  (Aug.l) 
(SS.) 
(3rd  cent.)    Bonus,   a  priest,  with   Festus, 

50 


Maurus  and  nine  others,  was  martyred  at  Rome 
under  the  Emperor  Valerian  (a.d.  257).  They 
are  mentioned  in  the  Acts  of  St.  Stephen,  Pope, 
though  the  name  Bonus  does  not  occur  therein. 
He  is  probably  the  same  with  Basil,  one  of  the 
Martyrs  they  note. 

BORIS  (St.)  M.  (July  24) 

See  SS.  ROMANUS  and  DAVID. 

BORIS  and  GLEB  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  25) 

(11th  cent.  These  Saints,  otherwise  called 
Romanus  and  David,  sons  of  St.  Vladimir,  are 
included  in  Polish  Calendars  as  having  suffered 
martyrdom,  a.d.  1015,  at  the  hands  of  assassins 
incited  thereto  by  their  elder  brother,  usurper 
of  their  possessions. 

*BOSA  (St.)  Bp.  (March  9) 

(8th  cent.)  A  monk  of  St.  Hilda's  Abbey  at 
Whitby,  and  the  predecessor  of  St.  John  of 
Beverley  in  the  Archbishopric  of  York,  to 
which  he  was  called  in  the  troubled  times  of 
the  exile  of  St.  Wilfrid,  by  St.  Theodore  of 
Canterbury.  St.  Bosa  was  a  man,  says  the 
Venerable  Bede,  of  conspicuous  virtue  and 
humility.     He  died  A.D.  705. 

BOSWELL  (St.)  Abbot.  (Feb.  23) 

Otherwise  St.  BOISIL,  which  see. 

*BOTULPH  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  17) 

(7th  cent.)  He  and  his  brother,  St.  Adulph, 
were  Anglo-Saxons,  but  entered  a  monastery 
in  Belgium.  St.  Adulph  became  Bishop  of 
Utrecht,  and  St.  Botulph  returned  to  England 
and  founded  a  Benedictine  Abbey  at  Icanhoe 
in  Lincolnshire  (a.d.  654),  which  was  destroyed 
by  the  Danes  in  the  ninth  century.  St.  Botulph 
died  about  the  year  700,  and  his  relics  were 
removed  to  Thorney  by  St.  Ethelwald.  Boston 
in  Lincolnshire  is  an  abbreviated  form  of 
Botulph's  Town,  and  several  churches  were 
dedicated  to  him,  among  them  four  at  the  gates 
of  the  City  of  London. 

BOTVID  (St.)  M.  (July  28) 

(11th  cent.)  A  Swedish  Christian,  who 
endeavoured  to  convert  to  the  Faith  a  captive 
from  Finland.  Having  as  he  thought  suc- 
ceeded, he  sought  to  restore  the  neophyte  to 
freedom  and  to  his  own  country,  but  while  on 
the  voyage  was  cruelly  murdered  by  the  thank- 
less object  of  his  compassion  (a.d.  1100). 

♦BRADAN  and  ORORA  (CRORA)  (SS.)  (Oct.  20) 
(Date  uncertain.)  These  two  Saints  are 
honoured  in  the  Isle  of  Man.  In  the  church 
of  St.  Bradan,  Kirk-Braddan,  near  Douglas, 
Mark,  the  Bishop  of  Sodor,  held  a  Synod 
(A.D.  1291).  In  a  map  of  the  sixteenth  century, 
reference  is  made  to  the  churches  of  St.  Patrick 
and  St.  Crora. 

♦BRANNOCK  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  7) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Saint  who  appears  to  have 
migrated  in  the  sixth  century  from  South 
Wales  into  Devon,  and  to  have  founded  a 
monastery  at  Braunton,  near  Barnstaple,  in 
that  county.  The  traditions  concerning  him 
are,  however,  very  varying  and  unreliable, 
though  possibly  the  place  named  Braunton 
perpetuates  his  memory.  But  see  St.  Brychan 
(April  7). 

*BRANWALLANUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  19) 

(Date  unknown.)  We  have  also  a  St.  Bran- 
wallator.  St.  Branwallanus  and  he  may 
possibly  be  identical  with  St.  Brannock.  We 
hear  of  them  only  in  connection  with  Transla- 
tions of  Relics  in  Saxon  times.  All  alike  are 
West-Country  Saints. 

*BRANWALLATOR  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  19) 

(Date  unknown.)  Beyond  the  fact  that  his 
name  was  included  with  others  in  the  Dedication 
of  a  church  in  Dorsetshire,  where  likewise  relics 
of  his  were  venerated,  we  have  no  information 
concerning  him.  He  may,  perhaps,  be  one  and 
the  same  with  St.  Brannock  or  St.  Branwallanus, 
or  with  both. 

BRAULIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (March  27) 

(7th  cent.)    Braulius  or  Braulio,  Bishop  of 

Saragossa  in  Spain,  and  one  of  the  Patrons  of 

the    Kingdom   of   Aragon,    assisted   at   three 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


BRIDGET 


Councils  of  Toledo.  He  was  a  disciple  of 
St.  Isidore  of  Seville,  and  part  of  their  corre- 
spondence is  still  extant.  Together  they 
laboured  at  regularising  Ecclesiastical  discipline 
in  Spain,  and  after  the  death  of  St.  Isidore, 
St.  Braulio  completed  some  unfinished  works 
he  had  left.  St.  Braulio  is  one  of  the  most 
celebrated  Saints  of  the  Spanish  Church.  He 
died  a.d.  646,  after  over  twenty  years  of 
Episcopate. 

*BREACA  (BREAGUE)  (St.)  V.  (June  4) 

(6th  cent.)  She  is  said  to  have  gone  from 
Ireland  to  Cornwall  about  the  year  460,  with 
several  companions,  and  to  have  landed  on  the 
Eastern  bank  of  the  river  Hayle.  Several 
of  the  holy  maidens  were  slain  by  King  Theo- 
doric  or  Tewder.  St.  Breague  lived  the  life 
of  a  solitary,  and  died  in  the  early  part  of  the 
sixth  century  in  high  repute  of  sanctity. 

*BREACA  (BRANCA,  BANKA)  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  27) 
(5th  cent.)  One  of  a  band  of  Irish  Saints 
who  settled  in  Cornwall  in  the  latter  part  of 
the  fifth  century.  She  is  said  to  have  been 
born  in  East  Meath.  Various  days  are  assigned 
for  her  festival ;  nor  is  it  possible  definitely 
to  distinguish  her  from  the  Saint  Breaca  or 
Breague  venerated  on  June  4. 

♦BREGWIN  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  26) 

(8th  cent.)  The  twelfth  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury  (a.d.  761).  His  life  was  written 
by  Eadmer,  who  gives  little  more  than  the 
date  of  his  Pontificate,  and  an  account  of  his 
many  miracles.  He  was  buried  in  the  Chapel 
of  St.  John  the  Baptist  at  the  East  end  of  the 
Cathedral  (A.D.  765).  Letters  of  his  to  St. 
Lullus  of  Mainz  are  still  extant. 

*BRELATE  (St.)  Abbot.  (May  16) 

Otherwise  St.  BRENDAN,  which  see. 
He  seems  to  have  visited  Jersey  on  his  return 
from  Brittany  to  Ireland.  A  place-name  there 
commemorates  him.  There  were  probably  two 
Sts.  Brendan,  and  St.  Brelade  may  have  been 
of  later  date  than  his  homonym. 

♦BRENACH  (St.)  Hermit.  (April  7) 

(6th  cent.)  The  name  is  variously  spelled, 
Brenach,  Brynach,  Bernach.  He  was  a 
Pembrokeshire  hermit  who  inhabited  a  lonely 
cell  near  Milford  in  the  sixth  century.  But  we 
have  no  authentic  record  of  his  life. 

BRENDAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (May  16) 

(6th  cent.)  A  celebrated  Irish  monk,  a  dis- 
ciple of  St.  Finnian  at  Clonard,  and  of  St.  Gildas 
of  Llancarvan  Abbey  in  Wales.  There  St. 
Brendan  had  St.  Malo  among  his  own  disciples. 
He  died  at  the  age  of  ninety-four  (a.d.  578) 
at  Enachduin  in  Connaught.  He  founded 
several  schools  and  monasteries,  among  them 
the  famous  Abbeys  of  Ardfert  and  Clonfert, 
and  wrote  a  monastic  Rule  remarkable  for  its 
austerity.  St.  Brendan's  celebrated  voyage 
to  the  West,  resulting  in  his  discovery  of 
America,  the  "  Land  of  Promise,"  is,  by  many, 
not  without  some  evidence,  upheld  as  an 
historical  fact.  It  certainly  cannot  lightly  be 
rejected  as  a  mere  myth,  though  it  had  no 
immediate  results. 

♦BRENDAN  of  BIRR  (St.)  Abbot.  (Nov.  29) 

(6th  cent.)  Sometimes  called  St.  Brendan 
the  Elder  to  distinguish  him  from  his  namesake, 
the  still  more  celebrated  St.  Brendan  of  Clon- 
fert, his  contemporary  and  fellow-disciple  with 
him  of  St.  Finnian  of  Clonfert.  His  Abbey  of 
Birr  was  somewhere  near  Parsonstown  in  King's 
County.  He  was  the  great  friend  and  adviser 
of  St.  Columba,  who  in  a  vision  saw  the  holy 
soul  of  St.  Brendan  carried  by  angels  to  Heaven 
at  the  moment  of  his  passing  away  (a.d.  562). 

BRETANNION  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  25) 

(4th  cent.)  Bishop  of  Tomis  in  Scythia  on 
the  Black  Sea,  near  the  mouths  of  the  Danube. 
Valens,  the  Arian  Emperor,  exiled  him  on 
account  of  his  strenuous  defence  of  the  Chris- 
tian Dogma  of  the  Blessed  Trinity,  but  was 
compelled  by  popular  discontent  to  recall  him. 
The  Saint  died  about  a.d.  380. 


*BRIACH  (St.)  Abbot.  (Dec.  17) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Saint  of  Irish  birth  who  became 
a  monk  in  Wales  under  St.  Tudwald,  whom  he 
accompanied  to  Brittany.  He  built  a  mona- 
stery at  Guingamp,  near  the  castle  of  Deroch, 
Prince  of  Leon.  He  died  at  Bourbiac  in  the 
year  570,  or,  as  others  say,  in  627,  and  was 
buried  in  the  local  church. 

*BRIANT  (ALEXANDER)  (Bl.)  M.  (Dec.  1) 

See  Bl.  ALEXANDER  BRIANT. 

*BRIAVEL  (St.)  (June  17) 

(Date  unknown.)  Her  name  is  perpetuated 
as  that  of  the  Patron  Saint  of  the  parish  of 
St.  Briavels  in  the  Forest  of  Dean  in  Gloucester- 
shire ;  but  no  record  of  her  life  is  extant. 

BRICTIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (July  9) 

(4th  cent.)  Bishop  of  Martola  near  Spoleto 
in  Umbria  (Central  Italy;.  During  the  persecu- 
tion under  Diocletian  he  was  imprisoned  for 
preaching  Christianity,  but  miraculously  escaped 
and  zealously  persevered  in  his  ministry,  passing 
to  his  reward  after  the  Peace  of  the  Church 
under  Constantine  (A.d.  312).  It  must,  how- 
ever, be  confessed  that  the  traditional  details 
given  concerning  him  are  of .  very  uncertain 
authenticity. 

BRICE  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  13) 

Otherwise  St.  BRIXIUS,  which  see. 

BRIDGET  (BRIDE,  BRIDIG)  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  1) 
(6th  cent.)  The  "Mary  of  Ireland"  was 
born  of  Christian  parents  at  Fouchard  (Fough- 
ard)  in  the  present  county  of  Louth,  then 
reckoned  as  part  of  Ulster,  about  the  middle 
of  the  fifth  century.  Her  parents  are  said  to 
have  been  baptised  by  St.  Patrick  himself, 
and  they  brought  up  their  children  in  the  holy 
fear  of  God.  From  her  infancy  Bride  gave  signs 
of  the  sanctity  to  which  God's  grace  was  leading 
her.  In  due  time  the  Bishop  St.  Mel  or,  as 
others  say,  St.  Machalleus,  his  disciple,  gave 
her  the  veil  of  holy  Religion,  and  she  founded 
the  monastery  of  Kildare,  the  first  Religious 
House  of  women  in  Ireland.  Wonderful 
were  the  miracles  she  wrought,  and  equally 
marvellous  her  influence  for  good  over  the 
nascent  Church  of  her  country.  She  passed 
away  about  the  year  523,  and  her  remains 
were  enshrined  with  those  of  St.  Patrick,  as 
being  the  relics  of  the  Second  Patron  Saint 
of  Ireland.  In  art,  St.  Bride  is  represented 
holding  a  cross — with  a  flame  over  her  head — 
sometimes  with  a  cow  near  her,  she  being 
reputed  the  Protectress  of  those  engaged  in 
dairy  work. 

♦BRIDGET  and  MAURA  (SS.)  (July  13) 

(5th  cent.)  Venerated  as  two  daughters  of 
a  Scottish  chieftain,  martyred  in  Picardy  in 
the  fifth  century  while  on  a  pilgrimage  to 
Rome.  The  details  have  not  been  satisfactorily 
ascertained.  St.  Louis  of  France  had  a  great 
devotion  to  SS.  Bridget  and  Maura. 

We  have  also  two  other  pairs  of  holy  sisters  : 
Maura  and  Britta,  mentioned  by  St.  Gregory  of 
Tours  ;  and  Baya  and  Maura,  whose  names 
appear  in  the  ancient  Scottish  Kalendars. 
How  far  all  these  are  distinct  personages  is 
uncertain. 

BRIDGET  (St.)  Widow.  (July  23) 

(14th  cent.)  St.  Bridget  (Birgitta)  born  of 
a  noble  Swedish  family  (a.d.  1304)  and  married 
to  a  man  of  princely  rank,  after  her  husband's 
death,  founded  the  monastery  of  Wadstena 
on  the  shore  of  Lake  Wetten,  thus  instituting 
the  Order  of  the  Most  Holy  Saviour,  commonly 
known  as  Bridgetines.  For  its  regulation  she 
drew  up  wise  statutes  which  were  confirmed  by 
Pope  Urban  V.  St.  Bridget  was  favoured  by 
Almighty  God  with  marvellous  visions  and 
revelations,  of  which  the  record  left  by  her  to 
us  is  most  useful  to  contemplative  souls.  She 
died  in  Rome  on  her  return  from  Jerusalem 
(July  23,  1373),  and  was  canonised  twenty 
years  later.  Her  Feast  is  kept  by  the  Church 
on  Oct.  8,  anniversary  of  the  Translation  of 
her  relics  to  Sweden.    In  art  she  is  represented 

51 


BRIEUC 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


clothed  in  the  Religious  Habit  of  her  Order — 
with  a  pilgrim's  staff — holding  a  heart  marked 
with  a  cross — with  Our  Saviour  near  her. 
BRIEUC  (St.)  Bp.  (May  1) 

Otherwise  S.  BRIOCUS,  which  see. 
*BRIGA  (BRIGID)  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  21) 

(6th  cent.)  She  is  known  as  St.  Brigid  of 
Kilbride,  in  the  Diocese  of  Lismore,  and  flour- 
ished in  the  fifth  and  sixth  centuries.  It  is 
alleged  that  her  famous  namesake  of  Kildare 
visited  her  more  than  once  at  Kilbride.  In 
the  Calendar  of  Cashel  she  is  styled  St.  Brigid 
of  Killbrige. 
BRIGID  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  1) 

(9th  cent.)  Not  of  course  to  be  confused 
with  the  great  St.  Bride  of  Kildare,  whose 
Festival  is  kept  on  the  same  day.  This  later 
St.  Brigid  was  a  sister  of  St.  Andrew,  the 
Archdeacon  of  St.  Donatus  of  Fiesole  in  Tus- 
cany. She  was  present  at  his  deathbed,  carried 
thither,  it  is  said,  by  angels.  After  his  death 
she  retired  to  a  cave  in  the  Apennines,  where 
she  closed  her  life  some  time  in  the  ninth 
century.  Soon  after  a  church  was  built  over 
her  cave,  which  contained  her  grave. 
BRINSTAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  4) 

Otherwise    St.    BIRNSTAN    or    BIRSTAN, 
tvJiicTi  sec* 
BRIOCUS  (BRIOC,  BRIEUC)  (St.)  Bp.       (May  1) 

(6th  or  7th  cent.)  A  native  of  Cardiganshire, 
who  was  educated  in  France  by  St.  Germanus. 
He  returned  to  Britain,  where  he  converted  to 
Christianity  his  own  parents  with  other  pagans. 
Crossing  again  to  France,  he  settled  in  Brittany 
and  founded  the  great  monastery  which  bears 
his  name,  and  has  given  it  to  the  important 
town  surrounding  it.  It  was  there  he  died  in 
his  ninetieth  year.  In  the  parish  of  St.  Breock 
in  Cornwall  the  annual  fair  is  still  held  on 
May  1,  his  Feast  Day.  There  were  many 
translations  of  his  relics.  The  epoch  in  which 
he  lived  (6th  or  7th  cent.)  depends  on  whether 
his  instructor  was  St.  Germanus  of  Paris  or 
(which  is  much  more  likely)  St.  Germanus  of 
Auxerre,  whom  he  probably  followed  to  France 
when  that  Saint  returned  from  Britain  after 
his  preaching  against  the  heresy  of  Pelagius. 
♦BRITHWALD  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  9) 

(8th  cent.)  One  of  the  early  Archbishops 
of  Canterbury,  the  successor  of  St.  Theodore. 
He  was,  says  Butler,  "  a  living  rule  of  perfection 
to  his  Church."  St.  Brithwald  died  after  nearly 
forty  years  of  Episcopate,  A.D.  731,  and  was 
buried  at  Reculver  at  the  edge  of  the  Isle  of 
Thanet,  where  at  that  time  there  existed  a 
small  monastery.  His  name  is  frequently 
spelled  Bercthwald. 
*BRITHWOLD  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  22) 

(11th  cent.)  A  monk  of  Glastonbury  who 
became  Bishop  of  Wilton  or  Ramsbury  on  the 
Translation  of  Alfric  to  the  See  of  Canterbury 
(a.d.  996).  He  was  distinguished  for  his  gift 
of  prophecy  and  is  described  as  "  vir  sanctis- 
simus  in  the  Liturgical  Lections  of  the  Feast 
of  St.  Edward  the  Confessor.  He  was  buried 
at  Glastonbury  a.d.  1043. 
*BRITTA  and  MAURA  (SS.)  VV.  (July  13) 

(5th  or  6th  cent.)  Two  Saints  mentioned  by 
St.  Gregory  of  Tours.  They  are  chiefly  vener- 
ated in  the  Diocese  of  Beauvais  in  France, 
and  are  traditionally  reputed  to  have  been 
Princesses  of  Northumbria  or  of  Scotland. 
Some  assert  that  they  were  put  to  death  for 
their  Faith.  Britta  is  a  name  variously  spelled, 
and  is,  it  would  seem,  a  form  of  Brigid  or 
Bridget ;  but  all  is  very  uncertain.  (See  SS. 
Breaca  and  Maura.) 
*BRITWIN  (BERCTHUN  ?)  (St.)  Abbot.     (May  15) 

(8th  cent.)  The  holy  Abbot,  friend  of 
St.  John  of  Beverley,  who  assisted  that  Saint 
in  his  last  moments  and  enshrined  his  remains. 
He  lived  in  the  eighth  century,  and  is  com- 
memorated by  Venerable  Bede  and  registered 
as  a  Saint  in  old  English  Calendars. 

52 


BRIXIUS(BRITIUS,BRICCIUS,BRICE)  (Nov.  13) 
(St.)  Bp. 

(5th  cent.)  A  native  of  Tours  and  disciple 
of  the  great  St.  Martin,  in  the  monastery  of 
Marmoutiers.  He  himself  was  raised  to  the 
Archbishopric  on  the  death  of  his  master. 
Owing  to  calumny  he  suffered  exile  ;  but  was 
restored  to  his  See  by  the  authority  of  the  Pope, 
who  was  convinced  of  his  innocence.  He  died 
seven  years  after  his  return,  a.d.  447.  His 
body  was  translated  to  Clermont  in  Auvergne 
by  St.  Gregory  of  Tours  (A.D.  580). 

*BROCARD  (St.)  (Sept.  2) 

(13th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Berthold 
in  the  government  of  the  Hermits  of  Mount 
Carmel.  At  his  request  St.  Albert  Patriarch 
of  Jerusalem  drew  up  for  them  the  Rule  under 
which  they  developed  in  the  West  into  the 
Order  of  Mount  Carmel.  St.  Brocard  died 
early  in  the  thirteenth  century. 

*BRON  (St.)  Bp.  (June  8) 

(6th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  St.  Patrick,  con- 
secrated Bishop  of  Cassel-Irra,  near  the  town  of 
Sligo,  where  he  founded  a  church.  He  appears 
to  have  died  about  a.d.  511. 

*BRONACH  (BROMANA)  (St.)  V.  (April  2) 

(Date  unknown.)  Called  the  Virgin  of  Glen- 
Seichis  and  registered  in  the  Martyrologies  of 
Tallaght  and  Donegal.  But  we  have  neither 
dates  nor  other  particulars  concerning  her. 
Glen-Seichis  is  the  old  name  of  Kilbrony  or 
Kilbronach,  in  County  Down,  which  takes  its 
present  appellation  from  her. 

♦BRONISLAVA  (St.)  V.  (Sept.  3) 

(13th  cent.)  A  relative  of  the  Polish  Saint 
Hyacinth.  She  led  a  holy  life  at  Cracow, 
where  her  memory  is  still  in  great  veneration. 

*BROTHEN  and  GWENDOLEN  (SS.)  (Oct.  18) 
(6th  cent.)  Of  these  Welsh  Saints  we  know 
little  beyond  their  names  and  the  fact  of  their 
existence,  coupled  with  that  of  the  cultus 
locally  given  to  them  after  their  deaths.  St. 
Brothen  is  Patron  Saint  of  Llanbrothen  in 
Merionethshire.  According  to  the  Welsh 
genealogies,  he  had  a  brother,  St.  Gwynnin. 
The  two  churches  of  Llangwynnin  and  Dwygy- 
fylchi,  both  in  Carnarvonshire,  may  have  been 
called  thus  after  him.  Dolwyddelen  and 
Llanwyddelan  in  Montgomeryshire  suggest  a 
St.  Gwendolen.  *  This  and  similar  names  are 
diminutives  of  Gwen  (white),  and  are  equivalent 
to  our  Blanche  and  its  allied  forms. 

BRUNO  (St.)  (Oct.  6) 

(11th  cent.)  The  founder  of  the  Carthusian 
Order,  born  at  Cologne  about  a.d.  1030.  After 
being  Chancellor  and  Canon  Theologian  of 
Rheims  Cathedral,  he  retired  with  others  to 
the  solitude  known  as  the  Grande  Chartreuse, 
where  they  were  welcomed  by  St.  Hugh, 
Bishop  of  Grenoble,  thus  laying  the  foundations 
of  their  Order,  which  is  flourishing  even  in  the 
present  century.  Pope  Urban  II,  a  former 
disciple  of  St.  Bruno,  summoned  him  to  Rome 
to  be  his  Councillor.  He  obeyed,  but  shortly 
after,  refusing  the  Episcopal  See  of  Reggio, 
retired  into  the  mountains  of  Calabria,  where 
he  assembled  a  community  of  monks  and 
resumed  the  life  of  the  Grande  Chartreuse. 
He  died  there  a.d.  1101,  and  five  hundred  years 
later  was  canonised  by  Pope  Gregory  XV. 
He  wrote  Commentaries  on  the  Psalter  and  on 
the  Epistles  of  St.  Paul.  The  emblems  artists 
associate  with  him  are  a  crucifix  with  leaves 
and  flowers,  a  star  on  his  breast,  a  globe  under 
his  feet,  a  chalice  with  the  Sacred  Host,  &c.  &c. 

BRUNO  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (June  19) 

Otherwise  St.  BONIFACE,  which  see. 

BRUNO  (St.)  Bp.  (May  17) 

(11th  cent.)  Matilda,  mother  of  this  Saint, 
was  a  niece  of  St.  Bruno  or  Boniface,  the 
martyred  Apostle  of  Prussia  and  Russia.  Her 
son  became  Bishop  of  Wurzburg  (Herbipolis), 
and  one  of  the  most  erudite  scholars  of  his 
time.    He  wrote  informing  Commentaries  on 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


C.ECILIUS 


Holy  Scripture.  He  was  the  adviser  of  Em- 
perors, but,  what  is  much  more,  earned  the 
title  of  "  Father  of  the  poor."  Having  built 
the  Cathedral  of  Wurzburg,  he  died  (a.d.  1045) 
from  the  effects  of  an  accident.  He  is  renowned 
for  miracles  wrought  in  life  and  after  death. 

BRUNO  (St.)  Bp.  (July  18) 

(12th  cent.)  A  Lombard  by  birth  and  a 
distinguished  scholar.  After  his  conclusive 
defence  of  the  Catholic  doctrine  of  the  Eucharist 
at  the  Council  of  Rome  (a.d  1079),  Pope  St. 
Gregory  VII  made  him  Bishop  of  Segni.  He 
assisted  at  several  Councils,  and  for  a  time  was 
Abbot  of  Monte  Cassino.  He  died  a.d.  1125. 
He  has  left  several  useful  Theological  works. 

♦BRYNACH  (BERNACH,  BERNACUS)      (April  7) 
(St.) 

(5th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint  who  settled  in 
Wales,  where  he  built  a  cell  and  church  at  a 
place  now  called  Carn-Englyi  (Mountain  of 
Angels),  overhanging  the  Nevern  (Pembroke- 
shire). It  is  conjectured  that  he  flourished  in 
the  first  half  of  the  fifth  century.  By  some 
authors  he  is  identified  with  St.  Brannock  of 
Braunton. 

•BRYNOTH  (St.)  Bp.  (May  9) 

(14th  cent.)  A  Swede,  Bishop  of  Scara  in 
West  Gothland,  who  passed  away  Feb.  6,  1317, 
and  is  honoured  in  Sweden  as  a  Saint. 

•BUDOC  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  9) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Breton  Saint,  educated  in 
Ireland,  where  he  became  Abbot  of  Youghal. 
Returning  afterwards  to  Brittany,  he  succeeded 
SS.  Samson  and  Maglorius  in  the  See  of  Dol. 
He  died  early  in  the  seventh  century  after 
about  twenty  years  of  Episcopate.  There 
seem  to  have  been  two  other  Saints  of  the  same 
name  also  connected  with  Brittany. 

*BUITHE  (BUITE,  BOETHIUS)  (St.)  (Dec.  7) 
(6th  cent.)  A  Scot  who,  after  passing  many 
years  in  Italy  and  elsewhere  on  the  Continent, 
returned  to  his  native  country  in  company 
with  St.  Codrus,  and  helped  in  the  evangelisation 
of  the  Picts.  From  him  it  seems  that  Carbuddo 
(Castrum  Buithii)  takes  its  name.  He  is  said 
to  have  prophesied  the  birth  of  St.  Columba, 
and  to  have  died  on  the  day  that  Saint  was 
born  (a.d.  521). 

BULGARIA  (MARTYRS  OF)  (July  23) 

(9th  cent.)  During  the  war  between  the 
Greek  Emperor  Nicephorus  and  the  Bulgars, 
not  as  yet  Christians,  many  Catholics,  besides 
those  slain  in  battle,  were  put  to  death  on 
account  of  their  Faith.  There  is  much  un- 
certainty as  to  how  this  came  about,  but  they 
have  always  been  reckoned  as  Martyrs. 

♦BURIANA  (St.)  V.  (June  4) 

(Gth  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint,  one  of  the  many 
who  migrated  to  Cornwall  and  there  in  solitude 
led  holy  lives.  The  place-name  St.  Buryan, 
opposite  the  Scilly  Islands,  perpetuates  the 
memory  of  St.  Buriana. 

BURCHARD  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  14) 

(8th  cent.)  An  English  Saint  of  wealthy 
parentage  who  devoted  his  early  manhood  to 
helping  and  working  for  the  poor.  Having 
joined  the  missionary  band  led  by  St.  Boniface 
into  heathen  Germany  and  laboured  success- 
fully there,  Pope  Zaohary  consecrated  him 
First  Bishop  of  Herbipolis  (Wurzburg),  "  Zealous 
as  a  Pastor  of  souls,  meek  and  generous,  but 
ever  humble  and  hard  upon  himself,"  for  so 
he  is  described,  he  died  (a.d.  752)  at  Hohenberg 
(Homburg),  whither  he  had  retired,  and  had 
lived  a  monastic  life  for  his  last  six  months 
upon  earth.  His  relics  were  translated  to 
Wurzburg  a.d.  983. 

BURGONDOPHORA  (FARA)  (St.)  V.  (April  3) 
(7th  cent.)  Born  of  a  noble  Frankish  family, 
she  was  favoured  from  her  childhood  with 
heavenly  visions  and  other  supernatural 
favours.  She  received  the  holy  veil  of  religion 
from  the  famous  Abbot  St.  Columbanus,  but 
on  account  of  her  having  refused  to  marry,  was 
cruelly  persecuted  by  her  disappointed  father. 


In  the  end,  however,  he  was  reconciled  to  his 
daughter,  and  built  for  her  the  monastery  of 
Faremoutiers,  near  Meaux.  Influenced  by  her, 
her  brother  St.  Fare  gave  himself  to  God.  St. 
Burgondophora  passed  away,  surrounded  by 
her  weeping  nuns,  April  3,  655,  being  then 
sixty  years  old. 
*BYBLIG  (PIBLIG)      (St.)  (July  3) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  holy  man  honoured  with 
some  cultusm.  parts  of  Wales,  but  nothing  certain 
is  known  about  him. 


C 

*CADELL  (St.) 

(7th  cent.)     A  Welsh  Saint,  giving  its  title 
to  Llangadell  in  Glamorgan. 
♦CADFAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Nov.  1) 

(6th  cent)  A  holy  man  who  came  over  from 
Brittany  to  Wales  and  became  the  first  Abbot 
of  Bardsey.  He  has  left  his  name  to  Llangadfan 
in  Montgomeryshire,  but  we  have  no  reliable 
account  of  his  life. 
•CADFARCH  (St.)  (Oct.  24) 

(6th  cent.)     A  Welsh  Saint,  disciple  of   St. 
Illtyd,  and    member    of    a    family    of    Saints. 
He  is  said  to  have  founded  churches  at  Penegos 
and  Aberick  . 
*CADOC  (DOCUS,  CATHMAEL)  (St.)        (Jan.  24) 
Bp.  M. 

(6th  cent.)  The  son  of  a  Welsh  chieftain 
and  founder  of  the  celebrated  monastery  of 
Llancarvan  in  Glamorgan,  which  became  a 
veritable  house  of  Saints.  Accompanied  by 
St.  Gildas,  St.  Cadoc  later  continued  his  Religi- 
ous life  in  an  island  off  the  coast  of  Vannes  in 
Brittany.  Finally,  he  again  crossed  the 
Channel  and  settled  in  the  Eastern  counties, 
as  is  believed,  taking  spiritual  charge  of  the 
Britons,  his  compatriots  in  those  parts  during 
their  last  struggle  with  the  conquering  Saxons, 
at  whose  hands  he  received  the  Crown  of  Martyr- 
dom about  a.d.  580,  near  Weedon  (Benevenna) 
in  Northamptonshire. 
*CADOG  (St.) 

(5th  cent.)    The   Patron   Saint  of  Llaodog- 
Faur  in  Carmarthen,  not  to  be  confused  with 
the  later  St.  Cadoc  or  Docus. 
♦CADROE  (St.)  (March  6) 

(10th  cent.)    A  noble  Scotsman,  a  monk  at 
Fleury  on  the  Loire,  and  afterwards  at  Metz. 
He  died  A.D.  975  while  on  a  visit  to  the  Empress 
Adelheid,  mother  of  the  Emperor  Otho  1. 
*CADWALLADOR  (St.)  King.  (Nov.  12) 

(7th  cent.)  A  chieftain  in  Wales  of  the 
ancient  British  race,  not  to  be  confused  with 
the  Anglo-Saxon  St.  Cadwalla.  St.  Cadwal- 
lador  was  venerated  as  a  Saint  in  Wales  after 
his  death  (a.d.  682,  probably). 
CECILIA,  C^ELESTINE,   &c. 

Otherwise  often  written  CECILIA,  CELES- 
TINE,  and  sometimes  C03LESTINE. 
OECILIA  (CECILIA,  CICELY)  (St.)  V.M.  (Nov.  22) 
(2nd  cent.)  One  of  the  most  famous  Virgin 
Martyrs  of  the  early  Roman  Church.  Of 
Patrician  birth  and  a  zealous  Christian,  she 
converted  to  Christianity  her  betrothed  husband, 
Valerian,  with  his  brother  Tiburtius,  who,  like 
her,  both  gave  their  lives  for  Christ.  Cecilia 
was  seized  as  a  Christian  and  suffocated  with 
the  steam  of  a  hot  bath  in  her  own  mansion, 
later  converted  into  a  church.  The  probable 
date  is  the  reign  of  Septimus  Severus  (a.d. 
193-222).  Her  relics  were  recovered  from  the 
catacombs  by  Pope  St.  Paschal  I  (a.d.  821). 
C^ECILIAN  (St.)  (April  16) 

See  SARAGOSSA  (MARTYRS  OF). 
CZECILIAN  (St.)  (June  3) 

Otherwise  St.  CiECILIUS,  which  see. 
CiECILIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (May  15) 

See  SS.  TORQUATUS,  CTESIPHON,    &c. 
CIECILIUS  (CJECILIAN).  (June  3) 

(3rd     cent.)     A     convert     to     Christianity, 
afterwards    a    priest    at    Carthage,    where    his 

63 


CESAREA 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


memory  was  held  in  veneration.  In  his  old 
age  he  taught  Christ's  religion  to  St.  Cyprian, 
who  reverenced  him  as  the  "  Father  of  his  own 
new  life."  He  had  had  a  wife  and  children, 
of  whom  St.  Cyprian  is  said  to  have  taken 
charge.  St.  Jerome  says  that  it  was  from  him 
that  St.  Cyprian  took  the  name  Csecilius. 
St.  Csecilius  flourished  in  the  first  half  of  the 
third  centurv. 
♦C^ESAREA  (St.)  V.  (May  15) 

(Date  unknown.)  An  Italian  who,  in  defence 
of  her  virtue,  took  refuge  in  a  cave  near  Otranto 
in  the  South  of  Italy,  and  appears  thenceforth 
to  have  lived  therein  as  a  Recluse.  The 
cave  is  now  a  place  of  popular  pilgrimage. 
♦CyESARIA  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  12) 

(6th  cent.)  The  sister  of  St.  Caesarius  of 
Aries.  She  was  Superior  of  a  convent  of  nuns 
for  whom  her  brother  wrote  a  somewhat  strict 
monastic  Rule.  She  passed  away  about  a.d. 
530. 
C^SARIUS  of  ARLES  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  27) 

(6th  cent.)  "  The  first  Ecclesiastic  in  the 
Gaul  of  his  time  "  (Smith  and  Wace).  Born 
at  Chalon-sur-Saone  in  the  year  470,  he  retired 
at  the  age  of  twenty  to  the  famous  monastery 
of  the  Isle  of  Lerins  in  the  Mediterranean. 
Ten  years  later  he  became  Archbishop  of  Aries, 
and  presided  over  several  Councils,  among  them 
that  of  Orange  (a.d.  529),  against  the  Semi- 
Pelagians.  He  is  best  known  for  his  Liturgical 
reforms  and  for  his  efforts  to  propagate  and 
perfect  monachism.  The  Rules  he  wrote  for 
monks  and  nuns  are  still  extant.  He  also  took 
a  somewhat  prominent  part  in  the  politics  of 
the  period,  and  more  than  once  was  banished 
by  his  opponents  when  in  power.  He  died 
A.D.  542. 
OffiSARIUS  and  JULIAN  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  1) 

(1st  cent.)  Caesarius,  a  deacon  from  Africa, 
while  witnessing  at  Terracina  a  barbarous 
human  sacrifice  boldly  proclaimed  himself 
a  Christian,  and  denounced  the  proceedings. 
He  was  thereupon  seized  by  the  heathen  mob 
and  thrown  into  the  sea.  Julian,  a  priest, 
shared  his  fate.  They  are  probably  Martyrs 
of  the  very  beginnings  of  Christianity  in  Italy, 
though  some  contend  that  they  are  among  those 
who  died  in  the  great  persecution  under  Dio- 
cletian after  the  year  300.  A  church  outside 
Rome,  on  the  Appian  Way,  gives  his  title  of 
St.  Caesarius  to  one  of  the  Cardinal  Deacons. 
C/ESARIUS,  DACIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  (Nov.  1) 
(Date  unknown.)  A  group  of  seven  Chris- 
tians, registered  in  the  Martyrologies  as  having 
suffered  at  Damascus  in  Syria.  But  dates  and 
all  particulars  have  been  lost. 
C^SARIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  3) 

See  SS.  GERMANUS,  THEOPHILUS,    &c. 
CAESARIUS  (St.)  M.  t  (Dec.  28) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  who  suffered  at 
Arabissa  in  Armenia  under  Galerius  Maximus 
(A.D.  309  about).  He  was  the  father  of  Eu- 
doxius,  the  notorious  Arian,  nor  had  his  own 
past  life  been  irreproachable.  But  by  his 
courage  at  the  stake,  to  which  he  was  nailed 
by  the  feet,  he  atoned  for  his  past  misconduct, 
in  the  eyes  of  his  fellow-Christians,  who  rever- 
ently interred  his  half-charred  remains. 
*C/EDMON  (St.)  (Feb.  10) 

(7th  cent.)  A  farm-servant  at  Whitby  Abbey 
under  the  great  Abbess,  St.  Hilda,  and  later, 
one  of  the  Lay-Brethren  attached  to  the  house. 
The  little  we  know  of  him  we  owe  to  Venerable 
Bede.  He  was  a  man  of  singular  simplicity, 
and  of  a  piety  such  as  to  have  merited  to  him 
a  place  among  those  popularly  venerated  as 
Saints.  His  memory  is  otherwise  preserved 
as  having  probably  been  the  first,  or  almost  the 
first,  among  the  Anglo-Saxons  to  write  in  verse. 
He  confined  himself  exclusively  to  sacred  sub- 
jects, and  in  particular  put  into  verse  the 
Books  of  Genesis  and  Exodus.  The  remains 
attributed  to  him  undoubtedly  reveal  poetic 
genius.  He  died  about  A.D.  680. 
54 


*C#3LLAINN  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  3) 

(6th  cent.)    An  Irish   Saint  of  the  race  of 
Ciarr.     The    church    of   Tearmon   Caelaine   in 
Roscommon  recalls  her  memory. 
C/EREALIS,    POPULUS,   CAIUS  and    SERAPION 

(SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  28) 

(Date  unknown.)     Martyrs  of  uncertain  date 
at  Alexandria  in  Egypt.     Some  ancient  MSS. 
read  Cerulus  for  Cserealis. 
OffiREALIS  (St.)  M.  (June  10) 

See  SS.  GETULITJS,  CEREALIS,    &c. 
CffiREALIS  and  SALLUSTIA  (SS.)  MM.    (Sept.  14) 

(3rd  cent.)     A  Roman  soldier  and  his  wife, 

converted  to  Christianity  by  Pope  St.  Cornelius. 

They  suffered  martyrdom  with  him  under  the 

persecuting  Emperor  Decius,  a.d.  250. 

C/ESARIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  20) 

See  SS.  VICTOR,  ZOTICUS,  &c. 
C/ESARIUS  of  NAZIANZUM  (St.)  (Feb.  25) 

(4th  cent.)  The  brother  of  St.  Gregory  of 
Nazianzum  and  physician  at  the  Imperial 
Court  of  Constantinople,  where  for  a  time  he 
enjoyed  the  favour  of  even  Julian  the  Apostate. 
But  in  the  end,  driven  into  exile  on  account  of 
his  Faith,  he  had  to  suffer  in  common  with 
other  Christians,  until  recalled  to  Court  by 
Valens,  by  whom  he  was  promoted  to  the 
questorship  of  Bithynia.  It  is  said  that  he 
was  preparing  to  retire  into  a  monastery  when 
death  overtook  him  in  A.d.  368  or  369.  His 
funeral  oration,  preached  by  his  holy  brother, 
may  be  read  in  the  works  of  the  latter. 
C/ESIDIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  31) 

(3rd  cent.)  Caesidius,  said  to  have  been 
the  son  of  St.  Rufinus,  Bishop  and  Martyr, 
was  a  priest  who  with  other  Christians  laid 
down  his  life  in  defence  of  his  religion  on  the 
shores  of  Lake  Fucina,  sixty  miles  to  the  East 
of  Rome,  in  one  of  the  persecutions  of  the  third 
century.  But  there  is  much  uncertainty  both 
as  to  the  exact  date  and  as  to  the  particulars  of 
their  sufferings. 
*CAGNOALD  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  6) 

(7th   cent.)    A    brother   of   SS.    Pharo    and 

Burgondophora,  trained  by  the  famous  Abbot 

St.  Columbanus.     He  became  Bishop  of  Laon 

(France),  and  died  about  a.d.  635. 

*CAIDOC  and  FRICOR  (ADRIAN)  (SS.)    (April  1) 

(7th  cent.)  Two  holy  men  of  Irish  origin, 
who  out  of  a  desire  to  spread  the  knowledge 
of  the  Gospel,  journeyed  to  the  country  of 
the  Morini  early  in  the  seventh  century.  They 
made  many  converts  to  Christianity,  among 
whom  was  St.  Ricarius,  founder  of  the  Abbey 
of  Centula.  Their  relics,  enshrined  at  Ponthieu, 
were  held  in  great  veneration. 
*CAILLIN  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  13) 

(7th    cent.)      Associated    with    St.    Maedhoc 

(Edan)  of  Ferns,  and  notable  for  a  miracle  by 

which   he   turned   certain   unbelieving   Druids 

into  stone. 

♦CAIMIN  (CAMMIN)  (St.)  Abbot.  (March  24) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint  who  embraced  a 
life  of  great  austerity  on  an  island  in  Lough 
Derg,  to  which  his  reputation  for  sanctity 
attracted  many  disciples.  Later  in  life  he 
founded  a  monastery  and  church  on  the  Island 
of  the  Seven  Churches.  He  was  a  fellow- 
worker  with  St.  Sennen.  The  Psalter  of 
St.   Caimin,   copied  with  his  own   hand,   still 

♦CAIRLON  (CAORLAN)  (St.)  Bp.  (March  24) 

(6th  cent.)  An  Irish  Abbot,  said  to  have 
died  and  to  have  been  restored  to  life  by 
St.  Dageus.  Afterwards,  when  St.  Cairlon 
had  been  made  Archbishop  of  Cashel,  St.  Dageus 
placed  himself  and  his  monks  under  his  rule. 
♦CAIRNECH  (St.)  (May  16) 

Otherwise  St.  CARANTOG,  which  see; 
CAIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  4) 

See  SS.  HERMES,  AGGAEUS    &c. 
CAIUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  28) 

See  SS.  OEREALIS.  PUPULUS,  &c. 
CAIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (March  4) 

(3rd    cent.)     St.    Caius,    an    officer    of    the 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


CALLISTUS 


Imperial   Palace,   together  with  twenty-seven 
(some  MSS.  have  thirty-seven)  other  Christians, 
is  registered  as  having  been  thrown  into  the 
sea  or  into  a  river,  for  refusing  to  renounce 
their  religion,  either  under  Valerian  (A.D.  254- 
259)  or  in  the  great  persecution  under  Dio- 
cletian at  the  end  of  the  century,  but  at  what 
place  is  not  recorded. 
CAIUS  and  ALEXANDER  (SS.)  MM.      (March  16) 
(2nd  cent.)    Two  Christians,   put  to  death 
for   the   Faith   at   Apamea   in   Phrygia   (Asia 
Minor)   under   the    Emperor   Marcus   Aurelius 
(about  a.d.    172).     They   had   previously   dis- 
tinguished    themselves     by     their     persistent 
refusal   to   have   communion    with   the   Cata- 
Phrygian   heretics,   otherwise  known  as  Mon- 
tanists,  one  of  the  most  widely  spread  sects 
of  their  time. 
CAIUS  and  CREMENTIUS  (SS.)  MM.        (April  16) 
(4th  cent.)    Martyrs  at  Saragossa  in  Spain 
in   the    persecution    under    Diocletian,    about 
a.d.  304. 
CAIUS  of  MELITENE  (St.)  M.  (April  19) 

See  SS.  HERMOGENES,  CAIUS,    &c. 

CAIUS  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (April  22) 

(3rd  cent.)    The  successor  (A.D.  283)  of  Pope 

St.  Eutychian.     He  is  said  to  have  been  by 

birth  a  Dalmatian,  and  related  to  the  Emperor 

Diocletian.     Though  he  was  not  put  to  death 

for  the  Faith,  his  many  sufferings  in  the  cause 

of  religion  have  earned  for  him  the  title  of 

Martyr.      He     died     a.d.     296.     The     formal 

recognition  of  the  six  Orders,  Ostiarius,  Lector, 

Exorcist,    Acolyte,    Subdeacon     and    Deacon, 

as  preliminary  to  the  Priesthood,  is  attributed 

to  him. 

CAIUS  and  LEO  (SS.)  MM.  (June  30) 

(Date  unknown.)    Martyrs  either  in  Africa 

or  in  Rome.     Caius  (or  Cursinus)  a  priest,  and 

Leo,   a    Subdeacon,   are    commemorated   with 

Timotheus,    Zoticus    and    others    in    ancient 

Martyrologies,   but  dates   and   particulars   are 

now  unattainable. 

CAIUS  of  SALERNO  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  28) 

See  SS.  FORTUNATUS,  CAIUS,   &c. 

CAIUS  of  MILAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  27) 

(1st  cent.)     A  disciple  of  St.  Barnabas  the 

Apostle,   who  governed  the  Church  of  Milan 

for  twenty-four  years,   and  was  distinguished 

for  his  zeal  and  piety.     He  baptised  the  Martyr 

St.    Vitalis    with    his    sons    SS.    Gervase    and 

Protase.     He  passed  away,  probably  A.D.  85. 

St.  Charles  Borromeo  enshrined  his  relics  in  the 

Church  of  St.  Francis  at  Milan  (A.D.  1571). 

CAIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  3) 

See  SS.  DIONYSIUS,  FAUSTUS,   &c. 
CAIUS  of  CORINTH  (St.)  (Oct.  4) 

See  SS.  CRISPUS  and  CAIUS. 

CAIUS,    FAUSTUS,     EUSEBIUS,    CH^EREMON, 

LUCIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.         (Oct.  4) 

(3rd  cent.)     Victims  at  Alexandria  in  Egypt 

of    the  persecution  under  Valerian  (A.D.  257). 

Caius  and  Faustus  are  probably  the  Saints  of 

those  names  commemorated  with  St.  Dionysius 

of  Alexandria,  their  Bishop,  on  Oct.  3.     Euse- 

bius,  a  deacon,  survived  to  become  Bishop  of 

Laodicea,    and     died     a.d.    269.    Chseremon, 

who  had  already  suffered  under  Decius,  was 

sent  into  exile.      Of  Lycius  nothing  certain  is 

known. 

CAIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  21) 

See  SS.  DASIUS  and  OTHERS. 
CAIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  20) 

See  SS.  AMPELUS  and  CAIUS. 

•CAJAN  (St.)  (Sept.  25) 

(5th    cent.)    A    son    or    grandson    of    King 

Brychan   of   Brecknock.     His   church   of  Tre- 

gaidian  in  Anglesea  perpetuates  his  memory. 

CAJETAN  (St.)  (Aug.  7) 

(16th  cent.)      Of  the  noble    family  of    the 

Lords  of  Thienna,  near  Vicenza,  in  Lombardy. 

Born  a.d.  1480,  and  from  his  youth  upwards 

known    as    "  The    Saint,"    he    renounced    the 

dignities  offered  him  in  Rome  in  order  to  devote 

himself  to  the  service  of  the  sick  and  of  the  poor 


of  Vicenza.  Later,  with  Peter  Caraffa  (after- 
wards Pope  Paul  IV)  he  founded  the  Congrega- 
tion of  Regular  Clerks,  called  Theatines,  from 
Theate  (Chieti)  in  the  Abruzzi,  where  Caraffa 
was  Bishop.  This  Institute  was  one  of  the 
most  prominent  among  the  fruits  of  the  revival 
of  Christian  piety  in  the  sixteenth  century, 
and  distinguished  by  the  absolute  trust  in 
Divine  Providence  which  was  its  characteristic. 
It  spread  through  Italy  during  the  lifetime  of 
the  Founder,  and  exists  to  our  own  day.  St. 
Cajetan  died  at  Naples  a.d.  1547. 
♦CALAIS  (St.)  Abbot.  (July  1) 

Otherwise  St.  CARILEPHUS,  which  see. 
CALANICUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  17) 

See  SS.  FLORIANUS,  CALANICUS,    &c. 
CALEPODIUS,     PALMATIUS,     SIMPLICIUS, 
FELIX,  BLANDA  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM. 

(May  10) 
(3rd  cent.)  A  number  of  Roman  Christians 
who  perished  during  the  reign  of  the  Emperor 
Alexander  Severus.  The  Pope  of  the  time, 
St.  Callistus,  was  the  most  distinguished  victim  ; 
but  St.  Calepodius,  a  priest,  was  the  first  to  suffer. 
St.  Palmatius,  who  was  of  consular  rank,  died 
with  his  wife  and  children  and  forty-two  of  his 
retainers,  as  did  St.  Simplicius,  a  Senator,  with 
sixty-eight  of  his  family  and  dependents. 
SS.  Felix  and  Blanda,  husband  and  wife,  shared 
the  lot  of  their  fellow-believers.  These  Martyrs 
were  not  arraigned  before  judges  and  condemned 
after  a  regular  trial ;  but  seem  to  have  been 
victims  of  an  outburst  of  fury  on  the  part  of 
the  heathen  mob.  In  the  ninth  century,  six 
centuries  after  their  death  (a.d.  222-235),  their 
relics  were  removed  from  the  Catacombs  and 
enshrined  in  the  Church  of  Sta.  Maria  in  Trase- 
vere. 
CALIMERIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (July  31 ) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Greek,  educated  in  Rome  by 
Pope  St.  Telesphorus,  who,  having  joined  the 
clergy  of  Milan,  governed  that  Church  as 
Bishop  for  more  than  fifty  years,  and  suffered 
imprisonment,  tortures,  and  exile  under  the 
Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius.  St.  Calimerius 
made  innumerable  converts  to  Christianity, 
devoting  himself  wholly  to  the  service  of  his 
flock.  Towards  the  close  of  the  reign  of  Com- 
modus  (a.d.  191)  he  was  called  upon  to  die 
for  Christ,  and  was  cast  headlong  into  a  deep 
well.  He  is  buried  under  the  High  Altar  of 
his  church  at  Milan. 
CALLINICA  and  BASILISSA  (SS.)  MM.  (March  22) 
(3rd  cent.)  Basilissa,  a  rich  lady  of  Galatia 
in  Asia  Minor,  was  distinguished  for  her  chari- 
table zeal  in  succouring  the  Christians  impri- 
soned on  account  of  their  religion.  Callinica 
(often  written  Callinicus)  was  her  helper  in  her 
good  works.  In  the  end  they  were  both 
apprehended  and  executed  as  Christians,  some 
time  in  the  third  century,  most  probably  in  the 
persecution  under  Decius  (a.d.  250). 
•CALLISTHENE  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  4) 

See  SS.  ADAUCTUS  and  CALLISTHENE. 
CALLISTUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Aug.  14) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Todi  in  Central 
Italy,  distinguished  for  his  zeal  in  repressing 
Arianism.  In  the  fifth  year  of  his  Episcopate, 
having  reproved  the  excesses  of  some  noblemen 
of  evil  life,  he  was  put  to  death  by  their  servants 
(A.D.  528),  and  on  that  account  honoured  as  a 
Martvr. 
CALLISTUS  (CALIXTUS)  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (Oct.  14) 
(3rd  cent.)  A  Roman  by  birth,  the  successor 
of  Pope  St.  Zephyrinus,  whose  Archdeacon  or 
representative  he  had  been.  His  five  years  of 
vigorous  Pontificate  were  marked  by  many 
salutary  measures :  the  moderating  of  the 
rigour  of  the  penitential  discipline  ;  the  repres- 
sion of  the  Patripassians,  Sabellians  and  other 
heretics  ;  the  fixing  of  the  Ember  Day  Fasts, 
&c.  &c.  He  seems  to  have  met  with  much 
opposition,  and  at  length,  probably  in  a  riot 
or  outburst  of  the  heathen  against  the  Christians, 
was  flung  headlong  from  the  window  of  a  high 

55 


CALLISTUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


building  in  the  Trastevere  quarter  (A.D.  223). 
He  was  buried  in  the  Catacombs  of  St.  Cale- 
podius,  his  contemporary,  and  his  relics  now 
repose  together  with  those  of  that  Saint  in  the 
Church  of  Santa  Maria  in  Trastevere,  close  to 
the  scene  of  his  martyrdom. 

The  document  called  the  Philosophoumena, 
an  anonymous  production  of  the  heretics  of 
his  time,  written  to  besmirch  the  memory  of 
the  holy  Pope,  notwithstanding  the  credit 
given  to  it  by  Bunsen  and  by  Protestant  writers 
in  general,  has  been  amply  refuted  by  Dollinger 
and  others. 
CALLISTUS,  FELIX  and  BONIFACE        (Dec.  29) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  unknown.)     Roman  Martyrs,  concern- 
ing whom  dates  and  particulars  are  lost,  but 
whose   names   are   registered   in   all   the   best 
Western  Martyrologies. 
CALOCERUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  11) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  disciple,  as  some  assert,  of 
St.  James  the  Greater,  the  Apostle,  and  probably 
a  Greek  by  birth.  He  attached  himself  to 
St.  Apollinaris,  first  Bishop  of  Ravenna. 
Having  efficiently  aided  the  latter  for  many 
years  in  the  administration  of  his  Diocese,  he 
became  his  successor.  He  died  at  an  advanced 
age,  about  a.d.  130,  under  the  Emperor  Hadrian. 
CALLINICUS  (St.)  M.  (July  29) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Christian  who,  at  Gangrae, 
the  chief  town  of  Paphlagonia  in  Asia  Minor, 
after  having  been  scourged  and  put  to  the 
torture,  was  burned  to  death  for  the  Faith. 
The  precise  date  is  unknown,  but  Metaphrastes 
gives  full  details  of  his  martyrdom,  and  he  is 
in  great  honour  in  the  Eastern  Church. 
CALLINICUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  28) 

See  SS.  THYRSUS,  LEUCIUS,    &c. 
CALIXTUS  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (Oct.  14) 

Otherwise  St.  CALLISTUS,  which  see. 
CALLIOPA  (St.)  M.  (June  8) 

(3rd  cent.)  An  Eastern  Martyr  who  was 
subjected  to  unheard-of  tortures  and  afterwards 
beheaded.  The  Greek  Menaea,  while  giving 
many  details,  are  silent  as  to  the  place  where 
she  suffered.  The  probable  date  is  the  short 
reign  of  the  Emperor  Decius,  about  a.d.  250. 
CALLIOPIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  7) 

(4th  cent.)     A  Martyr  who,  under  Diocletian, 
was  crucified  head  downwards  at  Pompeiopolis 
in  Cilicia  (Asia  Minor)  about  a.d.  303. 
CALLISTA  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  2) 

See  SS.  EVODIA,  HERMOGENES,    &c. 
CALLISTRATUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)        (Sept.  26) 

MM. 

(3rd  cent.)  A  body  of  fifty  African  soldiers, 
put  to  death  at  Constantinople  under  the 
Emperor  Diocletian  at  the  close  of  the  third 
century  for  the  crime  of  being  Christians.  It  is 
related  of  them  that  they  were  sewn  up  in 
sacks  and  cast  into  the  sea. 
CALLISTUS,  CHARISIUS  and  OTHERS  (April  16) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(3rd    cent.)     Nine    Christians    of    Corinth, 
thrown  into  the  sea  during  one  of  the  persecu- 
tions of  their  time  (probably  in  that  of  Decius, 
about  A.D.  250). 
CALLISTUS  (St.)  M.  (April  25) 

See  SS.  EVODIUS  and  CALLISTUS. 
CALOCERUS  (St.)  M.  (April  18) 

(2nd  cent.)  An  official  under  the  Emperor 
Hadrian  at  Brescia  in  Lombardy,  who,  having 
witnessed  the  courage  with  which  SS.  Faustinus 
and  Jovita  went  to  their  death  for  Christ,  and 
the  miracles  which  ensued,  was  converted  to 
Christianity  and  baptised,  together  with  a 
great  number  of  other  Pagans.  Arrested  at 
Brescia  in  his  turn  as  a  Christian,  he  was  there 
put  to  the  torture,  but  was  afterwards  taken 
to  Albenga  in  Liguria,  and  beheaded  near  that 
town.  His  relics  are  now  at  Chiavaz,  not  far 
from  Turin. 
CALOCERUS  and  PARTHENIUS  (May  19) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(3rd  cent.)     Two  Christians  in  the  service  of 

56 


iEmilianus,  a  man  of  Consular  rank,  and 
charged  by  him  with  the  duty  of  distributing 
after  his  death  his  superfluous  wealth  among 
the  poor.  They  appear  to  have  passed  into 
the  service  of  the  Emperor  Decius,  who  under 
pretext  of  safeguarding  the  interests  of  Anatolia, 
daughter  of  iEmilian,  imprisoned  them  and  put 
them  to  the  torture.  In  the  end  they  were 
beheaded  as  Christians  in  the  persecution  of 
a.d.  250.  Their  remains  were  reverently 
interred  by  Anatolia  in  the  Roman  Cata- 
combs. 

CALOGERUS  THE  ANCHORET  (St.)  (June  18) 
(5th  cent.)  A  Greek  who,  with  the  blessing 
of  the  then  Pope,  retired  to  a  hermitage  near 
Girgenti  in  Sicily,  and  there  for  thirty-five 
years  led  a  life  of  prayer  and  penance.  He  was 
renowned  for  the  power  of  casting  out  devils, 
bestowed  upon  him  by  Almighty  God.  He  died 
about  the  year  486,  and  his  hermitage  became  a 
frequented  place  of  pilgrimage. 

CAMERINUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  21) 

See  SS.  LUXORIUS,  CISELLUS,    &c. 

CAMILLUS  DE  LELLIS  (St.)  (July  14) 

(17th  cent.)  A  native  of  the  Abruzzi  in 
Southern  Italy,  born  a.d.  1550,  who  after  some 
years  of  a  worldly  life,  strove  to  enter  the 
Franciscan  Order,  but  ultimately  found  his 
vocation  in  the  service  of  the  sick.  With  this 
in  view  he  formed  a  pious  association,  of  which 
the  members  worked  in  the  Hospital  of  the 
Incurables  in  Rome.  This  later  developed  into 
a  Religious  Order,  and  was  approved  as  such 
in  1591.  St.  Camillus,  who  had  been  ordained 
priest  by  Thomas  Goldwell  of  St.  Asaph,  the 
last  of  the  old  English  Bishops,  despite  his  own 
sufferings  from  a  painful  malady,  persevered  in 
the  service  of  the  sick  and  dying  till  his  death 
in  1614  at  the  age  of  sixty-four.  He  was 
canonised  a.d.  1746,  and  by  Leo  XIII  declared 
a  Patron  Saint  of  the  infirm. 

*CAMILLUS  and  OTHERS  (Bl.)  MM.  (Oct.  12) 
(17th  cent.)  Blessed  Camillus  Costanzi  was 
an  Italian  Jesuit,  a  missionary  in  Japan,  where 
he  was  burned  to  death  for  the  Faith  of  Christ 
(a.d.  1622),  together  with  others — native 
converts,  among  them  being  two  little  children. 

*CAMIN  of  INNISKELTRA  (St.)  Abbot.  (March  25) 
(7th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint  who  founded  a 
monastery  on  an  island  in  Lough  Derg.  He 
was  a  learned  man  and  wrote  a  Commentary 
on  the  Hebrew  text  of  the  Psalms.  He  died 
A.D.  653. 

CAMPANIA  (MARTYRS  OF).  (March  2) 

(6th  cent.)  Catholics  put  to  death  as  such 
by  the  Arian  Lombards  while  ravaging  Italy. 
The  numbers  are  variously  estimated,  but 
amount  to  several  hundreds.  Concerning  their 
claims  to  the  honours  proper  to  Martyrs,  we 
have  the  favourable  witness  of  Pope  St.  Gregory 
the  Great,  their  contemporary. 

*CAMPIAN  (EDMUND)  (Bl.)  M.  (Dec.  1) 

See  BLESSED  EDMUND  CAMPIAN. 

CANDIDA  (St.)  M.  (June  6) 

See  SS.  ARTEMIUS  and  CANDIDA. 

CANDIDA  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  9) 

(Date  unknown.)  One  of  a  group  of  Martyrs 
who  suffered  on  the  Ostian  Way,  outside  the 
gates  of  Rome,  in  the  ages  of  persecution,  and 
whose  relics  were  collected  and  enshrined  in 
the  Church  of  St.  Praxedes  by  Pope  St.  Paschal 
I  in  the  ninth  century.  In  inscriptions,  St. 
Candida  is  sometimes  styled  Virgin  Martyr, 
sometimes  simply  Martyr.  Nothing  is  known 
of  her  individually. 

CANDIDA  THE  ELDER  (St.)  (Sept.  4) 

(1st  cent.)  An  aged  woman  who  hospitably 
welcomed  St.  Peter  the  Apostle,  when  passing 
through  Naples  on  his  way  to  Rome.  By  him 
she  was  miraculously  cured  of  a  malady  from 
which  she  was  suffering.  She  herself  was 
instrumental  in  the  conversion  of  St.  Asprenus, 
who  afterwards  became  first  Bishop  of  Naples, 
and  who  gave  her  honourable  burial  at  her 
death,  which  happened  about  a.d.  78. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


CARADOC 


CANDIDA  THE  YOUNGER  (St.)  (Sept.  4) 

(6th  cent.)  A  holy  woman  of  Naples  who 
sacrificed  herself  persistingly  in  labouring  to 
ensure  the  corporal  and  spiritual  well-being  of 
her  husband  and  son,  and  whose  sanctity 
Almighty  God  bore  witness  to  by  the  many 
miracles  wrought  at  her  tomb,  from  which  oil 
flows  that  imparts  health  to  the  sick.  a.d.  586 
appears  to  have  been  the  date  of  her  death. 
CANDIDA  (St.)  V.M.  (Sept.  20) 

(3rd  cent.)  Stated  in  the  Roman  Martyrology 
to  have  suffered  at  Carthage  under  the  Emperor 
Maximinian  Herculeus,  Diocletian's  colleague  ; 
that  is,  towards  the  close  of  the  third  century. 
But  there  is  well-founded  doubt  as  to  the 
authenticity  of  the  record  on  which  the  entry, 
as  regards  the  date,  is  based.  For  the  con- 
troversy the  Acta  Sanctoru  may  be  consulted. 
CANDIDA  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  1) 

See  SS.  LUCIUS,  ROGATUS,    &c. 

CANDIDUS  of  ROME  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  2) 

See  SS.  FORTUNATUS,  FELICIANUS,    &c. 

CANDIDUS  (St.)  M.  (March  9) 

One  of  the  HOLY  MARTYRS  OF  SEBASTE, 

CANDIDUS,  PIPERION  and  OTHERS  (March  11) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(3rd  cent.)    Twenty-two  African  Christians 

who  suffered  either  at  Carthage  or  at  Alexandria 

in   Egypt,   most  probably  in  the  persecution 

under   the   Emperors   Valerian   and    Gallienus 

(a.d.  254-259).     Particulars  are  lost. 

CANDIDUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  22) 

See   SS.   MAURICE   and    OTHERS    {THE 

THEBAN  LEGION). 

CANDIDUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  3) 

(Date  unknown.)     One  of  the  many  Roman 

Martyrs   registered   as    having   suffered   or   as 

having    been    interred    at    the    place    on    the 

Esquiline  Hill  called  the  Ursus  Pileatus.     No 

particulars  have  survived. 

CANDIDUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  15) 

See  SS.  FAUSTINUS,  LUCIUS,    &c. 

CANICUS     (CANICE,     CAINNECH,     KENNETH, 

KENNY)  (St.)  Abbot.  (Oct.  11) 

(6th  cent.)    The  Patron  Saint  of  the  city  of 

Kilkenny,  which  is  named  after  him.     He  was 

born  in  the  North  of  Ireland,  and  with  many 

other  holy  men  was  trained  to  the  monastic 

life  by  St.  Finnian  of  Cluain  or  Clonard,  passing 

afterwards  under  the  discipline  of  St.  Cadoc  of 

Wales.     He  preached  throughout  Ireland,  and 

also  in  Scotland,  where  he  was  the  first  to  build 

a  church  in  the  place  now  known  as  St.  Andrews. 

In    Ireland    he    founded    several    monasteries, 

among  them  that  of  Aghadoe,  where  he  passed 

away  towards  the  end  of  the  sixth  century  at 

the  age  of  eighty-four. 

CANION  (St.)  (Sept.  1) 

See  SS.  PRISCUS,  TAMMARUS.    &c. 
♦CANOG  (CYNOG)  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  7) 

(5th  cent.)  The  eldest  son  of  King  Brychan 
of  Brecknock.  He  met  his  death  in  an  inroad 
of  Barbarians  at  Merthyr-Cynog  about  a.d.  492. 
Several  churches  in  Wales  were  dedicated  to 
him.  In  Brittany  he  is  known  as  St.  Cenneur. 
♦CANNERA  (CAINDER,  KINNERA)  (Jan.  28) 
(St.)  V. 

(6th  cent.)  From  her  earliest  years,  St. 
Cannera  dedicated  her  virginity  to  God,  and 
lived  in  solitude  near  Bantry.  Receiving  a 
supernatural  revelation  of  St.  Senan's  sanctity, 
she  sought  him  out,  and  having  received  Holy 
Communion  at  his  hands,  placidly  passed  to  a 
better  life  about  a.d.  530.  She  was  buried  on 
St.  Senan's  island  of  Inniscarthy. 
CANTIANILLA  (St.)  M.  (May  31) 

See  SS.  CANTIUS,  CANTIANUS,    &c. 
CANTIANUS  (St.)  M.  (May  31) 

See  SS.  CANTIUS,  CANTIANUS,    &c. 
CANTIUS,     CANTIANUS,     CANTIANILLA,     and 
PROTUS  (SS.)  MM.  (May  31) 

(3rd  cent.)  Two  brothers  and  their  sister 
of  the  noble  Roman  family  of  the  Anicii,  who, 
with   their   tutor   Protus,   were   denounced   as 


Christians  and  arrested  at  Aquileia,  whither 
they  had  repaired  to  visit  in  his  prison  the 
holy  priest  St.  Chrysogonus.  They,  like  him, 
sealed  the  confession  of  their  Faith  with  their 
blood  (a.d.  290).  A  panegyric  of  these  Martyrs 
preached  by  St.  Maximus  of  Turin  is  printed 
among  the  works  of  St.  Ambrose. 
CANTIDIUS,  CANTIDIANUS  and  SOBEL    (Aug.  5) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  unknown.)  Egyptian  Martyrs  of  un- 
certain date.  Cantedius  and  Cantidianus 
(whose  names,  however,  are  variously  spelled) 
are  believed  to  have  been  stoned  to  death. 
But  nothing  is  really  known  concerning  them 
or  St.  Sobel. 
CANUTE,  KING  OF  DENMARK  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  19) 

(11th  cent.)  The  son  of  Sweyn,  King  of 
Denmark,  and  great  nephew  of  Canute,  King  of 
England.  Succeeding  to  the  Danish  throne 
as  Canute  IV,  he  showed  himself  an  able  and 
warlike  monarch.  He  thoroughly  established 
the  Christian  religion  in  Denmark,  and  pro- 
pagated it  through  the  Baltic  Provinces  of 
Courland  and  Livonia.  He  married  Alice  of 
Flanders  and  had  by  her  a  son,  St.  Charles  the 
Good,  Count  of  Flanders.  One  of  his  enter- 
prises, which,  however,  failed,  was  the  fitting 
out  of  a  fleet  to  free  the  Anglo-Saxons  from 
the  Norman  yoke.  Though  beloved  by  his 
people,  he  was  cruelly  murdered  in  a  church  by 
a  party  of  malcontents,  headed  by  his  own 
brother,  Olaus  (a.d.  1084).  King  Eric  III, 
one  of  his  successors,  obtained  from  Rome  the 
decree  for  his  canonisation. 
"■CANUTE  LAVARD  (St.)  King,  M.  (Jan.  7) 

(12th  cent.)  A  nephew  of  St.  Canute,  King 
of  Denmark,  with  whom  he  is  sometimes 
confused.  From  being  Duke  of  Schleswig,  he 
became  King  of  the  Sclavi.  He  ruled  justly 
and  wisely,  winning  the  love  of  his  subjects. 
He  was  done  to  death  by  a  kinsman  of  his, 
a  pretender  to  his  throne  (a.d.  1133),  and  in 
Scandinavia  is  honoured  as  a  Martyr. 
CAPITO  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (March  4) 

See  SS.  BASIL,  EUGENIUS,    &c. 
CAPITO  (St.)  M.  (July  24) 

See  SS.  MENEUS  and  CAPITO. 
CAPITOLINA  and  EROTHEIDES  (SS.)     (Oct.  27) 

MM. 

(4th  cent.)     A  Cappadocian  lady,  with  her 
handmaid,    who   suffered   death   as   Christians 
under  Diocletian  a.d.  304. 
CAPPADOCIA  (MARTYRS  OF).  (May  23) 

(4th  cent.)  A  number  of  Asiatic  Christians 
put  to  death  for  their  religion  by  Galerius, 
colleague  of  the  Emperor  Diocletian  (a.d.  303). 
As  in  other  cases,  the  Ecclesiastical  Chronicles 
put  much  stress  on  the  frightful  tortures  to 
which  they  were  subjected,  to  try  their  Faith 
previous  to  their  execution. 
CAPRASIUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  1) 

(5th  cent.)  Styled  by  Eucherius  "  a  man  of 
venerable  gravity,  the  equal  of  the  ancient 
Fathers."  He  with  his  brothers,  SS.  Honora- 
tus  and  Venantius,  went  from  Gaul  to  Greece 
to  study  and  to  practise  the  monastic  life.  After 
the  death  of  Venantius,  Caprasius  and  Honora- 
tus  returned  to  Gaul  and  founded  the  celebrated 
monastery  of  the  Isle  of  Lerins.  On  the 
promotion  of  Honoratus  to  the  See  of  Aries, 
Caprasius  succeeded  him  as  Abbot.  He  died 
A.D.  430. 
CAPRASIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  29) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  of  Agen  in  the  South 
of  France,  who,  to  escape  the  fury  of  the 
persecution  set  on  foot  by  Diocletian,  or  rather 
by  Maximinian  Herculeus,  had  concealed  him- 
self in  the  neighbouring  hills  ;  but  on  hearing 
of  the  courage  of  St.  Faith  at  the  stake,  came 
forth  and  boldly  confessed  that  he  also  was  a 
Christian.  With  others  he  was  beheaded 
a.d.  303,  and  his  relics  were  later  enshrined  in 
a  church  dedicated  in  his  honour. 
*  CARADOC  (St.)  (April  13) 

(12th  cent.)    A  Welshman  of  noble  lineage 

57 


CARALIPPUS 


THE  BOOK  OP  SAINTS 


who,  after  practising  the  Religious  life  in  St. 
Teilo's  monastery  at  Llandaff,  retired  into 
Pembrokeshire,  where  he  and  his  fellow-monks 
suffered  much  in  the  English  invasion  under 
Henry  I.  He  entered  into  his  rest  on  Low 
Sunday.  A.D.  1124.  Many  miracles  were  worked 
at  his  tomb  in  the  Cathedral  of  St.  David's. 
CARALIPPUS  (St.)  M.  (April  28) 

See  SS.  APHRODISIUS,  CARALIPPUS,  &c. 
♦CARANTAC    (CARANTOG,    CAIRNACH,    CAR- 
NATH)  (St.)  (May  16) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Welsh  Prince  who  laboured 
under  St.  Patrick  in  the  Evangelisation  of 
Ireland  in  the  fifth  century.  The  two  Saints, 
Cairnach  (Carnath)  and  Carantog,  are  by  some 
identified,  by  others  looked  upon  as  two  distinct 
personages.  One  of  them  has  left  his  name  to 
Llangrannog  (Cardigan).  But  it  is  difficult  to 
disentangle  the  various  traditions. 
♦CARANUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  24) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Saint  commemorated  in  the 
Aberdeen  Breviary.  He  belonged  to  the  East 
of  Scotland,  and  has  been  thought  to  be  no 
other  than  the  Corindus  who  died  among  the 
Picts,  a.d.  669. 
CARAUNUS  (CHERON)  (St.)  M.  (May  28) 

(1st  cent.)  A  Roman  by  birth  who  em- 
braced the  Christian  Faith  in  the  Apostolic  Age. 
The  tradition  is  that  he  was  ordained  deacon, 
and  having  gone  to  Gaul  as  a  missionary, 
suffered  martyrdom  near  Chartres  under 
Domitian  (A.D.  98). 
♦CARILEPHUS  (CARILEFF,  CALAIS)  (July  1) 
(St.)  Abbot. 

(6th  cent.)  A  French  monk,  friend  and 
companion  of  St.  Avitus,  and  founder  of  a 
monastery  of  very  strict  observance  in  Maine. 
He  died  a.d.  540  or  542.  His  cult  is  chiefly 
at  Blois. 
CARINA  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  7) 

See  SS.  MELASIPPUS,  ANTONY,    &c. 
CARITAS  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  1) 

Otherwise  St.  CHARITY.     (See  SS.  FAITH, 
HOPE,  and  CHARITY.) 
*CARNECH  (St.)  Abbot.  (May  16) 

(6th  cent.)  By  some  thought  to  be  identical 
with  St.  Carantog  or  Cairnech ;  by  others 
distinguished  from  him.  In  the  latter  case  he 
would  be  the  Irish  Saint  whom  tradition  alleges 
to  have  been  Abbot  or  Bishop  of  some  Ecclesi- 
astical establishment  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Lough  Foyle. 
♦CARNATH  (CAIRNAC)  (St.)  Bp.  (May  16) 

Otherwise  St.  CARANTAC,  which  see. 
*CARON  (St.)  (March  5) 

(Date  unknown.)    The  Title  Saint  of  Tregaron 
in  Cardigan.     Nothing  is  known  about  him. 
CARPONIUS,  EVARISTUS  and  PRISCIANUS  (SS.) 
MM.  (Oct.  14) 

(4th  cent.)  Three  brothers  who,  with  their 
sister,  St.  Fortunata,  were  among  the  Christians 
seized  and  put  to  death  at  Csesarea  in  Palestine 
under  Diocletian  (a.d.  303  or  304).  Their  relics 
were  afterwards  translated  to  Naples. 
CARPOPHORUS,  EXANTHUS,  CASSIUS,  SEVER- 
INUS,  SECUNDUS  and  LICINIUS  (SS.)  MM. 

(Aug.  7) 

(3rd  cent.)    Christian  soldiers  who  were  put 

to  death  for  the  Faith  at  Como  in  North  Italy, 

under     Maximinian     Herculeus,     Diocletian's 

colleague,  at  the  close  of  the  third  century. 

CARPOPHORUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  27) 

See  SS.  RUFUS  and  CARPOPHORUS. 
CARPOPHORUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  8) 

See  HOLY  FOUR  CROWNED  MARTYRS. 
CARPOPHORUS  and  ABUNDANTIUS      (Dec.  10) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(3rd  cent.)  A  priest  and  his  deacon,  two 
among  the  many  thousands  who  suffered  death 
as  Christians  in  the  persecution  organised  by 
the  Emperor  Diocletian.  The  date  of  their 
martyrdom  is  placed  by  modern  authorities  at 
some  year  between  A.D.  290  and  A.D.  300.  The 
place,  whether  in  Rome  itself,  or  at  Spoleto, 
or  even  in  Spain,  is  much  disputed. 
58 


CARPUS,  PAPYLUS,  AGATHONICA  and  AGA- 
THODORUS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  13) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  group  of  Martyrs  of  Pergamus 
in  Asia  Minor.  Probably  they  suffered  in  the 
persecution  under  Decius  (a.d.  250),  though 
some  ante-date  them  by  a  century  to  the  time 
of  the  Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius.  Carpus  was 
the  Bishop  of  Thyatira,  Papylus,  his  deacon, 
Agathonica,  the  latter's  sister,  and  Agathodorus, 
their  servant. 

CARPUS  (St.)  (Oct.  13) 

(1st  cent.)  The  Carpus  of  Troas  on  the 
Hellespont  with  whom  St.  Paul  (1  Tim.,  iv.  13) 
says  "  he  had  left  his  cloak."  Nothing  about 
him  is  known  with  any  certainty,  though  various 
Greek  authors  make  him  a  Bishop,  some  of 
Berea,  some  of  Berytus,  some  of  Crete. 

*CARTHAGE  THE  ELDER  (St.)  Bp.  (March  5) 
(6th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Kieran  in 
the  See  of  Ossory.  He  is  said  to  have  been  son 
or  grandson  of  King  iEngus,  but  we  have  no 
reliable  account  of  his  life.  a.d.  540  is  given 
by  some  as  the  year  of  his  death. 

♦CARTHAGE  THE  YOUNGER  (St.)  Bp.  (May  14) 
(7th  cent.)  This  Saint,  whose  real  name 
appears  to  have  been  Mochuda,  was  born  in 
Kerry  in  the  first  half  of  the  sixth  century, 
and  attached  himself  to  St.  Carthage  of  Ossory. 
After  this  teacher,  he  had  as  his  Abbot  St. 
Comgall  of  Benchor,  and  was  soon  himself 
placed  at  the  head  of  a  monastery  in  which  he 
ruled  over  a  thousand  monks.  His  Abbey 
developed  into  the  famous  Bishopric  and  school 
of  Lismore.  He  passed  away  at  the  age  of 
ninety,  about  A.D.  638. 

CARTHERIUS,  STYRIACUS,  TOBIAS,  EUDOXIUS, 
AGAPIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  2) 
(4th  cent.)  Ten  Christians,  soldiers  in  the 
army  of  the  Emperor  Licinius,  burned  to  death 
at  the  stake  at  Sebaste  in  Armenia  (a.d.  315 
about),  for  refusing  to  sacrifice  with  their  pagan 
comrades  to  the  Roman  gods. 

♦CARTHUSIAN  MARTYRS  (Bl.)  (May  4) 

(16th  cent.)  They  are  eighteen  in  number, 
namely,  in  the  first  place,  John  Houghton, 
Prior  of  the  London  Charterhouse,  Robert 
Laurence,  Prior  of  Beauvale  in  Nottingham- 
shire, Augustine  Webster,  Prior  of  Axholme  in 
Lincolnshire,  who  were  executed  at  Tyburn, 
May  4,  1538.  Shortly  afterwards,  at  York, 
eleven  others  of  the  brethren  were  done  to 
death.  They  are  John  Rochester,  James 
Walworth,  John  or  Richard  Bere,  Thomas 
Johnson,  Thomas  Greenway  or  Green,  all 
priests  ;  John  Davies,  deacon  ;  William  Green- 
wood, Thomas  Scriven,  Robert  Salt,  Walter 
Pierson,  Thomas  Redyng,  lay-brothers.  Blessed 
William  Exmew,  Humphrey  Middlemore  and 
Sebastian  Newdigate  of  the  London  Charter- 
house had  been  put  to  death  long  before  (June 
18,  1535).  Blessed  William  Home  shared  the 
captivity  of  the  rest,  but  was  spared  to  be 
brought  to  execution  at  a  later  period  (Aug.  4, 
1540).  These  holy  men  of  one  accord  laid  down 
their  lives  rather  than  swerve  at  the  behest 
of  Henry  VIII  from  the  Faith  of  their  Fathers. 

CASDOE  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  29) 

See  SS.  DADAS,  CASDOE,  &c. 

CASIMIR  of  POLAND  (St.)  (March  4) 

(15th  cent.)  The  second  son  of  Casimir  IV, 
King  of  Poland,  distinguished  from  his  boyhood 
for  piety  and  charity  to  the  poor.  On  coming 
to  man's  estate  he  refused  the  crown  of  Hungary, 
pressed  upon  him  by  his  own  father  and  by  a 
powerful  party  among  the  Hungarians,  dis- 
satisfied with  their  reigning  monarch.  He  died 
(a.d.  1482)  before  reaching  his  twenty-fifth  year. 
On  his  deathbed  he  asked  that  a  copy  of  his 
well-known  Hymn  to  Our  Blessed  Lady  should 
be  buried  with  him  at  Cracow.  Many  miracles 
were  wrought  at  his  tomb,  and  in  1552  his  body 
was  found  to  be  still  incorrupt.  He  was 
canonised  by  Pope  Leo  X. 

CASSIA  (St.)  M.  (July  20) 

See  SS.  SABINIUS,  JULIAN,    &c. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


CASTUS 


CASSIAN  (St.)  M.  (March  26) 

See  SS.  PETER,  MARCIAN,    &c. 

CASSIAN  of  AUTUN  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  5) 

(4th  cent.)  Probably  an  Egyptian  by  birth. 
Coming  to  Autun  in  France,  lie  attached  himself 
to  St.  Reticius,  the  then  Bishop,  whom  he 
eventually  succeeded  in  the  See.  He  governed 
the  Diocese  of  Autun  for  about  twenty  years, 
and  died  a.d.  350.  Many  miracles,  of  which 
some  have  been  put  upon  record  by  St.  Gregory 
of  Tours,  preserved  to  him  the  affection  of  his 
people,  who  in  his  lifetime  had  been  devoted 
to  him. 

CASSIAN  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  13) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Martyr  of  Imola  in  Central 
Italy,  especially  famous  on  account  of  the 
repulsive  features  of  his  Passion.  He  was  a 
schoolmaster,  and  on  being  denounced  as  a 
Christian,  was  condemned  to  perish  at  the  hands 
of  his  hundred  pupils.  These  boys  pierced  him 
to  death  with  their  styli  (steel  pencils  used  for 
writing  on  wax).  St.  Cassian  suffered  in  one  of 
the  persecutions  of  the  third  century,  but  in 
which  cannot  be  assigned  with  any  certainty. 

CASSIAN  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Aug.  13) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Todi  in  Central 
Italy,  successor  in  that  See  of  St.  Pontianus 
who  had  converted  him  to  Christianity.  He 
won  the  crown  of  martyrdom  under  Maximian 
Herculeus  at  the  beginning  of  the  fourth 
century ;  but  the  traditions  concerning  him 
have  been  confused  with  those  relating  to  the 
more  famous  St.  Cassian  of  Imola,  so  that 
particulars  cannot  be  now  given  with  any 
confidence.  He  is  still  in  great  veneration  at 
Todi,  where  his  relics  are  enshrined  with  those 
of  other  local  Martyrs. 

CASSIAN  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  3) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  celebrated  African  Martyr  of 
Tangiers  who  suffered  in  the  great  persecution 
under  Diocletian,  or  rather  in  the  years  im- 
mediately preceding  (a.d.  298).  His  Acts, 
edited  by  Ruinart,  have  escaped  interpolation 
and  he  is  mentioned  in  one  of  the  Hymns  of 
the  Christian  poet  Prudentius.  He  was  the 
"  exceptor  "  (clerk  or  recorder)  of  the  court 
of  the  Praetorian  Prefect,  and  during  the  trial 
of  St.  Marcellus  the  Martyr  threw  down  his  pen 
and  declared  himself  a  Christian,  with  the 
result  that  he  was  privileged  to  share  the 
glorious  fate  of  that  Saint. 

CASSIANUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  1) 

See  SS.  LUCIUS,  ROGATUS,  &c. 

CASSIUS,  VICTORINUS,  MAXIMUS  and  OTHERS 
(SS.)  MM.  (May  15) 

(3rd  cent.)  In  the  year  260,  Chrocas,  the 
Pagan  chief  of  the  Alemanni,  a  tribe  of  Teutonic 
barbarians,  overran  Roman  Gaul  and  put  to 
the  sword  its  inhabitants,  already  in  no  small 
part  Christians.  At  Clermont  in  Auvergne 
no  fewer  than  6266  of  these  are  said  to  have 
perished,  and  have  ever  since  been  honoured 
as  Martyrs.  Among  them  were  Cassius,  a 
priest,  and  Victorinus,  one  of  his  converts. 

CASSIUS  of  NARNI  (St.)  Bp.  (June  29) 

(6th  cent.)  A  holy  prelate,  Bishop  of  Narni, 
near  Spoleto.  In  his  lifetime  he  gave  all  he 
possessed  to  the  poor.  He  let  no  day  pass 
without  celebrating  Mass  "with  compunction 
and  many  tears."  On  June  29,  558  (the  day 
he  had  himself  foretold),  he  yielded  up  his  soul 
to  God  at  the  moment  when,  having  com- 
municated the  assistants  at  the  Holy  Sacrifice, 
he  was  dismissing  them  with  the  Kiss  of  Peace. 
His  shrine  is  in  Narni  Cathedral. 

CASSIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  7) 

See  SS.  CARPOPHORUS,  EXANTHUS,    &c. 

CASSIUS,  FLORENTIUS  and  OTHERS    (Oct.  10) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(4th  cent.)  Christians  put  to  death,  as  such, 
by  the  Emperor  Maximian  Herculeus,  at  Bonn 
in  Germany,  A.D.  303. 

CASTOR  and  DOROTHEUS  (SS.)  MM.   (March  28) 

(Date    unknown.)     Two    Christians    put    to 

death  on  account  of  their  religion  at  Tarsus  in 


Cilicia   in   one   of  the   early   persecutions.      A 
third  Menelampus  is  added  by  some  authors. 
CASTOR  and  STEPHEN  (SS.)  MM.  (April  27) 

(Date  unknown.)  Two  Christians  registered 
in  the  Martyrologies  as  having  suffered  martyr- 
dom at  Tarsus  in  Cilicia.  Dates  and  particulars 
are  lost.  But  it  does  not  appear  that  there  are 
any  substantial  grounds  for  the  identification 
of  these  Saints  with  the  SS.  Castor  and  Doro- 
theus  of  March  28,  as  is  suggested  by  some 
modern  authorities.  At  Tarsus  there  were 
many  Martyrs,  and  Castor  is  quite  a  common 
name  among  Asiatic  Greeks. 
CASTOR,  VICTOR  and  ROGATIANUS     (Dec.  28) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  unknown.)      African  Martyrs  of  whom 
the  names  only  have  been  handed  down  to  our 
times. 
CASTORIUS  (St.)  M.  (July  7  :   Nov.  8) 

See   the   HOLY    FOUR   CROWNED   MAR- 
TYRS. 
CASTRENSIS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  11) 

(5th  cent.)  One  of  the  Catholic  Bishops 
banished  from  Africa  in  the  fifth  century  by 
the  Arian  Vandals.  Landing  in  Italy,  he 
became  Bishop  of  Capua,  or  at  least  worked 
as  a  Bishop  in  that  Diocese.  Part  of  his  relics 
are  at  Capua  and  part  at  Monreale  in  Sicily. 
There  is  much  dispute  as  to  precise  dates. 
Some  would  have  him  to  be  identical  with 
Priscus,  Episcopus  Castrensis,  who  died  A.d.  459, 
and  is  venerated  on  Sept.  1.  Others  put  his 
exile  under  Thrasimund  between  the  years  496 
and  522.  There  was  a  Candidianus,  Bishop 
of  Castra,  banished  from  Africa  in  the  year  484. 
He  would  have  been  styled  Episcopus  Castrensis, 
and  it  is  not  impossible  that  he  may  be  the 
St.  "  Castrensis  "  of  the  Martyrologies. 
CASTRENSIS  (St.)  (Sept.  1) 

See  SS.  PRISCUS,  CASTRENSIS,    &c. 
CASTRITIAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  1) 

(2nd  cent.)  The  predecessor  of  St.  Calimerus 
in  the  See  of  Milan.  He  was  famous  for  his 
care  of  the  poor  and  of  travellers.  He  restored 
the  Milanese  Church  ravaged  by  the  persecutions 
under  the  Emperors  Domitian  and  Trajan. 
He  passed  away,  illustrious  for  his  piety  and  for 
his  miracles,  a.d.  137,  in  the  forty-second  year 
of  his  Episcopate. 
CASTULUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  12) 

See  SS.  ZOTICUS,  ROGATUS,    &c. 
CASTULUS  (St.)  M.  (March  26) 

(3rd  cent.)  An  officer  or  chamberlain  of  the 
palace  in  Rome  of  the  Emperor  Diocletian. 
For  having  sheltered  some  of  his  fellow  - 
Christians,  he  was  seized,  put  to  the  torture, 
and  in  the  end  buried  alive  (a.d.  288). 
CASTULUS  and  EUPREPIS  (SS.)  MM.      (Nov.  3) 

(Date  unknown.)     Roman  martyrs  registered 

in    the    Martyrologies,    but   concerning    whom 

neither  dates  nor  particulars  have  come  down 

to  us. 

CASTUS  and  /EMILIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (May  22) 

(3rd  cent.)  Two  celebrated  African  Martyrs 
of  the  persecution  of  Decius  (a.d.  250)  who, 
having  first  given  way  when  put  to  the  torture, 
repented,  and  on  being  seized  a  second  time, 
bravely  won  their  crown.  They  were  burned 
to  death,  their  love  of  Christ,  as  their  contem- 
porary St.  Cyprian  tells  us,  proving  itself 
"  stronger  than  fire."  One  of  St.  Augustine's 
sermons  is  a  panegyric  of  these  holy  men. 
CASTUS  and  SECUNDINUS  (SS.)  Bps.,        (July  1) 

MM. 

(Date  unknown.)  Two  Saints  much  vener- 
ated in  various  churches  of  Southern  Italy, 
and  celebrated  by  several  Mediaeval  authors. 
The  Martyrologies  register  them  as  of  Sinuessa 
(Mondragone)  near  Caserta.  St.  Castus  is  often 
written  St.  Cassius.  A  Bishop  Secundinus 
assisted  at  the  Council  of  Sinuessa  a.d.  304. 
Detailed  accounts  of  them  were  written  some 
fifteen  hundred  years  ago,  but  the  Bollandists 
and  other  modern  authorities  put  little  faith 
in  their  accuracy. 

59 


CASTUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


CASTUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  4) 

See  SS.  MAGNUS,  CASTUS,    &c. 

CASTUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  6) 

See  SS.  MARCELLUS,  CASTUS,    &c. 

CATALDUS  (St.)  Bp.  (May  10) 

(7th  cent.)  The  most  illustrious  of  the 
several  Irish  Saints  of  that  name.  Born  in 
Munster  he  became  the  disciple  and  successor 
of  St.  Carthage  in  the  famous  School  of  Lismore. 
He  is  believed  to  have  been  consecrated  a  Bishop 
in  Ireland.  But  on  his  return  from  a  pilgrimage 
to  the  Holy  Land,  the  people  of  Taranto  in 
Southern  Italy  constrained  him  to  accept  the 
government  of  tbeir  Church.  Many  miracles 
are  attributed  to  his  intercession.  He  flourished 
early  in  the  seventh  century. 

CATHALDUS  (CATHAL)  (St.)  Bp.  (May  10) 

Otherwise  St.  CATALDUS,  which  see. 

CATHAN  (CAT AN,  CADAN)  (St.)  Bp.  (May  17) 
(6th  cent.)  This  Saint  who  flourished  in  the 
sixth  or  possibly  in  the  seventh  century  appears 
to  have  been  a  Bishop  in  the  Isle  of  Bute, 
often  called  after  him  Kil-cathan.  He  was, 
it  is  said,  Irish  by  birth,  and  the  uncle  of  St. 
Blane.  Colgan  says  that  he  died  after  a.d.  560, 
and  his  tomb  is  shown  at  Tamlacht  near  London- 
derry. The  Scots  contend  that  he  rests  in  the 
Isle  of  Bute.  It  is  possible  that  there  may 
have  been  two  Saints  of  the  name. 

CATHARINE  DEI  RICCI  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  2) 

(16th  cent.)  A  Florentine  maiden  of  the 
ancient  family  of  the  Ricci,  born  a.d.  1519, 
and  who,  at  the  age  of  fourteen,  entered  a 
convent  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Dominic  at 
Prato,  near  Florence,  of  which  she  after  some 
years  became  Prioress.  Humble  and  meek  of 
heart,  she  was  wonderful  for  her  spirit  of 
penance,  and  emulated  in  her  life  the  austerities 
of  the  ancient  solitaries.  A  marvellous  meeting 
in  vision  of  St.  Philip  Neri  and  St.  Catharine  is 
narrated  of  them.  Three  Cardinals,  afterwards 
Popes,  were  among  the  thousands  who  flocked 
to  Prato  to  ask  the  prayers  of  the  poor  nun. 
Her  Heavenly  Spouse  called  her  to  Himself, 
Feb.  2,  1589.  She  was  canonised  by  Benedict 
XIV,  A.D.  1746. 

CATHARINE  of  BOLOGNA  (St.)  V.  (March  9) 
(15th  cent.)  Of  a  noble  family  of  Bologna, 
this  Saint,  after  living  some  years  as  a  Franciscan 
Tertiary  at  Ferrara,  became  Abbess  of  a  newly 
founded  and  very  austere  monastery  of  Poor 
Clares  at  Bologna.  Her  life  may  be  said  to 
have  been  passed  in  making  intercession  for 
the  conversion  of  sinners  and  for  the  salvation 
of  men.  Endued  with  the  gifts  of  prophecy 
and  miracles,  she  bore  her  many  trials  with 
heroic  patience  and  cheerfulness.  She  passed 
from  this  world  March  9,  1463,  at  the  age  of 
fifty,  and  her  holy  body  remains  incorrupt 
to  this  day.  She  has  left  various  ascetical 
writings  of  great  value.  Canonised  in  the 
eighteenth  century,  she  is  regarded  as  one  of 
the  Patron  Saints  of  painters,  in  whose  art 
she  was  skilled. 

CATHARINE  of  SWEDEN  (St.)  V.  (March  22) 

(14th  cent.)  The  daughter  of  Ulpho,  Prince 
of  Nericia,  and  of  his  wife,  St.  Bridget  of 
Sweden,  Catharine,  betrothed  to  Egard,  a  young 
nobleman,  persuaded  him  to  join  with  her  in 
making  a  vow  of  chastity.  She  accompanied 
her  mother  on  many  pilgrimages,  and  like  her, 
everywhere  showed  herself  zealous  for  God's 
glory  and  for  the  salvation  of  souls.  After  her 
mother's  death  in  Rome  she  returned  to  Sweden, 
and  died  in  fame  of  great  sanctity,  Abbess  of 
Wadstena,  a.d.  1381.  Thirty  years  after  her 
death,  Ulpho,  a  Bridgettine  Friar,  wrote  her  life. 
Some  ascetical  works  of  her  own  are  extant. 

CATHARINE  of  GENOA  (St.)  Widow.  (March  22) 
(16th  cent.)  Catharine  Fieschi,  of  a  noble 
Genoese  family,  was  married  to  Julian  Adorno, 
of  rank  equal  to  her  own.  Misunderstood  and 
disliked  by  her  husband,  she  passed  years  of  a 
wretched  life,  upheld  only  by  her  piety  and  by 
her  trust  in  God.  At  length  her  prayers  and 
60 


her  devotedness  to  him  won  Adorno  back  to  a 
good  life,  closed  by  a  holy  death.  Catharine 
then  gave  herself  up  to  the  service  of  the  sick 
and  of  the  poor,  passing  away  at  the  age  of 
sixty-three,  Sept.  15,  1510.  Her  virtues  and 
the  supernatural  heights  of  prayer  to  which  it 
pleased  Almighty  God  to  raise  her,  together 
with  the  miracles  wrought  in  favour  of  those 
who  sought  her  intercession,  led  to  her  canonisa- 
tion by  Clement  XII  (a.d.  1737). 

CATHARINE  of  SIENA  (St.)  V.  (April  30) 

(14th  cent.)  Born  at  Siena  in  Tuscany 
(A.D.  1347)  of  a  family  of  good  repute,  the 
Benincasa,  Catharine  was  favoured  with  super- 
natural graces  by  Almighty  God  from  her  very 
childhood.  At  the  age  of  eighteen  she  received 
the  habit  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Dominic, 
and  thenceforth  lived  a  wonderful  life  of  prayer 
and  penance,  crowned  by  God  with  the  gift 
of  the  Stigmata,  as  was  that  of  St.  Francis  of 
Assisi.  She  was  indefatigable  in  her  service  of 
the  poor,  especially  of  the  plague-stricken, 
but  her  zeal  was  chiefly  directed  to  obtaining 
the  conversion  of  sinners  and  to  securing  the 
peace  of  the  Church  in  Italy,  her  fatherland. 
By  her  visit  to  Avignon,  she  was  instrumental 
in  bringing  about  the  return  of  the  Popes  to 
Rome,  and  later  on,  laboured,  though  in  vain, 
to  avert  the  Great  Schism  between  the  Faithful 
and  the  adherents  of  the  rival  Pope  of  Avignon. 
She  died  in  Rome,  April  30,  a.d.  1380,  and  was 
canonised  in  1461.  Her  body  rests  in  the 
Minerva  Church  in  Rome,  of  which  city  she  is 
reckoned  one  of  the  Patron  Saints.  Her 
"  Dialogue  "  and  other  writings  will  always  be 
a  treasure-house  of  mystic  lore  to  the  prayerful. 
Countless  miracles  have  been  wrought  by  her 
intercession,  and  personal  devotion  to  her  is 
widespread  tliroughout  the  Church. 

CATHARINE  (St.)  V.M.  (Nov.  25) 

(4th  cent.)  A  rich  and  noble  as  well  as 
cultured  and  intellectually  gifted  maiden  of 
Alexandria  in  Egypt,  who,  contemning  the 
overtures  of  the  tyrant  Maximinus  Daza,  was 
after  much  persecution  sent  into  exile.  On 
her  return  the  tradition  is  that  she  was  put  to 
death  (a.d.  310)  after  vain  attempts  to  torture 
her  into  submission  to  heathenism,  by  means 
of  an  engine  fitted  with  a  spiked  wheel.  Her 
body  was  discovered  by  the  Christians  in  Egypt 
and  reverently  interred  among  them.  But  the 
tradition  goes  on  to  recount  how  in  the  eighth 
century  angels  conveyed  it  to  the  top  of  Mount 
Sinai,  where  it  is  still  the  object  of  great  venera- 
tion. On  account  of  her  skill  and  success  in 
overthrowing  in  a  public  discussion  the  argu- 
ments of  the  Pagan  Sages  of  Alexandria,  St. 
Catharine  is  recognised  as  the  Patron  Saint  of 
Christian  philosophers.  But  very  little  is  in 
reality  known  about  her  life.  A  few  lines  in 
Eusebius  seem  to  be  a  chief  basis  of  tradition 
concerning  her,  or,  at  least,  a  witness  to  its 
genuineness. 

CATHOLINUS  (St.)  M.  (July  15) 

Otherwise  St.  CATU LINUS,  which  see. 

CATULINUS        (CATHOLINUS),       JANUARIUS, 
FLORENTIUS,  JULIA  and  JUSTA  (SS.)  MM. 

(July  15) 
(Date  unknown.)  Carthaginian  Martyrs.  Of 
St.  Catulinus  (a  deacon)  we  have  a  Panegyric  in 
one  of  the  Sermons  of  St.  Augustine ;  but 
beyond  the  fact  that  their  bodies  were  enshrined 
in  the  famous  Basilica  of  Fausta  at  Carthage, 
we  have  no  particulars  concerning  him  or  his 
fellow-sufferers. 

CATUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  19) 

See  SS.  PAUL,  GERONTIUS,    &c. 

♦CAWRDAF  (St.)  (Dec.  5) 

(6th  cent.)     The  son  and  successor  of  Caradog, 

chieftain    of    Brecknock    and    Hereford.     He 

ended  his  life  as  a  monk  under  St.  Illtyd.     He 

died  about  a.d.  560. 

CE. 

In  many  names  this  syllable  is  often  written 
CAE,  or  CH,  or  KE,   &c. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


CERBONIUS 


CEADDA  (St.)  Bp.  (March  2) 

Otherwise  St.  CHAD,  which  see. 
♦CEADWALLA  (CADWALLA)  (St.)         (April  20) 

King. 

(7th  cent.)  A  King  of  Wessex,  who,  while  yet 
a  Pagan,  advanced  indeed  greatly  the  limits  of 
the  territories  under  his  rule ;  but  showed 
himself  not  less  cruel  and  crafty  than  other 
conquerors  of  his  race  and  time.  At  length, 
touched  by  Divine  grace,  he  resolved  to  become 
a  Christian,  and  journeyed  to  Rome,  where  he 
was  baptised  by  Pope  St.  Sergius,  and  dying, 
while  yet  wearing  the  white  robe  of  a  neophyte 
(a.d.  689),  was  on  that  account  numbered  among 
the  Saints. 
♦CEALLACH  (KELLACH)  (St.)  Bp.  (May  1) 

(6th    cent.)    A    disciple   of    St.    Kiernac   of 

Clonmacnoise,  who  became  Bishop  of  Killala, 

and  ended  his  life  as  a  hermit.     The  exact  date 

of  his  death  is  uncertain. 

♦CEARAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  14) 

(8th  cent.)     An  Irish  Saint,  Abbot  of  Belach- 
Cluin,  and  on  account  of  the  holiness  of  his  life 
surnamed  "  The  Devout."     He  died  a.d.  870. 
CECILIA  (St.)  V.M.  (Nov.  22) 

Otherwise  St.  CiECILIA,  which  see. 
♦CEDD  (St.)  Bp.  (June  7) 

(7th  cent.)  The  brother  of  St.  Chad,  and 
himself  Bishop  of  London.  After  a  sojourn 
in  the  monastery  of  Lindisfarne  and  much 
mission  work  in  the  North  of  England,  Oswy, 
King  of  Northumbria,  sent  him  to  the  East 
Saxons  at  the  petition  of  Sigebert,  their  king, 
and  he  may  rightly  be  styled  the  Apostle  of  the 
English  metropolis.  Like  other  holy  prelates 
of  his  time,  St.  Cedd  retired  in  his  old  age  to  a 
monastery  he  had  founded  at  Lestingay  in 
Yorkshire,  where  he  died  a.d.  664.  He  had  a 
special  Office  in  the  old  English  Breviaries, 
usually  on  March  2. 
CEILLACH  (St.)  Bp.  (April  6) 

Otherwise  St.  CELSUS,  which  see. 
♦CEITHO  (St.)  (Nov.  1) 

(6th  cent.)  One  of  five  brothers,  Saints  of 
the  great  Welsh  family  of  Cunedda.  A  church 
at  Pumpsant  was  dedicated  to  the  five  brothers. 
That  at  Llangeith  (Cardigan)  perpetuates  the 
memory  of  St.  Ceitho  in  particular. 
*CELE  CHRISTI  (St.)  Bp.  (March  3) 

(8th  cent.)  St.  Cele  Christi,  otherwise 
Christicola  (worshipper  of  Christ),  for  many 
years  led  an  eremitical  life  ;  but  ultimately  was 
forced  to  accept  a  Bishopric  in  Leinster.  The 
Annals  of  Ulster  give  a.d.  728  as  the  date  of 
his  death. 
CELERINA  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  3) 

See  SS.  LAURENTINUS,  IGNATIUS,    &c. 
CELERINUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  3) 

(3rd  cent.)  An  African  Christian  who, 
without  shedding  his  blood,  earned  the  title  of 
Martyr  on  account  of  the  sufferings  he  endured 
during  the  persecution  under  Decius  (a.d.  250), 
he  being  then  on  a  visit  to  Rome.  Set  at 
liberty,  he  returned  to  Carthage,  his  native  city, 
and  was  there  ordained  deacon  by  St.  Cyprian. 
He  is  mentioned  with  praise  by  the  contem- 
porary Pope,  St.  Cornelius  ;  and  St.  Augustine 
speaks  of  a  church  at  Carthage  which  bore  his 
name. 
CELESTINE  I  (St.)  Pope.  (April  6) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Roman  priest  who  succeeded 
St.  Boniface  I  in  St.  Peter's  Chair  (a.d.  422). 
His  zeal  was  remarkable.  He  deposed  a  Bishop 
in  Africa,  sternly  repressed  abuses  elsewhere, 
sent  SS.  Palladius  and  Patrick  as  missionaries 
to  the  Scots  and  Irish,  and  St.  Germanus 
against  the  Pelagian  heretics  in  Britain,  and 
developed  the  Roman  Liturgy.  Above  all,  he 
(a.d.  430)  condemned  the  heresy  of  Nestorius, 
and  by  his  Legates  presided  over  the  great 
Council  of  Ephesus  (a.d.  431).  He  died  in  the 
following  year,  and  was  buried  in  the  cemetery 
or  catacomb  of  St.  Priscilla,  whence  his  relics 
were  afterwards  removed  to  the  church  of  St. 
Praxedes. 


CELESTINE  (St.)  M.  (May  2) 

See  SS.  SATURNINUS,  NEOPOLUS,    &c. 
CELESTINE  V  (St.)  Pope.  (May  19) 

Otherwise  St.   PETER  CELESTINE,   which 
see. 
♦CELLACH  (CEILACH,  KEILACH)  (April  1) 

(St.)  Bp. 

(9th  cent.)  An  Archbishop  of  Armagh, 
possibly  before  his  consecration  Abbot  of  Iona 
and  founder  of  the  Abbey  of  Kells.  Colgan 
enumerates  no  less  than  thirty-three  Celtic 
Saints  bearing  such  names  as  Ceillach  or 
Cellach 
*CELLOCH  (St.)  Abbot.  (March  26) 

Otherwise  St.  MOCHELLOC,  which  see. 
CELSUS  of  ANTIOCH  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  9) 

See  SS.  JULIAN,  BASILISSA,    &c. 
CELSUS  (CEILLACH)  (St.)  Bp.  (April  6) 

(12th  cent.)  An  Archbishop  of  Armagh, 
renowned  throughout  Ireland  for  his  piety 
and  learning.  Supported  by  a  Synod  of  fifty 
Bishops  and  several  hundred  priests,  he,  every- 
where in  the  island,  restored  Church  discipline. 
He  died  April  4,  1129,  at  Ard-Patrick  in 
Munster,  in  the  fiftieth  year  of  his  age,  and  was 
buried  at  Lismore.  When  dying  he  sent  his 
pastoral  staff  to  his  disciple,  St.  Malachias, 
then  Bishop  of  Connor,  which  led  to  the  election 
of  that  holy  man  to  the  Primatial  See.  St. 
Bernard  eulogises  St.  Celsus  in  the  life  he  wrote 
of  St.  Malachy. 
CELSUS  (St.)  M.  (July  28) 

See  SS.  NAZARIUS,  CELSUS,    &c. 
CELSUS  and  CLEMENT  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  21) 

(Date  unknown.)     Roman  Martyrs  of  whom 
the  names  only  have  come  down  to  us. 
CENSURINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (June  10) 

(5th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Germanus 
(A.D.  448)  in  the  See  of  Auxerre  (France),  and 
the  inheritor  of  his  zeal  and  virtues.  He  died 
after  an  Episcopate  of  thirty-eight  years 
(A.D.  486),  and  was  buried  in  the  church  of 
St.  Germanus,  which  he  himself  had  built. 
CENTOLLA  and  HELENA  (SS.)  MM.        (Aug.  17) 

(Date     uncertain.)     Spanish     Martyrs     who 

suffered  near  Burgos.     Details  of  their  Passion 

are    given,    but    without    dates    or    means    of 

testing  their  reliability. 

*CEOLFRID  (St.)  Abbot.  (Sept.  25) 

(8th  cent.)  Abbot  of  Jarrow  and  of  Wear- 
mouth,  where  he  worthily  filled  the  place  of  his 
master,  St.  Benedict  Biscop.  Ceolfrid  is 
famous  as  the  teacher  of  the  Venerable  Bede, 
who  has  written  his  life.  He  was  learned  and 
a  persevering  student,  as  well  as  a  man  of 
wonderful  holiness  of  life.  He  died  on  a 
pilgrimage  to  Rome  (A.d.  716),  at  Langres  in 
France,  whence  his  sacred  remains  were  after- 
wards restored  to  Jarrow. 
♦CEOLLACH  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  6) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint  who  for  a  short 
time  governed  as  Bishop  the  great  Diocese  of 
the  Mercians  or  Mid- Angles.  Thence  he  retired 
to  Iona,  but  returned  to  Ireland  to  die  in  his 
native  country.  The  exact  date  is  uncertain. 
*CEOLWULPH  (St.)  (Jan.  18) 

(8th  cent.)  The  successor  of  Osric  as  King  of 
Northumbria.  He  is  the  prince  to  whom 
Venerable  Bede  dedicated  his  Ecclesiastical 
History.  After  some  years,  resigning  his  crown, 
he  became  a  monk  at  Lindisfarne,  dying  there 
A.D.  764.  Many  miracles  were  wrought  at  his 
tomb. 
*CERA  (CIAR,  CYRA,  CIOR,  CEARA)       (Jan.  5) 

(St.)  V. 

(7th    cent.)    A    saintly    maiden,     born    in 
Tipperary,    who    governed    two    very    fervent 
convents  of  nuns,  one  in  Kilheary  and  the  other 
in  Tech  Telle. 
CERBONIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  10  ) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Populonia  (Piom- 
bino)  in  Tuscany,  eulogised  by  St.  Gregory  the 
Great.  He  had  come  from  Africa  and  been 
welcomed  by  the  Bishop  Florentius,  whom  he 
succeeded.    For  giving  shelter  to  some  Roman 

61 


CERBONIUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


soldiers,  Totila,  the  Barbarian  chieftain,  con- 
demned him  to  be  torn  in  pieces  by  a  bear, 
which,  however,  miraculously  restrained,  only 
licked  his  feet.  Driven  by  heretics  from  Piom- 
bino,  he  died  in  the  Isle  of  Elba  before  the 
year  580. 
CERBONIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  10) 

(Date    unknown.)     A     Bishop    of    Verona, 

praised  by  his  successors  for  his  zeal  and  piety, 

and  who   probably  lived  before  A.D.  400.     We 

have  no  definite  particulars  about  him. 

CESLAS  (St.)  (July  20) 

(13th  cent.)  A  Polish  Saint  who  received, 
together  with  St.  Hyacinth,  the  habit  of  the 
Order  of  St.  Dominic  from  the  hands  of  the 
holy  founder  himself.  He  acted  as  Spiritual 
Director  to  the  Duchess  St.  Hedwige,  besides 
rendering  in  other  ways  important  services 
to  the  Church.  The  successful  resistance  of  the 
citizens  of  Breslau  in  Silesia,  where  he  resided, 
to  the  Mongols  in  their  great  invasion  of  1240, 
is  attributed  to  his  prayers  and  miracles.  He 
went  to  his  reward  in  July,  1242. 
*CETTIN  (CETHACH)  (St.)  Bp.  (June  16) 

(5th  cent.)    A  disciple  of  St.  Patrick,  con- 
secrated Bishop  to  assist  him  in  his  Apostolic 
work.     His    shrine    at    Oran    seems    to    have 
subsisted  until  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century. 
*CEWYDD  (St.)  (July  1) 

(6th  cent.)    A  Welsh  Saint  who  flourished  in 
Anglesey. 
CH. 

Saint's  names  beginning  with  CH  should  also 

be  looked  for  as  commencing  CA,  CO,  or  K,  the 

spelling    being  frequently    very    uncertain    and 

varying. 

CHAD  (CEADDA)  (St.)  Bp.  (March  2) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Anglo-Saxon,  brother  of 
St.  Cedd,  Bishop  of  London.  He  was  educated 
at  Lindisfarne  and  in  Ireland.  He  governed 
for  some  years  the  monastery  of  Lestingay  in 
Yorkshire,  acquiring  thereby  a  great  reputation 
for  ability  and  for  holiness  of  life.  Through  a 
mistake  occasioned  by  the  prolonged  absence 
of  St.  Wilfrid  in  France,  St.  Chad  was  con- 
secrated Archbishop  of  York  in  his  place  ;  but 
on  the  Saint's  return  passed  to  the  Bishopric 
of  the  Mercians,  of  which  he  fixed  the  See  at 
Lichfield.  He  died  two  years  later  in  the  great 
pestilence  of  A.D.  673,  leaving  an  imperishable 
memory  for  zeal  and  devoted  ness.  A  portion 
of  his  Sacred  Belies  are  venerated  in  Birming- 
ham Cathedral,  which  is  dedicated  to  him. 
CHiEREMON  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  4) 

See  SS.  CAIUS,  FAUSTUS,    &c. 
CH^REMON  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.        (Dec.  22) 

(3rd  cent.)  Chseremon,  Bishop  of  Nilopolis, 
had  reached  a  very  advanced  age  when,  in  the 
Decian  persecution  (A.D.  250),  he  was  forced 
from  Egypt  and  compelled  to  take  refuge  in  the 
mountains  about  Sinai,  where  he  was  done  to 
death  by  the  savage  heathens  of  the  desert. 
St.  Dionysius  of  Alexandria  states  that  he  was 
the  leader  in  their  flight  of  a  number  of  Chris- 
tians of  his  flock,  of  whom  the  greater  part  were 
immolated  with  him. 
CHALCEDON  (MARTYRS  OF).  (Sept.  24) 

(4th  cent.)  Forty-nine  Christians  put  to 
death  on  account  of  their  religion  in  the  great 
persecution  under  Diocletian  (a.d.  304).  They 
are  styled  the  "  Martyrs  of  Chalcedon."  They 
appear  to  have  been  the  choir  of  singers  of  the 
great  church  of  Chalcedon,  and  suffered  in 
company  with  or  a  few  days  after  the  celebrated 
Virgin- Martyr,  Euphemia. 
♦CHAMOND  (ANNEMOND)  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Sept.  28) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Archbishop  of  Lyons,  of 
noble  family,  brought  up  at  the  Court  of  King 
Clovis  II.  He  governed  his  Diocese  with  zeal 
and  success,  but  in  the  end  fell  a  victim  to  the 
machinations  of  Ebroin,  Mayor  of  the  Palace, 
who  caused  him  to  be  assassinated  (A.D.  657). 
Among  those  who  took  part  in  the  ceremony 
of  the  enshrining  of  the  Relics  of  this  holy 
Martyr  was  St.  Wilfrid  of  York. 
62 


CHARISIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  16) 

See  SS.  CALLISTUS,  CHARISIUS,    &c. 
CHARITINA  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  5) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  who,  under  Dio- 
cletian (A.D.  304),  probably  at  Amasa  on  the 
Black  Sea,  after  enduring  incredible  tortures, 
breathed  forth  her  soul  in  the  torture  chamber, 
while  absorbed  in  prayer.  The  similarity  of 
name  and  of  many  of  the  details  of  martyrdom 
have  led  some  moderns  to  confuse  St.  Charitina 
with  St.  Catharine  of  Alexandria,  but  all 
tradition  is  against  their  view. 
CHARITON  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  3) 

See  SS.  ZENO  and  CHARITON. 
CHARITY  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  1) 

Otherwise  St.  CHARITAS  or  AGAPE. 

See  SS.  FAITH,  HOPE,  and  CHARITY. 
♦CHARLEMAGNE  (Bl.)  Emperor.  (Jan.  28) 

(9th  cent.)  The  famous  Charles  the  Great, 
son  of  Pepin  the  Short,  born  in  742,  a  successful 
warrior,  who,  conquering  the  Lombards  and 
Saxons,  and  securing  to  the  Popes  their  temporal 
kingdom,  was  God's  instrument  for  the  advance- 
ment of  Christianity.  He  was  zealous  for 
Church  discipline  and  for  the  spread  of  learning. 
He  cared  for  the  poor  and  was  eminently  pious, 
meditating  much  on  the  Holy  Scriptures. 
Pope  St.  Leo  III  crowned  him  Emperor  of 
Rome  and  the  West,  on  Christmas  Day,  A.D. 
800.  He  died  at  Aix-la-Chapelle,  Jan.  28, 
A.D.  814,  and  in  some  churches  has  been  honoured 
as  a  Saint. 
♦CHARALAMPIAS  and  OTHERS  (Feb.  18) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(3rd  cent.)  Martyrs  at  Magnesia  in  Asia 
Minor  in  the  persecution  under  Septimius 
Severus  (a.d.  203).  St.  Charalampias  was  a 
priest.  With  him  suffered  two  Christian 
soldiers  and  three  women. 
♦CHARLES  THE  GOOD  (St.)  M.  (March  2) 

(12th  cent.)  An  Earl  of  Flanders,  son  of 
St.  Canute,  King  of  Denmark,  and  a  perfect 
model  of  a  Christian  ruler.  His  government 
was  wise  and  kindly,  and  he  was  adored  by  his 
subjects.  His  boundless  charity  to  the  poor 
earned  him  the  title  of  "  The  Good."  He  was 
murdered  by  certain  Governors  of  towns  whose 
oppression  of  their  people  he  had  refused  to 
tolerate.  His  martyrdom  came  to  pass  in  the 
church  of  St.  Donatian  at  Bruges,  A.D.  1124. 
♦CHARLES  SPINOLA  and  OTHERS         (Sept.  11) 

(Bl.)  MM. 

(17th  cent.)  Twelve  holy  Martyrs  (a.d.  1622) 
of  the  Society  of  Jesus  at  Nangazaki  in  Japan, 
in  which  country  Bl.  Charles  had  laboured  for 
twenty  years  as  a  missionary.  With  them 
suffered  many  native  Christians,  among  whom 
were  even  children. 
CHARLES  BORROMEO  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  4) 

(16th  cent.)  Of  an  ancient  Lombard  family, 
born  near  Milan  (A.D.  1538).  When  only  a 
youth  rich  Ecclesiastical  preferment  was 
bestowed  upon  him  ;  and  at  the  age  of  twenty- 
three  he  was  made  Archbishop  of  Milan  and 
Cardinal,  by  his  uncle,  Pope  Pius  IV.  In  an 
age  of  lax  discipline  he  was  a  model  of  austere 
virtue,  living  a  life  of  penance  and  prayer, 
zealously  visiting  his  Diocese  and  scrupulously 
employing  his  revenues  for  the  good  of  the 
Church  and  of  the  poor.  Much  of  the  success 
of  the  Council  of  Trent  is  due  to  his  indefatigable 
labours  in  the  cause  of  reform.  Evildoers  on 
one  occasion  all  but  assassinated  him.  His 
devotedness  to  his  flock  during  the  Great 
Plague  of  1576  made  him  almost  worshipped 
by  the  Milanese.  He  went  to  his  reward, 
Nov.  4,  1584 ;  and  his  body  was  enshrined 
under  the  High  Altar  of  his  Cathedral.  He  was 
canonised  A.D.  1610. 
CHEF  (St.)  Abbot.  (Oct.  29) 

Otherwise  St.  THEODORE  (THEUDERIUS) 
which  see. 
CHELIDONIA  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  13) 

(12th  cent.)    Born  at  Ciculum  in  the  Abruzzi, 
she  early  fled  into  the  mountains  above  Tivoli, 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


CHROMATIUS 


near  Subiaco,  where  she  found  shelter  in  a  cave. 
From  Cuno,  Cardinal  of  Praeneste,  she  received 
the  Benedictine  habit  in  the  Abbey  Church  of 
St.  Scholastica,  but  continued  her  solitary  life 
of  prayer  and  penance  to  her  death  (a.d.  1138), 
when  her  soul  was  seen  ascending  to  Heaven 
by  several  persons,  including  Pope  Eugenius 
III,  then  at  Segni.  Her  body  now  reposes  in 
the  church  of  St.  Scholastica  at  Subiaco. 

CHELIDONIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  3) 

See  SS.  HEMETERIUS  and  CHELIDONIUS. 

*CHELY  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  25) 

Otherwise  St.  HILARY  of  MENDE,  which  see. 

♦CHERON  (St.)  M.  (May  28) 

Otherwise  St.  CARAUNUS,  which  see. 

CHILIAN  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (July  8) 

Otherwise  St.  KILIAN,  which  see. 

♦CHILLIEN  (CHILLEN)  (St.)  (Nov.  13) 

(7th  cent.)  A  native  of  Ireland  and  kinsman 
of  St.  Fiaker,  who  became  a  missionary  in 
Artois,  where  he  ended  his  days  in  the  seventh 
century.  His  body  was  enshrined  at  Aubigny, 
near  Arras.     His  name  is  often  written  Killian. 

CHIONIA  (St.)  M.  (April  3) 

See  SS.  AGAPE  and  CHIONIA. 

CHL. 

Names  so  beginning  are  often  spelled  CL  or  KL. 

CHR. 

Names  so  beginning  are  often  spelled  CR. 

CHRISTETA(St.)M.  (Oct.  27) 

See  SS.  VINCENT,  SABINA,    &c. 

♦CHRISTIANA  (St.)  V.  (July  24) 

(7th  cent.)  Said  to  have  been  the  daughter 
of  an  Anglo-Saxon  king.  She  crossed  over  to 
Flanders  and  there  lived  so  holy  a  life  that 
after  her  death  she  was  at  once  venerated  as 
a  Saint.  She  is  the  Patron  Saint  of  the  town 
of  Termonde  in  Belgium. 

CHRISTIANA  (St.)  V.  (Dec.  15) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  maiden  who,  taken 
captive  by  the  Pagan  Iberi,  dwellers  between 
the  Caspian  and  the  Black  Sea,  and  reduced  to 
slavery,  kept  with  singular  fidelity  the  precepts 
of  her  religion.  Having  by  her  miracles  con- 
verted the  Royal  Family,  the  king  sent  ambas- 
sadors to  Constantine,  the  first  Christian 
Emperor,  asking  for  priests  to  complete  her 
work ;  and  they  on  their  arrival  had  little 
difficulty  in  bringing  the  whole  nation  under 
the  yoke  of  Christ.  As  is  plain,  this  Saint 
flourished  in  the  fourth  century  ;  but  her  very 
name  is  unknown,  Christiana  (the  Christian) 
being  merely  that  given  her  by  the  Iberi. 

♦CHRISTIANUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (March  18) 

(12th  cent.)  Such  reliable  information  as 
we  have  regarding  this  Saint  says  that  he  was 
the  first  Abbot  of  the  Cistercian  Order  in 
Ireland,  and  that  he  was  a  collateral  descendant 
of  St.  Malachy.  He  is  alleged  to  have  acted 
as  Papal  Legate  at  the  Council  of  Kells  (a.d. 
1152). 

♦CHRISTIANUS  (St.)  Bp.  (June  12) 

(12th  cent.)  Croistan  O'Morgair,  brother  to 
St.  Malachy  of  Armagh.  He  was  made  Bishop 
of  Clogher  (a.d.  1126)  and  obtained  several 
favours  from  the  Holy  See  for  his  Diocese.  He 
died  a.d.  1138. 

♦CHRISTICOLA  (St.)  Bp.  (March  3) 

Otherwise  St.  CELE  CHRISTI,  which  see. 

CHRISTINA  (St.)  V.M.  (March  13) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  Persian  Martyr  who, 
from  the  Greek  Menology,  appears  to  have  been 
scourged  to  death.  Nothing  further  is  known 
of  her,  nor  can  even  an  approximate  date  be 
given. 

CHRISTINA  (St.)  V.M.  (July  24) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  Roman  maiden  who, 
believing  in  Christ,  is  said  to  have  broken  up 
her  father's  idols  of  gold  and  silver,  and  given 
the  proceeds  of  their  sale  to  the  poor,  to  have 
been  on  that  account  scourged  by  him,  and  being 
brought  before  the  magistrate,  to  have  bravely 
endured  unheard-of  tortures  before  being  put 
to  death.  The  place  of  her  Passion  is  certainly 
the  Lacus  Vulsinus  (Lago  di  Bolsena)  in  Tuscany 


not  Tyre  in  the  East,  as  has  been  conjectured ; 
but  its  date  is  unknown.  Husenbeth  gives  no 
less  than  eleven  emblems  distinguishing  St. 
Christina's  pictures  and  statues  from  those  of 
other  Saints.  Arrows  carried  in  her  hand  are 
the  most  usual. 

CHRISTINUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  12) 

See  SS.  BENEDICT,  JOHN,    &c. 

♦CHRISTINA  (St.)  V.  (July  24) 

(13th  cent.)  A  Belgian  Saint  who  lived  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  town  of  St.  Trond. 
Many  strange  legends  are  in  circulation  about 
her ;  but  she  appears  to  have  been  favoured 
with  many  supernatural  visions  and  to  have 
worked  many  miracles  both  in  life  and  after 
her  death  (a.d.  1224),  which  took  place  in  a 
convent  in  the  vicinity.  Her  shrine  is  in  a 
church  outside  St.  Trond. 

CHRISTOPHER  (CHRISTOBAL,  KESTER,  KITT) 
(St.)  M.  (July  25) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  convert  to  Christianity, 
baptised  by  St.  Babylas  of  Antioch,  and  put  to 
death  for  the  Faith  in  the  persecution  ordered 
by  the  Emperor  Decius  (a.d.  250).  St.  Chris- 
topher suffered  somewhere  in  the  Province  of 
Lycia  in  Asia  Minor.  He  was  a  popular  Saint 
during  the  Middle  Ages,  and  around  his  memory 
have  grown  up  many  legends,  the  most  beautiful 
of  which  is  that  of  his  carrying  an  unknown  child 
across  a  ford,  and  being  borne  down  by  its 
weight,  despite  his  own  gigantic  stature  and 
great  strength  ;  for  the  child  was  Christ,  carry- 
ing in  His  Hands  the  weight  of  the  whole  world. 
A  belief  that  whoso  looked  upon  the  face  of 
St.  Christopher  should  not  that  day  be  struck 
down  by  sudden  death,  led  to  the  frequent 
picturing  of  St.  Christopher  (the  Christ-Bearer) 
in  churches,  over  city-gates,  &c.  The  Greeks 
keep  his  Feast  on  May  9. 

CHRISTOPHER  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  20) 

See  SS.LEOVIGILDUS  and  CHRISTOPHER. 

CHRISTOVAL  (CHRISTOBAL)  (St.)  M.    (July  25) 
Otherwise  St.  CHRISTOPHER,  which  see. 

CHRODEGANG  (St.)  Bp.  (March  6) 

(8th  cent.)  A  noble  Frank,  Councillor  and 
Chancellor  of  Charles  Martel,  the  famous 
champion  of  Christendom  and  victor  of  Poitiers. 
After  the  death  of  Charles,  St.  Chrodegang 
became  Bishop  of  Metz.  He  met  and  escorted 
Pope  Stephen  III  when  the  latter  visited 
France,  and  undertook  for  him  a  mission  to  the 
king  of  the  Lombards.  His  zeal  for  Church 
discipline  was  remarkable  and  bore  much  fruit. 
The  wise  Rule  he  drew  up  for  the  government 
of  the  Canons  Regular  would  of  itself  serve  to 
perpetuate  his  memory.  He  died  March  6, 
A.D.  766. 

CHROMATIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  2) 

(5th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Valerian 
(a.d.  387)  in  the  See  of  Aquileia  near  Venice. 
He  was  a  zealous  Pastor  of  souls,  and  is  styled 
by  St.  Jerome,  who  dedicated  to  him  several 
of  his  workSj  "  a  most  learned  and  most  holy 
man."  He  is  eulogised  likewise  by  St.  John 
Chrysostom,  his  friend  and  contemporary, 
whom  he  defended  and  supported.  He  passed 
away  a.d.  406.  Of  his  numerous  works  only 
a  part  of  his  Commentary  on  St.  Matthew  has 
come  down  to  us. 

CHRONIDAS  (St.)  M.  (March  27) 

See  SS.  PHILETAS,  LYDIA,    &c. 

♦CHROMATIUS  (St.)  (Aug.  11) 

(3rd  cent.)  The  father  of  St.  Tiburtius  the 
Martyr  (Aug.  11).  He  was  converted  to 
Christianity  by  St.  Tranquillinus,  who  was 
brought  before  Chromatius  at  a  time  when  the 
latter  was  discharging  the  functions  of  Prefect 
of  Rome.  Though  St.  Chromatius  did  not 
himself  win  the  crown  of  martyrdom  he  was 
looked  upon  by  the  ancients  as  a  Saint.  The 
reluctance  of  the  primitive  Roman  Church  to 
canonise  any  save  those  who  had  actually  shed 
their  blood  for  Christ  very  possibly  accounts 
for  the  omission  of  his  name  in  the  Roman 
Martyrology. 

63 


CHRONAN 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


*CHRONAN  (St.)  Abbot,  (April  28) 

Otherwise  St.  CRONAN,  which  see. 

CHRYSANTHUS  and  DARIAS  (SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  25) 
(3rd  cent.)  Chrysanthus,  an  Egyptian,  with 
his  wife,  Darias,  a  Greek,  were  distinguished  in 
Rome  for  their  zealous  profession  and  practice 
of  the  Christian  Religion.  This  led  to  their 
being  arrested  and  put  to  a  cruel  death,  under 
the  Emperors  Numerian  and  Carinus  (a.d.  283). 

CHRYSOGONUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  24) 

(4th  cent.)  A  zealous  Roman  priest,  the 
spiritual  guide  and  helper  of  St.  Anastasia  in 
her  work  of  comforting  the  Christian  prisoners 
awaiting  sentence  in  accordance  with  the 
persecuting  edicts  of  the  Emperor  Diocletian. 
The  Emperor  ordered  Chrysogonus  to  be 
brought  before  his  own  tribunal,  either  at 
Nicomedia,  or,  as  others  say,  at  Aquileia,  and 
sentenced  him  to  be  put  to  the  torture  and 
beheaded  (a.d.  304).  His  name,  inserted  with 
that  of  St.  Anastasia  in  the  Canon  of  the  Mass, 
is  a  convincing  proof  of  the  special  honour  in 
which  his  memory  was  held  in  the  early  Church. 

CHRYSOLIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Feb.  7) 

(4th  cent.)  An  Armenian  Christian  who 
devoted  himself  to  missionary  work  in  the 
north-east  of  Gaul,  where,  it  is  said,  he  was 
consecrated  Bishop.  He  had  left  Armenia  in 
safety,  notwithstanding  the  persecution  under 
Diocletian  then  raging,  but  won  the  crown  of 
Martyrdom  in  Flanders.  His  relics  are  vener- 
ated at  Bruges. 

CHRYSOPHORUS  (St.)  M.  (April  20) 

See  SS.  VICTOR,  ZOTICUS,    &c. 

CHRYSOSTOM  (St.)  Bp.,  Doctor  of         (Jan.  27) 
the  Church. 
See  St.  JOHN  CHRYSOSTOM. 

CHRYSOLETUS  (St.)  M.  (April  12) 

See  SS.  PARMENIAS,  HELIMENES,    &c. 

CHUNIGUNDIS  (St.)  V.  (March  3) 

(11th  cent.)  The  virgin- wife  of  St.  Henry, 
Emperor  of  Germany,  whom  she  espoused  with 
the  pact  that  their  union  should  only  be  that 
of  brother  and  sister.  Her  life  from  childhood 
was  one  of  prayer,  penance  and  alms-deeds. 
Among  other  wonders  related  of  her  is  that  of 
her  having  passed  unscathed  through  the  ordeal 
of  walking  barefoot  over  a  red-hot  iron  plough- 
share. Surviving  her  husband,  she  gave  all 
she  had  to  the  poor,  and  retired  into  a  Bene- 
dictine monastery  she  had  founded,  where  she 
died  (a.d.  1040).  Her  relics  are  enshrined  with 
those  of  St.  Henry  in  the  Cathedral  of  Bamberg. 

CHUNIALD  (St.)  (Sept.  24) 

(7th   cent.)     One   of   the    Scottish   or   Irish 

missionaries,    companions    of    St.    Rupert    of 

Salzburg,  who  evangelised  South  Germany  in 

the  seventh  century. 

*CIAN  (St.)  (Dec.  11) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Welsh  Saint,  a  soldier  who 
ended  his  life  as  a  hermit  in  Carnarvonshire. 
He  is  sometimes  described  as  the  servant  of 
St.  Peris,  which,  if  true,  would  aid  in  fixing  the 
century  in  which  that  Saint  flourished. 

*CIANAN  (KENAN)  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  24) 

(5th  cent.)  One  of  the  fifty  hostages  given 
to  the  Irish  King  Leoghaire,  and  released  at 
the  instance  of  St.  Kyran.  After  passing  some 
time  in  the  monastery  of  St.  Martin  at  Tours, 
he  returned  to  Ireland  and  devoted  himself  to 
missionary  work.  He  is  said  to  have  been 
consecrated  a  Bishop.  He  died  Nov.  24, 
A.D.  489. 

*CIARAN  (St.)  Bp.  (March  5) 

Otherwise  St.  KIERAN,  which  see. 

*CIARIN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Sept.  9) 

(6th  cent.)     An  Irish  Saint,  Abbot  of  Clon- 

macnoise,  renowned  for  his  charity  and  for  the 

working  of  miracles.      He  passed  away  Sept.  9, 

A.D.  548. 

CICELY  (St.)  V.M.  (Nov.  22) 

Otherwise  St.  CiECILIA,  which  see. 

CILINIA  (St.)  (Oct.  21) 

(5th   cent.)     The  mother  of   St.   Principius, 
Bishop  of  Soissons,  and  of  St.  Remigius,  Bishop 
64 


of  Rheims,  and  Apostle  of  the  Franks.  She 
died  at  Laon  some  time  after  a.d.  458,  in  fame 
of  great  holiness,  and  is  registered  as  a  Saint  in 
the  Western  Martyrologies. 

*CILLENE  (St.)  Abbot.  (July  3) 

(8th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint  who  migrated  to 
Iona,  and  was  there  elected  Abbot  (a.d.  726) 
on  account  of  his  singular  holiness. 

*CINNIA  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  1) 

(5th  cent.)  A  princess  of  the  Kingdom  of 
Ulster,  who  becoming  a  Christian  received  the 
veil  from  St.  Patrick  and  was  placed  in  a 
monastery  under  the  care  of  the  Abbess  Cathu- 
beris.  She  converted  many  of  her  Pagan 
fellow-countrymen  and  was  renowned  for 
miracles.  She  passed  away  towards  the  close 
of  the  fifth  century. 

CINDEUS  (St.)  M.  (July  11) 

(4th  cent.)  A  priest  in  Pamphylia  (Asia 
Minor),  who  confessed  Christ  in  the  persecution 
under  Diocletian  (a.d.  300  about).  After 
enduring  torture,  he  was  burned  at  the  stake, 
and  passed  away  with  words  of  prayer  and 
praise  on  his  lips. 

CISELLUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  21) 

See  SS.  LUXORIUS,  CISELLUS,   &c. 

*CIWA  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  8) 

Otherwise  St.  KIGWE,  which  see. 

♦CLAIR  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  4) 

Otherwise  St.  CLARUS,  which  see. 

CLARA  of  RIMINI  (St.)  Widow.  (Feb.  10) 

(14th  cent.)  A  noble  lady  of  Rimini,  dis- 
tinguished by  the  holiness  of  her  life,  which  was 
one  of  great  penance.  In  her  widowhood  she 
retired  to  a  convent  she  had  founded,  where 
she  passed  thirty-seven  years  till  her  holy 
death  (a.d.  1326). 

CLARE  (CLARA)  (St.)  V.  (Aug.  12) 

(13th  cent.)  A  maiden  of  Assisi,  daughter 
of  a  knight,  who  was  the  first  woman  to  embrace 
the  life  of  utter  poverty  and  unremitting  aus- 
terity taught  by  St.  Francis,  the  founder  of 
the  Order  of  Friars  Minor.  Consecrated  to 
God  by  the  Seraphic  Patriarch,  she  governed 
for  forty-two  years,  in  the  Fear  of  God,  the 
first  convent  of  Franciscan  Sisters,  insisting  to 
the  end  on  the  full  observance  of  the  Rule. 
The  one  favour  she  ever  asked  of  the  Holy  See 
was  that  the  convent  might  always  remain 
without  worldly  goods  of  any  kind.  She 
survived  St.  Francis,  whose  faithful  Counsellor 
she  had  been,  dying  in  the  year  1253,  and  was 
canonised  two  years  afterwards.  St.  Clare 
is  represented  with  a  monstrance  in  her  hand 
in  memory  of  her  having  in  this  attitude 
miraculously  saved  her  convent  from  assault 
and  pillage. 

CLARE  of  MONTEFALCO  (St.)  V.  (Aug.  18) 

(14th  cent.)  Clare  of  the  Cross,  a  nun  of  the 
Order  of  the  Hermits  of  St.  Augustine,  con- 
secrated herself  to  God  from  her  youth  in  a 
convent  of  her  native  city,  of  which  later  she 
was  chosen  Abbess.  Her  life  was  one  of  ecstatic 
prayer  and  rigorous  penance.  Filled  with  an 
ardent  longing  for  perfection,  she  had  for  her 
distinctive  devotion  that  to  the  Passion  of 
Christ.  To  a  Sister,  marvelling  at  her  patience, 
she  is  reported  to  have  said  :  "If  thou  seekest 
the  Cross  of  Christ,  take  my  heart ;  in  it  thou 
wilt  find  my  Suffering  Lord."  In  effect,  when 
she  had  departed  from  this  world  (Aug.  18, 
A.D.  1308),  a  Crucifix  was  found  depicted  on 
the  flesh  of  her  heart.  Her  name  was  inserted 
in  the  Roman  Martyrology  by  Clement  XII 
in  the  eighteenth  century. 

CLARENTIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (April  26) 

(7th  cent.)     The  successor  of  St.  ^Etherius 

in  the  See  of  Vienne  (France),  described  in  the 

Martyrology  of  that  Church  as  a  Saint.     He 

died  about  a.d.  620. 

CLARUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  10) 

(Date  uncertain.)    The  first  Bishop  of  Nantes, 

sent    as    missionary  into  Armorica  (Brittany) 

either  by  St.  Peter  the  Apostle  himself,  as  was 

the  old  belief,  or  certainly  not  later  than  by 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


CLEMENT 


one  of  the  Popes  of  the  third  century.     Certain 
dedications  of  churches  in  Cornwall  and  in  Wales 
to  St.  Clair  almost  certainly  refer  to  this  Saint. 
CLARUS  (CLAIR)  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  4) 

(Date  uncertain.)  Traditionally  described  as 
an  Englishman  of  noble  birth,  born  at  Rochester, 
who  after  having  been  ordained  priest,  passed 
into  Normandy,  where  in  a  hermitage  not  far 
from  Rouen  he  lived  a  saintly  life  crowned  by 
a  martyr's  death,  he  having  been  assassinated 
at  the  instigation  of  a  high-born  lady  whose 
advances  he  had  repulsed.  It  is  impossible  to 
assign  to  him  any  date.  The  limits  given  by 
the  English  Menology,  A.D.  666-A.D.  894,  must 
suffice.  The  insertion  of  his  name  in  the 
Roman  Martyrology  is  due  to  Usuardus  (9th 
century).  St.  Clair  was  much  venerated  in 
the  Middle  Ages.  Towns  in  France  bear  his 
name,  which  gave  rise  to  such  English  patrony- 
mics as  Sinclair  and  the  like.  It  seems  that 
there  was  another  St.  Clarus  who  also  nourished 
in  Normandy  in  the  Middle  Ages,  and  may 
perhaps  be  the  Saint  registered  in  the  Roman 
Martyrology  ;  but  the  history  of  the  one  and 
the  other  is  now  so  confused  that  we  forbear 
to  note  him  separately. 
CLARUS  (St.)  (Nov.  8) 

(4th  cent.)  A  wealthy  citizen  of  Tours  in 
France,  who  renounced  his  prospects  in  the 
world  to  place  himself  under  the  guidance  of 
the  famous  Bishop  St.  Martin.  Admitted  by 
him  into  the  monastery  of  Marmoutier  and  raised 
to  the  priesthood,  he  built  himself  a  small  cell 
in  the  vicinity,  and  in  a  short  time  reached  a 
high  degree  of  Christian  and  Religious  perfec- 
tion. He  passed  away  in  the  odour  of  sanctity 
about  A.D.  397.  St.  Paulinus  of  Nola,  to  whom 
he  seems  to  have  been  personally  known, 
composed  two  poetical  epitaphs  for  his  tomb. 
CLASSICUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  18) 

See  SS.  LUCIUS,  SYLVANUS,    &c. 
CLATEUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (June  4) 

(1st  cent.)  The  first  (or  possibly  the  second) 
Bishop  of  Brescia  in  Lombardy.  He  won  the 
crown  of  martyrdom  under  Nero,  A.D.  64. 
Nothing  more  is  known  of  him,  nor  do  his 
Relics  appear  to  be  anywhere  in  public  venera- 
tion. 
CLAUDIA  (St.)  M.  (March  2) 

See  SS.  ALEXANDRIA,  CLAUDIA,    &c. 
CLAUDIA  (St.)  V.M.  (May  18) 

See  SS.  THEODOTUS,  THECUSA,    &c. 
♦CLAUDIA  (St.)  Widow.  (Aug.  7) 

(1st  cent.)  A  British  tradition  is  to  the 
effect  that  one  of  the  daughters  of  King  Carac- 
tacus,  taken  with  him  prisoner  to  Rome  in  the 
time  of  the  Emperor  Claudius,  became  a 
Christian,  and  took  the  name  Claudia  in  Bap- 
tism ;  further,  that  she  married  the  Senator 
Pudens,  and  is  the  Claudia  mentioned  with  him 
by  St.  Paul  (2  Tim.,  iv.  21) ;  that  she  was  the 
mother  of  St.  Praxedes  and  St.  Pudentiana ; 
and  that  she  died  at  an  advanced  age  in  the 
second  century. 
CLAUDIANUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  26) 

See  88.  VICTORINUS,  VICTOR,    &c. 
CLAUDIANUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  26) 

See  SS.  PAPIAS,  DIODORUS,   &c. 
CLAUDIANUS  (St.)  M.  (March  6) 

See  SS.  VICTOR,  VICTORINUS,    &c. 
CLAUDIUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  18) 

See  SS.  MAXIMUS,  CLAUDIUS,  &c. 
CLAUDIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  26) 

See  St.  MARCEMCELLINUS,  Pope,  M. 
CLAUDIUS  (St.)  M  (June  3) 

See  SS.  LUCILLIAN,  CLAUDIUS,    &c. 
CLAUDIUS  (CLAUDE)  of  BESANCON       (June  6) 
(St.)  Bp. 

(6th  cent.)  Born  at  Salins,  a.d.  484,  and  at 
the  age  of  twenty  made  a  Canon  of  Besancon. 
In  a.d.  516  he  was  chosen  to  fill  that  See, 
which  he  governed  with  zeal  and  success  for 
some  seven  years.  He  then  retired  to  the 
monastery  of  St.  Eugendus  (St.  Oyend),  or 
Condat,  in  the  Jura  Mountains,  and  there  he 


showed  himself  a  model  of  Evangelical  perfec- 
tion. He  died  about  a.d.  582.  His  body  was 
discovered  in  the  year  1243  to  be  still  incorrupt. 
There  is  some  controversy  as  to  the  year  of  his 
birth,  but  there  is  no  doubt  that  he  survived  to 
an  extreme  old  age. 
CLAUDIUS,  NICOSTRATUS,  CASTORIUS,  VIC- 
TORINUS and  SYMPHORIAN  (SS.)  MM. 

(July  9) 
(3rd  cent.)    Five  Christians,  of  whom  Clau- 
dius  is   styled  a   Notary   and   Nicostratus   an 
Assistant  Prefect,   described  in  the   very  un- 
trustworthy Acts  of  St.   Sebastian  as  having 
suffered  martyrdom  at  the  same  time  as  that 
Saint  (A.D.  288  about).     They  were  seized  while 
engaged    in    burying    the  bodies  of    Martyrs, 
put  to  the  torture,  and  finally  drowned.     But  it 
is  very  doubtfid  whether  they  are  not  identical 
with  the  five  Saints  of  the  same  names,  styled 
Statuaries,  and  honoured  on  Nov.  8  with  the 
Four  Crowned  Martyrs. 
CLAUDIUS,  JUSTUS,  JUCUNDINUS  and  OTHERS 
(SS.)  MM.  (July  21) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  group  of  eight  or  (as  others 
say)  of  twenty-three  Martyrs,  who  suffered 
with  St.  Julia  at  Troyes  in  Gaul,  under  Aurelian 
(a.d.  273).  Their  bodies  are  enshrined  in  the 
monastery  of  Jouarre,  near  Meaux.  Claudius, 
an  officer  in  the  Imperial  army,  is  said  to  have 
been  a  former  suitor  for  the  hand  of  St.  Julia. 
CLAUDIUS,  ASTERIUS,  NEON,  DONVINA  and 
THEONILLA  (SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  23) 

(3rd  cent.)  Martyrs  of  the  persecution  under 
Diocletian  (A.d.  285)  at  Mgea,  in  Cilicia. 
Claudius,  Asterius  and  Neon,  brothers,  were 
crucified  ;  Domvina  (Domnina)  was  scourged 
to  death  ;  Theonilla  in  fine,  an  aged  widow, 
expired  on  the  rack. 
CLAUDIUS,  LUPERCUS  and  VICTORIUS  (SS.) 
MM.  (Oct.  30) 

(3rd  cent.)  The  sons  of  the  Centurion,  St. 
Marcellus.  In  the  persecution  under  Diocletian 
at  Leon  in  Spain  (about  a.d.  298)  they  were  put 
to  death  as  Christians.  Some  writers  make 
them  to  have  been  not  only  brothers,  but 
twelve  in  number. 
CLAUDIUS,  NICOSTRATUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.) 
MM.  (Nov.  8) 

These  are  among  the  Holy  Crowned  Martyrs, 
which  see  ;  as  also  the  Martyrs  of  the  same  names 
commemorated  on  July  9. 
CLAUDIUS,    HILARIA,    JASON    and    MAURUS, 
WITH  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Dec.  3) 

(3rd  cent.)  Roman  Martyrs  under  the 
Emperor  Numerian,  A.d.  283.  Claudius,  a 
tribune  in  the  army,  was  cast  into  the  Tiber 
with  a  heavy  stone  round  his  neck.  Seventy 
Christian  soldiers  were  then  beheaded  with 
Jason  and  Maurus,  his  two  sons.  Hilaria  his 
wife,  apprehended  while  burying  the  bodies 
of  her  children,  shared  their  fate. 
CLAUDIUS,  CRISPINUS,  MAGINA,  JOHN  and 
STEPHEN  (SS.)  MM.  (Dec.  3) 

(Date     unknown.)    African     Martyrs,     con- 
cerning whom  nothing  save  their  names  has 
come  down  to  us. 
♦CLEAR  (CLEER)  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  10) 

Otherwise   St.   CLARUS,   or   it  may   be,    St. 
CLETHER,  which  see. 
♦CLEDOG  (CLYDOG,  CLEODICUS)  (St.)  (Oct.  23) 

Otherwise  St.  CLETHER,  which  see. 
♦CLEDWYN  (St.)  (Nov.  1) 

(5th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Llandle- 
dwyn  (Caermarthen),  alleged  to  have  been  the 
eldest  son  of  the  famous  King  Brychan,  and  to 
have  succeeded  him  as  ruler  of  a  part  of  his 
dominions. 
CLEMENT  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Jan.  23) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Ancyra  in  Galatia 
(Asia  Minor),  who  was  put  to  death  tinder 
Diocletian  and  Maximinian  (A.D.  303).  He  is 
described  in  his  Acts  as  having  suffered  persecu- 
tion for  twenty-eight  years.  His  relics,  taken 
to  Constantinople  in  the  sixth  century,  were 
brought  to  Western  Europe  by  the  Crusaders. 

e  65 


CLEMENT 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


CLEMENT  MARY  HOFBAUER  (St.)  (March  15) 
(19th  cent.)  Born  a.d.  1770  in  Moravia  and 
religiously  brought  up  by  his  pious  mother,  he 
in  his  early  manhood  embraced  the  religious 
life  in  the  Congregation  of  the  Most  Holy 
Redeemer,  and  was  the  instrument  chosen  by 
Almighty  God  for  propagating  that  Institute 
in  Poland  and  neighbouring  countries.  He 
spared  himself  in  nothing,  so  that  thereby  he 
could  be  of  service  to  those  in  spiritual  or 
temporal  need.  He  died  at  Vienna,  a.d.  1820. 
Pope  Pius  VII,  then  reigning,  styled  him 
"  An  Apostolic  man,  the  glory  of  the  clergy  of 
Vienna,  and  a  pillar  of  the  Church." 

CLEMENT  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  10) 

See  SS.  APELLIUS,  LUKE,    &c. 

CLEMENT  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  21) 

See  SS.  CELSUS  and  CLEMENT. 

CLEMENT  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (Nov.  23) 

(1st  cent.)  A  Roman  by  birth,  converted 
to  Christianity  either  by  St.  Peter  or  by  St. 
Paul.  He  accompanied  the  latter,  who  styles 
him  "  his  fellow-labourer  "  (Phil.  iv.  3),  on  some 
of  his  missionary  journeys.  He  followed  (or 
perhaps  preceded)  St.  Cletus  in  St.  Peter's 
Chair,  and  governed  the  Church  for  about  ten 
years.  His  noble  Epistle  to  the  Corinthians  is 
one  of  the  most  precious  monuments  of  the 
Sub-Apostolic  Age.  He  passed  away  under 
Trajan  (a.d.  100),  and,  as  constant  tradition 
holds,  died  an  exile  and  Martyr  in  the  Crimea. 
The  graceful  story  of  his  having  been  cast  into 
the  Black  Sea  with  an  anchor  round  his  neck, 
and  of  the  shrine  built  for  him  beneath  the 
waves  by  Angels,  is  well  known.  His  relics 
are  now  in  Rome  in  the  famous  Basilica  dedi- 
cated in  his  honour,  and  which  gives  his  title 

TO    i\    \i\^T(\\x\f\\ 

CLEMENTINUS,  THEODOTUS  and  PHILOMENUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  14) 

(Date    unknown.)    Martyrs    of    Heraclea   in 

Thrace,  of  uncertain  date,  and  concerning  whom 

no  more  than  their  names  have  come  down  to 

us. 

CLEOMENES  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  23) 

See  SS.  THEODULUS,  SATURNINUS,   &c. 
CLEONICUS,  EUTROPIUS  and  BASILISCUS  (SS.) 

MM.  (March  3) 

(3rd  cent.)  These  Saints  belong  to  a  group 
of  forty  or  fifty  Martyrs,  victims  of  the  persecu- 
tion under  Diocletian.  They  were  put  to  death 
on  account  of  their  religion  in  the  Province  of 
Pontus  on  the  Black  Sea,  towards  the  close  of 
the  third  century.  The  greater  number  seem 
to  have  been  soldiers  in  the  Imperial  army  ; 
but  several  were  crucified,  the  punishment 
reserved  to  slaves. 
CLEOPHAS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  28) 

(1st  cent.)  One  of  the  two  disciples  of  the 
Way  to  Emmaus  (Luke,  xxiv.),  who  is  said  to 
have  been  murdered  by  the  Jews  in  the  very 
same  house  where  he  gave  hospitality  to  Our 
Lord  on  that  first  Easter  Sunday  It  has  been 
maintained,  but  without  great  probability,  that 
this  Cleophas  is  one  and  the  same  with  Cleophas, 
the  father  of  the  Apostle,  St.  James  the  Less 
(Matt.  x.  3).  According  to  Hegesippus,  he 
would  thus  have  been  a  brother  of  St.  Joseph. 
CLERUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  7) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Syrian  deacon,  said  to  have 
been  seven  times  put  to  the  torture  before  being 
beheaded  as  a  Christian.  He  was  martyred 
at  Antioch  at  the  beginning  of  the  fourth 
century,  but  whether  under  Diocletian  or  under 
the  Emperor  Licinius,  his  successor,  is  uncertain. 
*CLETHER  (SCLEDOG,  CLYDOG,  CLEER)  (Oct.  23) 

(St.) 

(6th  cent.)  Latinised  Clitanus.  One  of  the 
Saints  descended  from  King  Brychan  of  Breck- 
nock, or  at  least  of  his  clan.  He  is  said  to  have 
been  a  disciple  of  St.  Brynach  and  to  have 
died  about  a.d.  520.  Several  dedications  of 
churches  (for  instance,  St.  Cleer,  near  Liskeard), 
perpetuate  his  memory. 

Another    Cledog    or    Clydog    (Cleodius)    is 

6G 


commemorated   on    Aug.    19.      He    is    alleged 

to  have  died  a  Martyr  in  Herefordshire,  a.d. 

482. 

CLETUS  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (April  26) 

(1st  cent.)    A  Roman  of  Patrician  birth  who 

succeeded  St.  Linus  in  St.  Peter's  Chair  (a.d.  76), 

and  died  a.d.  83,  under  Domitian.     To  him  is 

attributed  the  dividing  of  the  city  of  Rome 

into  parishes.     It  may  be  taken  as  proved  that 

St.  Cletus  is  not  (as  in  modern  times  has  been 

asserted)  one  and  the  same  with  St.  Anacletus. 

The  latter  succeeded  to,  the  former  preceded, 

St.  Clement  in  the  Pontificate. 

CLICERIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  20) 

(5th    cent.)    Probably    a    native    of    Milan. 

He  was  Bishop  of  that  See  for  a  few  years  in 

the  first  half  of  the  fifth  century,  and  died  about 

A.D.  438.     Beyond  the  fact  of  his  having  been 

venerated  as  a  Saint  from  his  own  age  to  the 

present  day,  nothing  is  known  of  him. 

CLINIUS  (St.)  (March  30) 

(Date   unknown.)    A   Greek,   a  Benedictine 

monk  of  Monte  Cassino,  who  was  made  Superior 

of  the  dependent  monastery  of  St.  Peter  near 

Pontecorvo,    where    his    relics    are   venerated. 

In  what  century  he  flourished  is  uncertain. 

CLODOALDUS  (CLOUD)  (St.)  (Sept.  7) 

(6th    cent.)    The    third    son    of    Clodomir, 

King  of  Orleans,  and  grandson  of  Clovis  and  of 

St.   Clotilde,  by  the  latter  of  whom  he  was 

brought  up.     Having  lived  for  some  time  as  a 

disciple  of  the  hermit  St.   Severinus,  he  was 

ordained  priest  and  gathered  many  followers, 

who  took  up  their  abode  with  him  at  a  spot 

in    the    neighbourhood    of    Paris,    which    has 

retained  the  name  of  Saint  Cloud.     He  died 

A.D.  560  at  the  age  of  fortv. 

CLODULPHUS  (CLOU)  (St.)  Bp.  (June  8) 

(7th  cent.)     He  was  the  son  of  St.  Arnulph 

(minister  of  King  Clotaire  II,  and  later  Bishop 

of  Metz)  and  born  A.D.  605.     Brought  up  at 

Court,  he  had  a  brilliant  future  before  him,  but 

preferring  the  service  of  the  Church,  he  was 

elected  Bishop  of  Metz  (a.d.  656)  and  discharged 

with  wonderful  zeal  and  charity  his  pastoral 

duties.     He  was  distinguished  above  all  for  his 

care  of  the  poor.     He  died  a.d.  696,  at  the  age 

of  ninety-one  years,  and  was  buried  in  his  church 

at  Metz.     In  the  tenth  century  a  great  part  of 

his   relics    were   translated   to   the   Abbey    of 

Lay,  near  Nancy. 

CLOTILDE  (St.)  Queen,  Widow.  (June  3) 

(6th  cent.)    The  daughter  of  Chilperic,  King 

of    Burgundy,    and   the    wife   of    Clovis,    first 

Christian  King  of  the  Franks,  thus  becoming 

the  ancestress  of  the  Merovingian  monarchs  of 

France.     She   espoused    Clovis   whilst  he   was 

still  a  Pagan,  and  was  the  means  of  leading 

him  to  the  knowledge  of  the  true  Faith,  which 

he  embraced  after  his  miraculous  victory  at 

Soissons  over  the  Alamanni  (A.D.  496).     After 

the  death  of  her  husband,  St.  Clotilde  retired 

to  Tours,  to  the  tomb  of  St.  Martin,  devoting 

herself  to  works  of  charity  and  piety  until  her 

holy  death,  A.D.  545.     She  was  buried  by  the 

side  of  Clovis  in  the  church  of  St.  Genevieve  at 

Paris.     Her  name  is  found  written  Crotildes, 

Croctild,  Clotichilda,  Hlotild,    &c. 

*CLOTSENDIS  (St.)  V.  (June  30) 

(8th  cent.)     The  daughter  of  St.   Rictrudis 

and  her  successor  as  Abbess  of  Marchiennes  in 

Belgium      She  died  about  a.d.  700. 

CLOU  (St.)  Bp.  (June  8) 

Otherwise  St.  CLODULPHUS,  which  see. 
CLOUD  (St.)  (Sept.  7) 

Otherwise  St.  CLODOALDUS,  which  sec. 

*CLUANUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  1) 

(6th  cent.)     An  Irish  Abbot,  otherwise  called 

Mochua  or  Moncan,  who  founded  many  churches 

and  monasteries,  and  survived  to  close  upon 

his  hundredth  year. 

*CLYDOG  (St.)  (Oct.  23) 

Otherwise  St.  CLETHER,  which  see. 
CLYTANUS  (CLITANUS)  (St.)  (Nov.  5) 

Otherwise  St.  CLETHER,  which  see. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


COLMOC 


*COCCA  (CUCCA,  COX)  (St.)  V.  (June  6) 

(Date    unknown.)     The    ancient    church    of 
Kilcox   (County    Meath)    is    dedicated    in   her 
honour.     No  other  information  is  obtainable. 
*COCHA  (CCECHA)  (St.)  V.  (June  29) 

(6th    cent.)     Said    to    have    cared    for    St. 
Kieran   of    Saighir   in   his    infancy.     She   was 
afterwards  Abbess  of  Ros-Benchuir. 
CODRATUS   (CHUADRATUS),   DIONYSIUS,   CY- 
PRIAN,   ANECTUS,    PAUL    and    CRESCENS 

(SS.)  MM.  (March  10) 

(3rd  cent.)  Greek  Martyrs,  beheaded  at 
Corinth,  under  the  Emperor  Valerian  (a.d.  258). 
Previously  to  this,  Codratus,  then  a  child, 
appears  to  have  been  driven  into  the  woods 
to  escape  from  the  persecution  under  Decius 
(a.d.  250). 
CODRATUS  (St.)  M.  (March  26) 

Otherwise  St.  QUADRATUS,  which  see. 
CC3LESTINE  (St.)  Pope.  (May  19) 

See  St.  PETER  CELESTINE. 
CC2LIAN  (C-ffiLIANUS)  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  15) 

See  SS.  FAUSTINUS,  LUCIUS,    &c. 
*CCEMGEN  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  3) 

Otherwise  St.  KEVIN,  which  see. 
*COGITOSUS  (St.)  (April  18) 

(8th  cent.)  Little  is  known  about  him.  He 
appears  to  have  been  a  monk  at  Kildare,  and 
to  have  flourished  at  latest  in  the  eighth  century. 
If  the  tradition  representing  him  as  the  author 
of  the  well-known  Life  of  St.  Brigid  be  trust- 
worthy, we  are  indebted  to  him  for  much 
interesting  information  regarding  that  Saint 
and  her  times. 
COINTHA  (QUINTA)  (St.)  (Feb.  8) 

(3rd  cent.)  An  Egyptian  lady  (some  say  a 
young  maiden),  seized  as  a  Christian  at  the  out- 
set of  the  Decian  persecution  (a.d.  249),  fastened 
to  the  tail  of  a  horse  and  dragged  through  the 
streets  of  Alexandria  till  her  holy  soul  forsook 
her  mangled  body. 
♦COLAN  (St.)  (May  21) 

The  Cornish  form  of  the  name  of  the  Welsh 
Saint,  COLLEN  or  GOLLEN,  which  see. 
COLETTE  (St.)  V.  (March  6) 

(15th  cent.)  Colette  Boilet,  a  carpenter's 
daughter,  born  in  Picardy  (France)  (A.D.  1380), 
served  God  from  her  childhood  in  solitude. 
Her  time  was  wholly  taken  up  in  prayer  and 
in  her  ministrations  to  the  sick  and  poor.  After 
passing  some  years  among  the  Beguines,  she 
found  her  vocation  in  reviving  among  the  Poor 
Clares  the  primitive  and  austere  spirit  of 
St.  Francis.  Like  him,  her  chief  devotion  was 
to  Our  Lord's  Passion  and  her  supreme  attrac- 
tion to  the  practice  of  holy  poverty.  Her 
reform  quickly  spread  through  the  West  of 
Europe,  and  is  still  flourishing.  St.  Colette, 
with  St.  Vincent  Ferrer,  had  a  share  in  putting 
an  end  to  the  great  Schism  of  the  West.  Among 
the  miracles  she  wrought  was  the  raising  of  a 
dead  man  to  life.  She  died  at  Ghent  a.d.  1447, 
and  was  formally  canonised  by  Pope  Pius  VII 
in  the  year  1807. 
*COLGAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Feb.  20) 

(8th  cent.)  A  famous  Abbot  of  Clonmac- 
noisc,  surnamed  "  The  Wise  "  and  "  The  chief 
Scribe  of  the  Scots."  He  was  the  friend  of 
Alcuin,  and  universally  venerated  even  during 
his  lifetime.  Some  prayers  he  composed  are 
still  extant.  He  died  about  a.d.  796. 
♦COLMAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  23) 

(8th  cent.)  A  monk  in  the  celebrated  mona- 
stery of  Lismore,  in  the  government  of  which 
he  succeeded  St.  Hierlug  (Zailug),  a.d.  698. 
Under  St.  Colman's  rule  a  vast  number  of 
disciples  flocked  to  Lismore,  and  he  became  the 
spiritual  father  of  numerous  holv  men  and 
illustrious  prelates.  He  died  A.D.  702. 
♦COLMAN  of  LINDISFARNE  (St.)  Bp.       (Feb.  18) 

(7th  cent.)  The  Third  Bishop  of  Lindis- 
fame  (the  original  seat  of  the  Bishopric  of 
Durham).  Like  his  predecessors,  St.  Aidan 
and  St.  Finan,  St.  Colman  was  a  monk  of 
St.  Columba's  monastery  of  Iona.*He  was  a 


man  of  austere  and  zealous  life,  and  ever  held 

in  high  repute  of  sanctity.     His  reluctance  to 

yield  to  the  Roman  tradition  fixing  the  date  of 

Easter  led  to  the  famous   Synod  of  Whitby, 

held  in  presence  of  King  Oswy.     He  afterwards 

resigned  his  See  and  returned  to  Iona,  whence  he 

proceeded  to  the  West  of  Ireland,  where  he 

founded     two     great     monasteries.     He     died 

A.D.  676. 

*COLMAN  (St.)  (March  5) 

(5th  cent.)     A  disciple  of  St.  Patrick,  famous 

for  the  rigour  of  his  abstinence  of  all  kinds. 

He  died  in  the  lifetime  of  his  holy  master,  and 

was  by  him  buried  at  Armagh. 

♦COLMAN  (St.)  Bp.  (May  15) 

(6th   cent.)     Also   known   as    St.   Columban 

Mac  Va  Larghise,   a  disciple  of   St.   Columba 

and  of  St.  Fintan  of  Clonenagh.     He  founded 

a   monastery   at   Oughaval.     To   St.   Columba 

in    Scotland    a   heavenly    vision   revealed   the 

hour  of  the  entering  of  St.  Colman  into  eternal 

bliss. 

♦COLMAN  of  DROMORE  (St.)  Bp.  (June  7) 

(7th  cent.)     The  first  Bishop  of  Dromore  in 

Ulster,  a  disciple  of  St.  Albeus  of  Emly,  and 

friend  of  St.  Macanisius  of  Connor.     This  St. 

Colman  is  said  to  have  been  the  teacher  of 

St.  Finnian  of  Clonard.     He  closed  a  long  and 

fruitful    Episcopate   by   a   holy    death,    about 

a.d.  610. 

♦COLMAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  16) 

(6th    cent.)     A   holy    deacon    to    whom    St. 

Columbkill  confided  the  church  and  monastery 

built  by  him  on  Lambay  Island. 

COLMAN  (COLOMANNUS)  (St.)  M.  (July  8) 

See  SS.  KILIAN  and  OTHERS. 
♦COLMAN  (St.)  Abbot,  (Sept,  26) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint  who  founded  in 
Meath  the  monastery  of  Land-Elo  (Lin-All i), 
and  was  closely  associated  with  St.  Columba. 
a.d.  610  is  given  as  the  year  of  his 
death. 
♦COLMAN  (St.)  M.  (Oct,  23) 

(11th  cent.)  Either  a  Scot  or  an  Irishman, 
who,  going  on  a  pilgrimage  to  the  Holy  Land, 
was  seized  by  evildoers  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Vienna  in  Austria,  tortured  and  hanged 
(a.d.  1012).  Venerated  as  a  Martyr,  many 
miracles  were  wrought  through  his  intercession. 
He  is  honoured  as  one  of  the  Tutelary  Saints 
of  Aiistrifl 
♦COLMAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Oct.  27) 

(7th  cent.)     An  Irish  Saint,  Abbot  of  Senboth- 
Fola  in  the  Diocese  of  Ferns,  and  associated 
with  St.  Maidoc,  Bishop  of  that  See.     He  died 
about  A.D.  632. 
♦COLMAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  17) 

(6th  cent.)     Like   St.   Colman   of   Dromore, 
a  disciple  of  St.  Ailbhe  of  Emly.     He  became 
Bishop  or  Abbot  of  Kilroot,  near  Carrickfergus. 
His   festival  is   among  those  included  in  the 
Kalendar  of  the  old  Aberdeen  Breviary. 
♦COLMAN  of  KILMACDUAGH  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  29) 
(7th  cent.)     The  son  of  the  chieftain  Duacus, 
whence  the  name  of  the  Episcopal  See  founded 
by  the  holy  man.     Towards  the  close  of  his  life 
St.  Colman  retired  into  a  hermitage,  where  he 
passed  away  about  a.d.  630. 
♦COLMAN  of  CLOYNE  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  24) 

(7th  cent.)  Born  in  Cork  (A.D.  522),  he  was 
educated  by  St.  Jarlath,  and  acquired  fame  at 
the  Court  of  Cashel  as  a  bard,  that  is,  as  a  poet 
and  minstrel.  Later,  counselled  thereto  by 
St.  Brendan  and  St.  Ita,  he  embraced  the 
monastic  life  and  founded  the  Church  of  Cloyne, 
whence  after  many  years  of  successful  Apostol- 
ate,  he  passed  to  his  eternal  reward,  at  the 
beginning  of  the  seventh  century. 
♦COLMAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Dec.  12) 

(7th  cent.)     A  holy  Irish  Abbot  of  Glenda- 
loogh,  who   died  A.D.  659,  and  is  mentioned   in 
the  Irish  Kalendars. 
♦COLMOC  (MACHOLMOC)  (St.)  Bp.  (June  6) 

Otherwise  St.  COLMAN  of  DROMORE,  which 
see. 

67 


COLUMBA 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


COLUMBA  (COLUMBUS,  COLM,  COLUMBKILL) 

(St.)  Abbot.  (June  9) 

(6th  cent.)  Of  the  blood  of  Irish  chieftains, 
born  in  Donegal  (Dec.  7,  a.d.  521),  Columba 
was  destined  to  be  the  founder  of  a  hundred 
monasteries  and  the  Apostle  of  Caledonia. 
From  boyhood  devoted  to  the  study  of  Holy 
Scripture  and  day-by-day  advancing  in  sanctity 
of  life,  he  was  ordained  priest  at  the  age  of 
twenty-five.  After  founding  Derry,  Durrow 
and  other  religious  houses,  he  with  twelve 
disciples,  crossed  in  the  year  563  to  Scotland, 
and  landed  in  the  Island  of  I  or  Hy  (now  called 
Iona),  where  he  built  the  world-famed  monastery 
which  was  for  two  centuries  the  nursery  of 
Bishops  and  Saints.  For  thirty-four  years 
Columba  travelled  about  evangelising  the 
Highlands  of  Scotland.  At  last,  weighed  down 
by  age  and  infirmities,  he  died  kneeling  before 
the  Altar  (June  9,  597),  and  was  buried  at  Iona. 
But  in  the  ninth  century  his  relics  were  trans- 
lated to  Down  in  Ulster,  and  laid  by  the  side 
of  those  of  St.  Patrick.  St.  Adamnan,  one  of 
his  successors  at  Iona,  has  left  us  an  important 
and  interesting  Life  of  St.  Columba. 
COLUMBA  (St.)  V.M.  (Sept.  17) 

(9th  cent.)  A  Spanish  nun,  whose  monastery, 
near  Cordova,  having  been  destroyed  by  the 
Moorish  invaders,  took  refuge  with  her  sisters 
in  the  city.  But  afterwards,  burning  with  the 
desire  to  die  for  Christ,  she  of  her  own  accord 
presented  herself  before  the  Cadi  and  reproached 
him  publicly  with  his  adherence  to  the  False 
Prophet,  Mohammed.  She  paid  for  her  boldness 
with  her  life.  She  was  beheaded  (giving  a  gold 
piece  to  her  excutioner)  and  her  body  thrown 
into  the  Guadalquivir  (a.d.  853).  It  was 
rescued  and  honourably  interred  by  St.  Eulogius, 
himself  afterwards  crowned  with  martyrdom. 
♦COLUMBA  (St.)  V.M.  (Nov.  13) 

(Date  uncertain.)    The  Patron  Saint  of  two 

parishes  in  Cornwall.     She  is  said  to  have  been 

a  Christian  Virgin  put  to  death  by  a  heathen 

King  of  Cornwall. 

*COLUMBA  (St.)  Abbot.  (Dec.  12) 

(6th  cent.)  A  native  of  Leinster  and  disciple 
of  St.  Finnian,  who  became  a  great  master  of 
the  spiritual  life  and  governed  the  monastery 
of  Tyrdaglas  in  Munster  till  his  holy  death, 
A.D.  548. 
COLUMBA  (St.)  V.M.  (Dec.  31) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Christian  Virgin  put  to  death 
at  Sens  in  Burgundy  under  the  Emperor 
Aurelian  (a.d.  273).  Terrible  tortures,  as  in 
the  case  of  so  many  Martyrs,  were  inflicted  upon 
her  before  her  head  was  struck  off.  Her  relics, 
venerated  at  Sens,  were  scattered  by  the  Hugue- 
nots in  the  sixteenth  century. 
COLUMBANUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Nov.  21) 

(7th  cent.)  Born  in  Leinster  about  a.d. 
545,  he  learned  the  monastic  life  under  St. 
Comgall  in  the  latter's  famous  monastery  of 
Benchor.  Thence,  with  several  companions, 
he  proceeded  to  Britain  and  Gaul.  His  first 
great  foundation  was  that  of  the  Abbey  of 
Luxeuil,  over  which  he  presided  for  twenty- five 
years,  writing  there  his  Rule  for  Monks,  of 
which  the  characteristic  is  its  extreme  severity. 
In  disfavour  with  Queen  Brunechilde,  he 
departed  from  her  dominions  and,  leaving  his 
disciple  St.  Gall  in  Switzerland,  where  he  had 
built  some  monasteries,  crossed  the  Alps  and 
settled  at  Bobbio  in  the  North  of  Italy  He 
died  there  a.d.  615.  He  was  a  man  of  great 
ability,  as  his  writings  show,  and  rendered 
many  services  to  the  Church,  but  his  mistaken 
zeal  for  the  Celtic  date  of  Easter  and  the  ill- 
advised  letter  he  wrote  to  Pope  St.  Boniface  IV 
against  Pope  Vigilius,and  upholding  the  so-called 
"  Three  Chapters  "  rejected  by  the  Church, 
has  unfortunately  served  as  a  weapon  against 
her  in  the  hands  of  Protestants. 
COMBS  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  9) 

A  corrupt  form  of  the  name  of  St.  COLUMBA, 
or  COLUMBKILL,  which  see. 

68 


♦COMGALL  (St.)  Abbot.  (May  10) 

(6th  cent.)  After  being  trained  by  St. 
Fintan,  this  Irish  Saint  became  Founder  and 
first  Abbot  of  the  famous  monastery  of  Ben- 
Chor,  at  the  end  of  the  sixth  century.  He  wrote 
a  celebrated  but  very  severe  Rule  for  monks. 
He  is  said  to  have  lived  some  time  in  Wales  or 
Cornwall.  He  died  A.D.  601.  SS.  Columbanus 
and  Gallus  were  among  his  disciples. 
*COMGAN  (St.)  Abbot.   '  (Oct.  13) 

(8th  cent.;  An  Irish  prince  who,  with  his 
nephew  St.  Fillan,  crossed  over  into  Scotland, 
where  he  embraced  the  monastic  life  and  lived 
most  holily  for  many  years.  Several  churches 
dedicated  in  his  honour  attest  the  veneration- 
in  which  he  has  always  been  held.  His  relics 
were  enshrined  at  Iona. 
*COMINUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  12) 

(5th  cent,  probably.)  There  may  have  been 
more  Saints  than  one  of  this  name,  confusion 
between  whom  has  occasioned  the  contradictory 
particulars  we  have  in  the  scattered  traditions. 
One  S.  Cominus  is  Patron  of  Ardcavan.  By 
some  he  is  represented  as  brother  of  St.  Attracta 
(5th  cent.) ;  by  others  to  have  lived  hundreds 
of  years  later. 
CONCESSA  (St.)  M.  (April  8) 

(Date  unknown.)     A  Martyr  anciently  vener- 
ated at  Carthage,  of  whom  however  no  account 
has  come  down  to  our  times. 
CONCESSUS  (St.)  M.  (April  9) 

See  SS.  DEMETRIUS  and  OTHERS. 
CONCOBDIA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  13) 

See  SS.  HIPPOLYTUS,  CONCORDIA,    &c. 
CONCORDIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  1) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Martyr  at  Spoleto  (Central 
Italy),  under  the  Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius. 
He  was  a  priest,  was  put  upon  the  rack,  and 
underwent  other  tortures  before  being  beheaded 
(A.D.  175). 
*CONALD  (CHUNIALD)  (St.)  (Sept.  24) 

(7th    cent.)     One    of    the    zealous    band    of 
missionaries  led  by  St.  Rupert  to  the  Apostolate 
of  Southern  Germany. 
*CONALL  (CONALD,  COSL)  (St.)  Abbot.    (May  22) 
(7th  cent.)    Abbot  of  the  monastery  of  Innis- 
Coel  (Donegal),  where  there  is  a  holy  well  called 
after  him. 
*CONGAN  (St.)  (Oct.  13) 

Otherwise  St.  COMGAN,  which  see. 

*CONON  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  26) 

(7th  cent.)     Traditionally  held  to  have  been 

Bishop  of  the  Isle  of  Man,  of  which  he  completed 

the  conversion  to  Christianity.     He  died  about 

A.D.  648. 

CONCORDIUS  (T.)  M.  (Sept.  2) 

See  SS.  ZENO,  CONCORDIUS,   &c. 
CONCORDIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  16) 

See  SS.  VALENTINE,  CONCORDIUS,    &c. 
♦CONDEDUS  (CONDE)  (St.)  (Oct.  20) 

(7th  cent.)     An   English  Hermit  who  lived 
in  France  in  great  reputation  of  sanctity,  and 
died  in  his  cell  in  an  island  in  the  Seine  about 
A.D.  685. 
CONINDRUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  28) 

See  SS.  ROMULUS  and  CONINDRUS. 

*CONLETH  (St.)  Bp.  (May  3) 

(6th    cent.)     The    Patron    Saint    (with    St. 

Bridget)  of  Kildare,  of  which  Sec  he  was  first 

Bishop.     He  is  celebrated  as  having  ministered 

in  the  things  of  the  spirit  to  the  "  Mary  of 

Ireland     and  her  nuns.     He  was  also  renowned 

for  his  skill  in  the  copying  and  illuminating  of 

manuscripts.     A.D.  529  is  given  as  the  date  of 

his  death. 

♦CONNAT  (COMNATAN)  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  1) 

(6th  cent.)     Abbess  of  St.  Bridget's  convent 

in   Kildare.     She   died   A.D.   590.      Her   name 

appears  in  the  Martyrologies  of  Donegal  and  of 

Tallaght. 

♦CONOGAN  (GWEN)  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  16) 

(5th  cent.)     The  successor  of  St.  Corentin  in 

the  See  of  Quimper  (Brittany).     His  memory 

is  still   held  in   great  veneration.     His   Celtic 

name  has  been  Latinised  into  Albinus. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


COPRES 


CONON  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  26) 

See  SS.  PAPIAS,  DIODORUS,   &c. 

CONON  (St.)  M.  (March  6) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  poor  gardener,  a  Christian  from 
Nazareth  in  Galilee,  who,  in  Pamphylia  (Asia 
Minor)  or,  as  others  say,  in  the  Island  of  Cyprus, 
suffered  a  barbarous  martyrdom  (A.D.  250). 
Nails  were  driven  through  his  ankles,  and  he 
was  forced  to  run  before  a  chariot  till  he  fell 
dying  to  be  crushed  by  its  wheels. 

CONON  and  his  SON  (SS.)  MM.  (May  29) 

(3rd  cent.)  St.  Conon  suffered  at  Iconium  in 
Asia  Minor  under  the  Emperor  Aurelian  (A.D. 
275).  He  with  his  little  son,  twelve  years  of 
age,  was  roasted  before  a  slow  fire  and  then 
racked  to  death. 

CONRAD  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  26) 

(10th  cent.)  Bishop  of  Constance  in  Switzer- 
land, to  which  dignity  he  was  raised  A.D.  934 
on  account  of  the  great  repute  for  ability  and 
holiness  of  life  in  which  he  was  held.  His 
zeal  and  charity  as  Bishop  made  him  grow  yet 
more  in  popular  esteem.  His  piety  led  him  to 
make  thrice  the  pilgrimage  to  the  Holy  Land. 
He  died  A.D.  976t  and  was  buried  in  the  Church 
of  St.  Maurice,  one  of  those  built  by  himself. 
Many  miracles  followed,  and  he  was  canonised 
by  Pope  Calistus  II  (A.D.  1120). 

*CONRAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  14) 

(7th  cent.)     A  holy  Bishop  of  the   Orkney 

Islands,  a  man  of  austere  life  and  a  zealous 

Pastor  of  souls,  formerly  in  great  veneration 

in  the  North  of  Scotland. 

CONSORTIA  (St.)  V.  (June  22) 

(6th  cent.)  A  noble  lady  of  exemplary  life, 
who  being  greatly  persecuted  by  suitors,  with- 
drew into  a  convent,  built  by  herself  and  largely 
endowed  by  King  Clotaire,  out  of  gratitude  for 
her  having  miraculously  healed  his  dying 
daughter.  She  died  about  A.D.  570.  Very  little 
trust  can  be  put  in  the  extant  accounts  of  this 
Saint,  and  it  is  not  unlikely  that  she  flourished 
at  an  earlier  date  than  that  given  above. 

CONSTANCE  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  19) 

See  SS.  FELIX  and  CONSTANCE. 

♦CONSTANT  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  18) 

(8th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint  of  Lagherne. 
He  died  A.D.  777  under  circumstances  which 
led  to  his  being  venerated  as  a  Martyr.  Many 
miracles  are  recorded  as  having  been  wrought 
by  him. 

•CONSTANTLY  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  28) 

(4th  cent.)  The  daughter  of  Constantine  the 
Great,  who,  healed  of  a  mortal  infirmity  at  the 
tomb  of  St.  Agnes,  built  there  a  church,  and  was 
herself  converted  to  Christianity.  She  is  said 
to  have  lived  thenceforth  at  the  same  place  with 
other  maidens,  and  after  her  death  to  have  been 
honoured  as  a  Saint. 

CONSTANTINE  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Jan.  29) 
(2nd  cent.)  St.  Constantine,  first  Bi3hop  of 
Perugia  in  Central  Italy,  together  with  numerous 
Christians  of  his  flock,  is  stated  to  have  been 
put  to  death  on  account  of  his  religion  under 
the  Emperor  Marcus  Aurelius,  about  A.D.  178. 
The  detailed  Acts  of  the  Saint,  accessible  at 
Perugia,  are  unfortunately  far  from  reliable. 

♦CONSTANTINE  (St.)  M.  (March  11) 

(6th  cent.)  The  English  Martyrology  des- 
cribes him  as  a  Cornish  prince  who  resigned  his 
crown,  founded  a  monastery  at  Govan  on  the 
Clyde,  converted  the  district  of  Cantyre,  and 
at  length  gave  his  life  for  the  Faith,  about 
A.D.  576.  Whether  he  was  the  King  Con- 
stantine ferociously  inveighed  against  by  St. 
Gildas  as  at  some  period  of  his  life  the  most 
wicked  of  tyrants,  or  another  prince  of  the  same 
name,  must  be  left  an  open  question.  The 
approved  Scottish  Lections  speak  of  him  as 
having  been  before  his  conversion  "  immersed 
in  worldly  cares  and  defiled  by  vices." 

CONSTANTINE  (St.)  (March  11) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  Saint  of  Carthage  in 
Africa,  whose  Acts  have  been  lost.  It  is  not 
•even  known  in  what  century  he  flourished. 


♦CONSTANTINE  (St.)  King,  M.  (April  2) 

(9th  cent.)  Constantine  II,  King  of  Scot- 
land, was  slain  in  a  battle  against  heathen 
invaders  of  his  country  (a.d.  874),  and  was 
thenceforth  locally  honoured  as  a  Martyr. 
He  was  buried  at  Iona. 

CONSTANTINE  (St.)  Bp.  (April  12) 

(6th  cent.)     All  we  know  of  him  is  that  he 

subscribed  the  Acts  of  the  celebrated  Council 

of  Epaon  (A.D.  517)  and  that,  he  had  then  only 

recently  been  made  a  Bishop. 

CONSTANTINE  (St.)  (July  27) 

One  of  the  HOLY  SEVEN  SLEEPERS, 
tvfiicli  sec 

CONSTANTINOPLE  (MARTYRS  OF).  (Feb.  8) 
(5th  cent.)  The  community  of  monks  of  the 
monastery  of  St.  Dius  at  Constantinople,  in 
whose  choir  by  their  Rule  the  Psalmody  was 
continuous  by  night  as  by  day.  At  the  time 
of  the  Acacian  Schism  they  remained  faithful 
to  the  Holy  See,  and  in  consequence  many  of 
them  were  cast  into  prison  and  others  put  to 
death  (a.d.  485).  They  have  always  been 
numbered  among  the  Martyrs  to  the  truths 
of  the  Faith. 

CONSTANTINOPLE  (MARTYRS  OF).  (March  30) 
(4th  cent.)  The  sufferers  at  Constantinople 
in  the  cause  of  Catholicism  under  the  Arian 
Emperor  Constantius.  Many,  during  the  years 
A.D.  351  to  a.d.  359,  were  driven  into  banish- 
ment ;  others  were  branded  on  the  forehead  ; 
of  others  the  goods  were  confiscated  ;  and  many 
were  actually  put  to  death. 

CONSTANTINOPLE  (MARTYRS  OF).  (July  8) 
(9th  cent.)  The  Martyrs  known  as  the 
Abrahamite  Monks,  from  the  name  of  the 
monastery  in  which  they  lived  their  Religious 
life.  They  withstood  the  Iconoclast  Emperor 
Theophilus  and  were  on  that  account  punished 
with  exile  and  death  (a.d.  832).  Unfortunately, 
authentic  details  of  their  sufferings  are  no 
longer  obtainable,  the  accounts  extant  being 
clearly  of  late  date  and  untrustworthy. 

CONSTANTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  26) 

See  SS.  SIMPLICIUS,  CONSTANTIUS,    &c. 

CONSTANTIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  1) 

(5th  cent.)  His  name  is  found  among  those 
of  the  Prelates  who  were  present  at  a  Roman 
Council  (a.d.  465)  held  under  the  Pontificate 
of  Pope  St.  Hilary.  He  was  famous  for  his  gift 
of  prophecy  and  other  supernatural  graces. 
He  is  mentioned  by  Pope  St.  Gregory  the  Great 
in  his  Dialogues,  and  his  Life  was  written  by 
Peter  the  Deacon,  of  Monte  Cassino. 

CONSTANTIUS  (St.)  (Sept.  23) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Saint  held  in  great  veneration 
by  the  people  of  Ancona,  where  his  relics  are 
treasured  and  where  he  was  Mansionarius 
(resident  chaplain  or  perhaps  Sacristan)  of  the 
ancient  church  of  St.  Stephen.  He  flourished 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  sixth  century. 

CONSTANTIUS  (St.)  (Nov.  30) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Roman  priest  who  vigorously 
and  successfully  refuted  the  Pelagian  heretics, 
dangerous  in  his  time  on  account  of  their 
approach  to  rationalistic  teachings.  He  had 
to  endure  no  little  opposition  and  even  positive 
persecution  at  their  hands.  The  singular 
piety  of  his  life,  attested  by  miracles,  led  to 
his  being  registered  in  the  ancient  lists  as  a 
Saint. 

CONSTANTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  12) 

See  SS.  MAXENTIUS,  CONSTANTIUS,   &c. 

♦CONVOYON  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  5) 

(9th  cent.)     A  Breton  Saint,  founder  and  first 

Abbot  of  Redon  ;    a  man  of  great  energy  and 

piety.     He  died  a.d.  868,  and  is  much  venerated 

in  Brittany. 

♦CONWALL  (CONVAL)  (St.)  (Sept.  28) 

(7th  cent.)     An  Irish  priest,  disciple  of  St. 

Kentigern,  who  died  in  Scotland  about  a.d.  630. 

Some    accounts    connect    him    otherwise    with 

St.  Kentigern  of  Glasgow. 

COPRES  (St.)  M.  (July  9) 

See  SS.  PATERMUTHIAS,  COPRES,    &c. 

69 


CORBICAN 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


♦CORBICAN  (St.)  (June  26) 

(8th  cent.)     A  Saint  said  to  have  been  of 

Irish  birth,  who  lived  a  holy  life  as  a  solitary 

in  the  Low  Countries,  instructing  and  helping  the 

peasants.     No  accurate  dates  are  forthcoming. 

CORBINIAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  8) 

(8th  cent.)  A  French  Saint  who,  after  passing 
fourteen  years  in  a  hermit's  cell,  gathered  dis- 
ciples around  him  and  built  a  monastery. 
Coming  to  Rome  as  a  pilgrim,  St.  Gregory  II, 
the  then  Pope,  consecrated  him  Bishop,  and 
sent  him  to  evangelise  Bavaria.  He  fixed  his 
See  at  Freissingen,  where,  after  a  long  and 
fruitful  Episcopate,  he  died  a.d.  730.  A 
detailed  account  of  his  life  and  of  the  miracles 
which  illustrated  his  sanctity  has  come  down  to 
us  from  the  pen  of  Alibert,  his  third  successor 
at  Freissingen. 

*CORBMAC  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  21) 

(6th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  St.  Columbkill, 
placed  by  him  over  the  monastery  he  had 
founded  at  Durrow. 

CORDULA  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  22) 

(5th  cent.)  One  of  the  numerous  companions 
at  Cologne  of  St.  Ursula,  who,  witnessing  the 
sufferings  and  massacre  of  the  rest,  lost  heart 
and  lay  hid  till  all  was  over.  But  on  the  next 
day,  ashamed  and  repentant  of  her  cowardice, 
she  showed  herself  openly  and  received  the 
crown  of  martyrdom,  last  of  them  all.  The 
date,  a.d.  453  may  be  given. 

COREBUS  (St.)  M.  (April  18) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Prefect  of  Messina  in  Sicily 
who,  converted  to  Christianity  by  St.  Eleu- 
therius,  was  put  to  death  on  account  of  his 
religion  under  the  Emperor  Hadrian  (a.d. 
117-138). 

♦CORENTIN  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  12) 

(5th  cent.)  The  son  of  a  British  chieftain, 
who  crossing  over  to  Armorica  or  Bretagne, 
became  the  first  Bishop  of  Quimper,  and  after 
a  long  and  distinguished  Episcopate  passed 
away  late  in  the  fifth  century.  He  signed  the 
Decrees  of  the  Council  of  Angers  (a.d.  453), 
but  the  exact  date  of  his  death  is  uncertain. 

CORFU  (MARTYRS  OF).  (April  29) 

(1st  cent.)  Seven  criminals  converted  to 
Christianity  and  to  a  good  life  by  St.  Jason 
(or  Mnason)  a  disciple  of  Our  Lord  (Acts  xxi. 
16).  Their  names  are  given  as  Saturninus, 
Inischolus,  Faustianus,  Januarius,  Massalius, 
Euphrasius  and  Mannonius.  They  are  said 
to  have  been  put  to  death  as  Christians  in  the 
Island  of  Corfu,  about  a.d.  100,  and  are  known 
as  "  The  Seven  Robber-Saints." 

*CORMAC  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  14) 

(10th  cent.)  Probably  the  first  Bishop  of 
Cashel.  The  "  Psalter  of  Cashel,"  compiled 
by  him,  is  still  extant.  He  is  likewise  known  as 
King  of  Munster,  and  was  slain  in  battle 
(A.D.  908). 

*CORMAC  (St.)  Abbot.  (Dec.  12) 

(6th  cent.)  An  Irish  Abbot  of  great  sanctity, 
friend  of  St.  Columbkill.  Nothing  more  is 
known  with  certainty  about  him. 

CORNELIA  (St.)  M.  (March  31) 

See  SS.  THEODULUS,  ANNESIUS,    &c. 

CORNELIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  2) 

(First  cent.)  The  centurion  of  the  Italic 
cohort,  baptised  at  Csesarea  in  Palestine,  by  the 
Apostle  St.  Peter,  about  whom  see  the  Acts  of 
the  Apostles  (ch.  x.).  Tradition  makes  of  him 
the  first  Bishop  of  Csesarea ;  and  as  such  he  is 
described  in  the  Roman  Martyrology.  Meta- 
phrastes  gives  the  legendary  details  of  his 
Apostolate.  The  year  of  the  first  century  in 
which  he  passed  away  is  not  recorded. 

♦CORNELIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (June  4) 

(12th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint  of  the  Augus- 
tinian  Order  and  Archbishop  of  Armagh.  He 
died  at  Chambery  in  Savoy  on  his  return  from 
a  pilgrimage  to  Rome  (a.d.  1176),  and  is  still 
there  held  in  great  veneration. 

CORNELIUS  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (Sept.  14) 

(3rd  cent.)     A  Roman,  the  successor  in  St. 

70 


Peter's  Chair  of  St.  Fabian,  during  the  Decian 
persecution  (a.d.  250),  in  which  his  predecessor 
perished.  St.  Cornelius  upheld  the  Roman 
tradition  of  benignity  in  dealing  with  "  fallen 
Christians  "  ;  and  this  even  against  the  great 
authority  of  St.  Cyprian  of  Carthage,  part  of 
his  correspondence  with  whom  is  still  extant. 
He  overcame  the  Rigorist  Anti-Pope  Novatian, 
but  was  banished  by  the  Imperial  authorities 
to  Civita  Vecchia  (Centumcellce),  where  he 
eventually  suffered  martyrdom.  His  body, 
brought  back  to  Rome,  was  interred  in  the 
Catacombs  in  the  family  crypt  of  the  Cornelii 
(A.D.  255). 

CORNELIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  31) 

See  SS.  STEPHEN,  PONTIANUS,    &c. 

CORONA  (St.)  M.  (May  14) 

See  SS.  VICTOR  and  CORONA. 

COSMAS  and  DAMIAN  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  27) 

(4th  cent.)  Two  brothers,  by  profession 
physicians,  who  on  principle  refused  to  accept 
any  remuneration  for  their  services.  Arabs 
by  birth,  they  lived  at  iEgea  in  Cilicia  (Asia 
Minor)  where,  arrested  as  Christians,  they  were 
put  to  the  torture  and  in  the  end  beheaded  in 
the  persecution  under  Diocletian  (a.d.  303 
about).  With  them  suffered  their  other  three 
brothers,  Anthimus,  Leontius  and  Euprepius. 
Their  relics  were  brought  to  Rome,  where  an 
important  church  was  dedicated  in  their  honour. 
Their  memory  has  always  been  in  great  venera- 
tion in  the  East  and  in  the  West.  Two  other 
pairs  of  brothers  of  the  same  name  have  place 
in  the  Menologies  of  the  Greeks. 

*COTTAM  (THOMAS)  (Bl.)  M.  (May  30) 

See  Blessed  THOMAS  COTTAM. 

COTTIDUS,  EUGENE  and  OTHERS  (Sept.  6) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  unknown.)  Cappadocian  Martyrs 
whose  Acts  are  unfortunately  lost.  St.  Cottidus 
is  described  as  a  deacon. 

*COWAIR  (CYWAIR)  (St.)  V.  (July  11) 

(Date  unknown.)    The  Patron  Saint  of  Llan- 

gower  (Merioneth).     We  have  no  account  of  her. 

CRATON  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  15) 

(3rd  cent.)  Craton,  a  philosopher  and 
Professor  of  Rhetoric,  converted  to  Christianity 
by  St.  Valentine,  Bishop  of  Teramo,  suffered 
martyrdom  in  Rome  shortly  after  that  holy 
man  (a.d.  273).  His  wife  and  children,  with 
many  of  his  household,  were  executed  at  the 
same  time,  likewise  on  account  of  their  religion. 

*CREDAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Aug.  19) 

(8th  cent.)  The  Abbot  of  Evesham  in  the 
time  of  King  Offa  of  Mercia.  He  died  in  fame 
of  sanctity  about  A.d.  781.  August  19  is 
assigned  as  his  Festival  in  various  Church 
Calendars,  but  we  know  little  or  nothing  con- 
cerning him. 

CREMENTIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  16) 

See  SS.  CAIUS  and  CREMENTIUS. 

CRESCENS  (St.)  M.  (March  10) 

See  SS.  CODRATUS,  DIONYSIUS,    &c. 

CRESCENS  (St.)  M.  (April  15) 

(Date    unknown.)    A    Martyr    of    Myra    in 

Lycia  (Asia  Minor)  who  perished  at  the  stake, 

but  in  what  year  is  not  known.     The  Greeks 

keep  his  Feast  on  April  13. 

CRESCENS,    DIOSCORIDES,    PAUL    and    HEL- 
LADIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (May  28) 

(3rd  cent.)  Zealous  Roman  Christians  who, 
for  preaching  the  Gospel,  were  scourged  and 
afterwards  burned  to  death  (a.d.  244  about). 
The  St.  Helladius,  Bishop  and  Martyr,  com- 
memorated on  the  same  or  preceding  day, 
appears  to  be  other  than  the  St.  Helladius  here 
mentioned. 

CRESCENS  (St.)  M.  (July  18) 

One  of  the  martyred  children  of  St.  SYM- 
PHOROSA,  which  see. 

CRESCENS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  1) 

See  SS.  PRISCUS,  CRESCENS,    &c. 

CRESCENS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (June  27) 

(1st  cent.)     The  disciple  of  St.  Paul  mentioned 

by  him  (2  Tim.  iv.  10)  as  having  gone  into 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


CRISPUS 


Galatia.  He  is  stated  to  have  been  appointed 
Bishop  either  of  the  Galatians  or  of  Chalcedon. 
Tradition  goes  on  to  tell  us  of  his  Apostolate  of 
Dauphin6  in  Gaul,  and  again  of  his  having 
founded  the  See  of  Mentz  in  Germany.  How- 
ever, he  appears  to  have  returned  in  the  end  to 
the  East.  The  Roman  Martyrology  adds  that 
he  suffered  martyrdom  under  Trajan  (a.d.  100 
about).  The  Feast  of  the  Translation  of  his 
relics  would  appear  to  have  been  kept  on 
Dec.  29. 
CRESCENS  (St.;  Bp.  (Nov.  28) 

See  SS.  VALERIAN,  URBAN,    &c. 
CRESCENTIA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  15) 

See  SS.  VITUS,  MODESTUS,   &c. 
CRESCENTIANA  (St.)  M.  (May  5) 

(5th  cent.)     Beyond  the  fact  that  as  early 
as  the  time  of  Pope  Symmachus  (a.d.  498-514) 
a  church  in  Rome  was  dedicated  to  her,  nothing 
is  now  known  of  this  Saint. 
CRESCENTIANUS  (St.)  M.  (May  31) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Christian  who  suffered  death 
for  Christ  at  Sassari  in  the  Island  of  Sardinia 
at  the  same  time  as  SS.  Gabinus  and  Crispulus, 
in  the  reign  of  the  Emperor  Hadrian  (A.D.  130 
about).  He  is  still  in  great  veneration  there. 
CRESCENTIANUS  (CRESCENTINUS)  (June  1) 
(St.)  M. 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Roman  soldier,  a  veteran, 
who  retired  to  lead  a  hermit's  life  in  a  solitary 
place  near  Citta  di  Castello  (Tiphernum)  in  the 
Apennine  Mountains,  but  who,  delated  as  a 
Christian,  was  put  to  the  torture  and  beheaded 
(a.d.  287).  He  is  often  represented  by  artists 
as  clad  in  a  deacon's  dalmatic,  though  in  all 
probability  he  remained  all  his  life  a  layman. 
CRESCENTIANUS  (St.)  M.  (Julv  2) 

See  SS.  ARISTON,  CRESCENTIANUS,  &c. 
CRESCENTIANUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  12) 

See  SS.  HILARION,  DIGNA,    &c. 

CRESCENTIANUS,  VICTOR,  ROSULA  and  GEN- 

ERALIS  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  14) 

(3rd  cent.)    African  Martyrs,  alleged  to  have 

suffered  at  the  same  time  and  place  as  the  great 

St.  Cyprian  (A.D.  258). 

CRESCENTIANUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  24) 

(4th    cent.)    A    Christian    who    suffered    in 

company     with     SS.     Cyriacus,     Largus     and 

Smaragdus,  expiring  on  the  rack  in  their  sight 

at  Rome  under  the  tyrant  Maxentius  (A.D.  309). 

We  learn  this  much  from  the  Acts  of  Pope 

St.  Marcellus.     A  Translation  of  the  Relics  of 

St.    Crescentianus    in    the    ninth    century    is 

recorded. 

CRESCENTIANUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  28) 

See  SS.  VALERIAN,  URBAN,    &c. 
CRESCENTIO  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  17) 

See  SS.  NARCISSUS  and  CRESCENTIO. 
CRESCENTIUS  (St.)  (April  19) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Subdeacon  of  Florence,  dis- 
ciple of  St.  Zenobius,  Bishop  of  that  city. 
He  flourished  in  fame  of  great  holiness  at  the 
end  of  the  fourth  and  beginning  of  the  fifth 
centuries. 
CRESCENTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  14) 

(4th  cent.)  A  boy  only  eleven  years  of  age, 
the  son  of  St.  Euthymius,  who,  brought  from 
Perugia  to  Rome,  bravely  confessed  Christ 
during  the  great  persecution  under  Diocletian, 
and  was  spared  neither  torture  nor  death. 
He  was  beheaded,  and  probably  with  him  his 
mother  also  (a.d.  300). 
CRESCENTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  12) 

See  SS.  MAXENTIUS,  CONSTANTINE,   &c. 
CRESCENTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  29) 

See  SS.  DOMINIC,  VICTOR,    &c. 
CRESCENTIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  29) 

Otherwise  St.  CRESCENS  (June  27)  which  see. 
CRESCONIUS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Nov.  28) 

See  SS    VALERIAN,  URBAN,    &c. 

♦CREWENNA  (St.)  (Feb.  1) 

(5th  cent.)    A  companion  of  St.  Breaca  from 

Ireland  to  Cornwall.     Beyond  the  place-name 

Crowan,  near  St.  Erth,  no  record  remains  of 

this  Saint. 


♦CRISPIN  of  VITERBO  (Bl.)  (May  23) 

(18th  cent.)  An  Italian  Franciscan  lay- 
brother  in  the  Capuchin  convent  of  Viterbo, 
favoured  with  many  supernatural  gifts  by 
Almighty  God.  He  died,  aged  eighty-two, 
May  19,  1750,  and  his  body  remains  incorrupt 
to  this  day. 
CRISPIN  and  CRISPINIAN  (SS.)  MM.         (Oct.  25) 

(3rd  cent.)  Shoemakers  by  trade,  victims  of 
the  great  persecution  under  Diocletian.  They 
were  beheaded  because  of  their  religion  at 
Soissons  in  France,  a.d.  287.  They  were  in 
great  popular  veneration  throughout  the 
Middle  Ages  (see  in  this  connection  Shakspeare's 
Henry  V,  Act.  IV,  Scene  II) ;  but  the  adop- 
tion of  the  Roman  Calendar  in  which  Oct.  25 
(their  day),  is  occupied  by  the  Feast  of  the 
Martyrs  SS.  Chrysanthus  and  Darias,  has  caused 
the  liturgical  keeping  of  their  festival  to  fall  into 
desuetude.  They  are  the  recognised  Patron 
Saints  of  shoemakers,  and  are  often  represented 
with  the  tools  of  their  trade  or  with  strips  of 
leather  in  their  hands.  Some  of  their  relics 
are  in  Rome,  and  a  noble  church  was  erected 
at  Soissons  in  their  honour. 
CRISPIN  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Nov.  19) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Ecija  (Astiage)  in 
Andalusia  (Spain),  beheaded  as  a  Christian 
under  the  persecuting  Emperor  Maximian 
Herculeus  at  the  beginning  of  the  fourth 
century.  St.  Crispin  is  honoured  with  a  special 
office  in  the  old  Spanish  or  Mozarabic  Breviary 
and  Missal. 
CRISPIN  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  3) 

See  SS.  CLAUDIUS,  CRISPIN,    &c. 
CRISPIN  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  5) 

See  SS.  JULIUS,  POTAMIA,    &c. 
CRISPINA  (St.)  V.M.  (Dec.  5) 

(4th  cent.)  One  of  the  most  famous  of  the 
African  Martyrs  of  the  Early  Church.  We  have 
still  her  Panegyric  preached  by  the  great 
St.  Augustine.  She  was  a  wealthy  matron  of 
high  birth,  who,  preferring  her  Faith  to  all 
worldly  goods,  cheerfully  laid  down  her  life  for 
Christ.  Having  been  put  to  the  torture  and 
forced  to  undergo  the  most  shameful  indignities, 
she  was  beheaded  at  Thebeste  in  Numidia  (a.d. 
304). 
CRISPIN  of  PAVIA  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  7) 

(5th  cent.)  More  than  one  holy  Prelate  of 
this  name  in  ancient  times  illustrated  the  See 
of  Pavia  in  Lombardy.  One  of  them  in  the 
first  half  of  the  third  century  governed  it  for 
thirty-five  years,  ever  solicitous  not  only  for 
the  spiritual  advancement  of  his  flock,  but  also 
for  the  temporal  well-being  of  the  city.  It  was 
probably  in  his  honour  that  the  Feast  of  Jan.  7 
was  first  instituted,  though  the  entry  in  the 
Roman  Martyrology  is  commonly  understood 
to  commemorate  another  Bishop  St.  Crispin 
who  subscribed  (a.d.  451)  the  Acts  of  the 
Council  of  Milan  in  support  of  Pope  St.  Leo 
the  Great,  and  who  was  the  immediate  pre- 
decessor of  St.  Epiphanius. 
CRISPULUS  (St.)  M.  (May  30) 

See  SS.  GABINUS  and  CRISPULUS. 
CRISPULUS  and  RESTITUTUS  (SS.)        (June  10) 

MM. 

(First  cent.)  Martyrs  believed  to  have  suf- 
fered under  Nero  in  the  Apostolic  Age,  and 
probably  in  Rome.  Baronius,  however,  fol- 
lowing Rabanus  Maurus,  assigns  them  to  Spain. 
No  account  of  them  is  extant. 
CRISPUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  18) 

See  SS.  JOHN  and  CRISPUS. 
CRISPUS  and  CAIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  4) 

(1st  cent.)  Saints  of  the  Apostolic  Age,  the 
two  whom  alone  St.  Paul  baptised  at  Corinth 
(1  Cor.  i.  13).  Crispus  was  ruler  of  the  syna- 
gogue in  that  city  (Acts  xviii.  8).  Caius  in  all 
likelihood  is  the  same  as  the  person  whom  the 
Apostle  styles  "  my  host "  (Rom.  xvi.  23), 
and  also  (which  is  the  opinion  of  Origen  and  of 
Venerable  Bede)  the  "  dearly  beloved  Gains 
(Caius) "    to    whom    St.    John    addressed    his 

71 


CRISTIOLUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


Third  Epistle.     A  well-supported  tradition  has 
it  that  Crispus  became  the  first  Bishop  of  the 
Island    of   iEgina,    and    Caius    similarly    first 
Bishop  of  Thessalonica. 
♦CRISTIOLUS  (St.)  (Nov.  3) 

(7th  cent.)     A  Welsh  Saint,  brother  of  St. 
Sidian  and  founder  of  churches  in  Pembroke- 
shire and  in  Anglesey. 
*CROIDAN,  MEDAN  and  DAGAN  (SS.)  (June  4) 

(6th  cent.)    Three  disciples  of  St.  PETROC, 
vofxxch  sss 
*CRONAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (April  28) 

(7th  cent.)  Born  in  Munster,  St.  Cronan 
founded  several  Religious  Houses  in  various 
parts  of  Ireland,  chief  among  them  that  of 
Roscrea.  He  had  many  disciples  and  worked 
many  miracles.  He  died  about  A.D.  640. 
♦CRONAN  THE  WISE  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  9) 

(8th  cent.)  The  striking  characteristic  of 
this  St.  Cronan  was  his  zeal,  ability  and  success 
in  the  regulating  of  Ecclesiastical  discipline. 
He  drew  up  many  sets  of  disciplinary  laws, 
from  which  he  came  to  be  styled  "  Cronan  of 
the  Nones."  He  was  probably  a  Bishop  of 
Lismore,  and  identical  with  the  holy  Prelate 
known  there  as  St.  Roman.  He  must  have 
flourished  early  in  the  eighth  century. 
*CRONAN  BEG  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  7) 

(7th  cent.)      A  Bishop  of  ancient  iEndrum 
(Down),    mentioned    in    connection    with    the 
Paschal  Controversy  in  A.D.  640. 
♦CRONANUS  (St.)  (June  3) 

(7th  cent.)     A  disciple  of  St.  Kevin,  renowned 
for  his  austere  life  and  singular  virtue. 
CRONIDES  (CHRONIDES)  (St.)  M.  (March  27) 

See  SS.  PHILETUS,  LYDIA,    &c. 
CROTATES  (St.)  M.  (April  21) 

See  SS.  APOLLO,  ISACIUS,    &c. 
CROTILDES  (St.)  Queen.     Widow.  (  3) 

The  name  of  St.  CLOTILDE  of  France  is  thus 
spelled  in  the  old  editions  of  the  Roman  Martyr- 
ology. 
♦CRUMMINE  (St.)  Bp.  (June  28) 

(5th  cent.)    A  disciple  of  St.  Patrick,  placed 
by  him  over  the  Church  of  Leccuine. 
CTESIPHON  (St.)  Bp.  (May  15) 

See  SS.  TORQUATUS,  ACCITANUS,    &c. 
♦CUARAN  (CURVINUS)  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  9) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint,  sur named  like 
some  others,  "  The  Wise,"  who  concealed  his 
Episcopal  dignity  in  order  to  embrace  the 
Religious  Life  as  a  simple  monk  at  Iona,  where, 
however,  he  was  eventually  recognised  by  St. 
Columba.  He  died  probably  some  years  after 
A.D.  700. 
*CUBY  (CYBY)  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  8) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Cornish  Saint,  a  cousin  of 
St.  David  of  Wales.  Consecrated  Bishop, 
he  with  ten  disciples  settled  near  Tregony, 
but  later  passed  some  time  in  Ireland.  In 
the  end  he  came  to  Wales  and  founded  a 
monastery  near  Holyhead.  He  is  the  Patron 
Saint  of  Llangybi  (Monmouth)  and  of  Llangibi 
(Carnarvon).  The  exact  date  of  his  death  is 
not  known. 
CUCUPHAT  (St.)  M.  (July  25) 

(4th  cent.)  An  African  Christian  who, 
having  crossed  into  Spain,  was  put  to  death  on 
account  of  his  religion  near  Barcelona,  in  the 
time  of  Diocletian  at  the  close  of  the  third  or 
beginning  of  the  fourth  century.  The  Christian 
poet  Prudentius  mentions  St.  Cucuphat  in  his 
Hymns,and  he  is  in  great  veneration  in  Catalonia. 
Part  of  his  relics  have  been  translated  to  Paris. 
His  name  is  variously  written  Cucuphas,  Cougat, 
Quiquefat,  Gulnefort,  &c. 
CULMATIUS  (St.)  M.  (June  19) 

See  SS.  GAUDENTIUS  and  CULMATIUS. 
*CUMGAR  (CUNGAR,  CYNGAR)  (St.)       (Nov.  2) 

Abbot. 

(6th  cent.)  A  son  of  Geraint,  Prince  of 
Devon,  and  founder  of  monasteries  at  Badg- 
worth,  Congresbury  (Somerset)  and  at  Llan- 
genys  (Glamorgan).  He  lived  in  the  sixth 
century,   and  is  one  and  the  same   with   St. 

72 


Docuinus  or  Doguinus.  This  seems  to  be  the 
name  which  was  later  corrupted  into  Oue  and 
Kew.  St.  Cumgar  was  buried  at  Congresbury, 
to  which  town  he  has  given  his  name.  The 
compilers  of  the  English  Menology  hold  that 
St.  Cumgar  flourished  in  the  eighth  century 
in  the  time  of  King  Ina  of  Wessex. 

*CUMINE  THE  WHITE  (St.)  Abbot.  (Oct.  6) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Abbot  of  Iona,  of  Irish 
descent,  who  wrote  a  Life  of  St.  Columba. 
He  died  A.D.  669. 

*CUMMIAN  FADA  (St.)  Abbot.  (Nov.  12) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Columbian  monk,  Abbot  of 
the  monastery  of  Kilcummin  (King's  County). 
In  the  disputes  about  the  date  of  Easter  he 
was  a  strenuous  upholder  of  the  Roman  system 
of  calculation.  He  died  A.D.  662.  Some  think 
that  he  is  identical  with  St.  Cummian,  Bishop 
of  Clonfert. 

*CUMMIANUS  (CUMIAN)  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  19) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Irish  Bishop  who  resigned  his 
See  in  order  to  retire  to  the  monastery  founded 
by  St.  Columbanus  at  Bobbio  in  the  North  of 
Italy,  where  he  lived  and  died  in  great  fame  of 
sanctity.  He  was  an  energetic  advocate  of  the 
Roman  date  of  Easter.  He  died,  according  to 
some,  A.D.  661 ;  to  others,  A.D.  682. 

*CUNEGUNDA  (St.)  V.  (July  24) 

Otherwise  St.  KINGA,  which  see. 

CUNEGUNDES  (St.)  V.  (March  3) 

Otherwise  St.  CHUNEGUNDIS,  which  see. 

♦CUNERA  (St.)  V.  (June  12) 

(Date  uncertain.)    A  Saint  venerated  more 

particularly  in  Germany,  but  said  to  have  been 

of   British   birth.     The   traditions   relating   to 

her  are  unreliable. 

CUNIBERT  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  12) 

(7th  cent.)  A  nobly-born  Frank  brought  up 
at  the  Court  of  King  Dagobert  I,  who,  from 
being  Archdeacon  of  Treves,  was  (a.d.  633) 
elected  Archbishop  of  Cologne.  Not  only  did 
his  virtues  render  him  the  idol  of  his  flock,  but 
his  statesmanlike  ability  and  prudence  led  to 
his  enjoying  the  favour  and  confidence  of  King 
Dagobert  and  of  the  two  monarchs  who  suc- 
ceeded him,  all  of  whom  he  served  as  chief 
minister.  He  died  A.D.  664.  A  stately  church 
at  Cologne  is  dedicated  in  his  honour. 

*CUNO  (CONRAD)  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (June  1) 

(11th  cent.)  An  Archbishop  of  Treves  in 
the  time  of  the  Emperor  Henry  IV.  He  met  his 
death  while  defending  the  rights  of  his  Church 
(A.D.  1066)  and  was  at  once  acclaimed  as  a 
Martyr  by  his  devoted  people. 

CURCODOMUS  (St.)  (May  4) 

(3rd  cent.)    A  deacon  who  by  command  of 

the  Pope  of  the  time  (possibly  St.  Xystus  II) 

attended  St.  Peregrinus,  first  Bishop  of  Auxerre, 

on  his  Apostolic  Mission  into  Gaul  in  the  third 

century  or  earlier.     His  tomb  was  the  scene 

of  many  miracles,  and  his  memory  has  ever  been 

locally  in  Burgundy  in  great  honour. 

CURE  D'ARS  (Bl.)  (Sept.  3) 

See  Bl.  JOHN  BAPTIST  VIANNEY. 

•CURIG  (St.)  Bp.  (June  16) 

(6th  cent.)  Stated  to  have  been  Bishop  of 
Llanbadarn  in  Wales,  in  which  country  several 
churches  are  dedicated  in  his  honour.  There  is, 
however,  great  difficulty  in  tracing  his  history 
and  even  in  distinguishing  him  from  other 
Saints  bearing  names  resembling  his. 

*CURITAN  (St.)  Bp.  (March  14) 

Otherwise  St.  BONIFACE,  which  see. 

CURONTIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Sept.  12) 

(3rd  cent.)    A  Bishop  of  Iconium  in  Lycaonia 

(Asia  Minor),  put  to  death  for  the  Faith  during 

the  persecution  under  Valerian  (A.D.  258,  about). 

*CURY  (St.)  (Dec.  12) 

(5th  cent.)    Also  called  Corentin.     A  native 

of  Brittany,  who  settled  in  Cornwall,  where  he 

became  a  zealous  missionary.    He  died  A.D.  401. 

CUTHBERT  (St.)  Bp.  (March  20) 

(7th  cent.)    Born  at  Melrose  on  the  river 

Tweed,  St.  Cuthbert  in  his  youth  tended  his 

father's  sheep  until,  having  in  a  vision  at  the 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


CYRIACA 


moment  of  the  death  of  St.  Aidan  seen  that 
Saint  mounting  in  glory  to  Heaven,  he  embraced 
the  monastic  life.  As  guestmaster  of  Melrose 
Abbey,  while  courteous  and  affable  to  all,  he 
was  specially  solicitous  for  poor  wayfarers,  and 
on  one  occasion  entertained  an  Angel  in  the 
guise  of  a  beggar.  He  governed  for  some  time 
the  Monastery  of  Lindisfarne  or  Holy  Island, 
off  the  coast  of  Northumberland,  which  he 
reluctantly  quitted  to  become  Bishop  of  that 
See,  later  transferred  to  Durham.  Though 
always  a  lover  of  prayer  and  solitude,  he 
distinguished  himself  by  his  beneficent  influence 
on  public  affairs,  and  enjoyed  the  confidence 
of  the  princes  of  his  time.  The  miracles  he 
wrought  earned  him  the  title  of  the  Thau- 
maturgus  (Wonder-worker)  of  Britain.  To- 
wards the  close  of  the  second  year  of  his  Epis- 
copate he  retired  to  the  little  Isle  of  Fame 
(nine  miles  from  Lindisfarne),  and  there  passed 
away  March  20,  a.d.  687.  His  shrine  at 
Durham  was  one  of  the  most  frequented  in 
Catholic  England,  and  more  than  four  centuries 
after  his  death  his  body  was  found  to  be  still 
incorrupt.  It  was  hidden  at  the  time  of  the 
so-called  Reformation,  and  is  believed  to  be  yet 
resting    in    some    obscure    recess    of    Durham 

C*  i\  t"  Yl  P  ( 1  1*1,1 

♦CUTHBERT  MAYNE  (Bl.)  M.  (Nov.  29) 

(16th  cent.)  Blessed  Cuthbert  Mayne  was 
the  first  of  the  Seminary  priests  ordained 
abroad  to  give  his  life  in  England  for  Christ. 
Born  in  Devonshire,  he  had  been  educated  as 
a  Protestant,  but  was  converted  to  the  True 
Faith  while  studying  at  Oxford.  He  was 
ordained  priest  at  Douai,  and  then  began  to 
labour  as  a  missionary  priest  in  Cornwall ;  but 
before  a  year  had  elapsed,  was  arrested,  tried 
and  condemned  to  death,  for  the  crime  of  having 
said  Mass.  He  suffered  near  Launceston, 
A.D.  1577. 
♦CUTHBURGA  (St.)  (Aug.  31) 

(8th  cent.)  A  sister  of  King  Ina  of  Wessex, 
betrothed  to  Oswy  of  Northumbria,  but  with  his 
consent  released  from  her  obligation  and  admit- 
ted to  the  Religious  Life.  She  was  trained 
thereto  by  St.  Hildelid  at  Barking  Abbey.  She 
afterwards  founded  the  great  Abbey  of  Wim- 
borne  in  Dorsetshire,  where  her  sister  St. 
Quenburga  was  associated  with  her.  Wimborne 
was  the  school  in  which  SS.  Lioba,  Thecla  and 
other  great  and  saintly  women  prepared  for  their 
lives  of  Christian  devotedness  and  usefulness. 
St.  Cuthburga  passed  away  a.d.  724  or  there- 
abouts, and  her  festival  is  marked  in  several 
Liturgical  Calendars. 
♦CUTHMAN  (St.)  (Feb.  8) 

(8th  cent.)    A  South  of  England  Saint  who 
lived  a  holy  life  as  a  shepherd  near  Steyning  in 
Sussex,  of  which  place  the  old  church  is  dedicated 
in  his  honour. 
CUTIAS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  18) 

See  SS.  MAXIMUS,  CLAUDIUS,   &c. 
CYBAR  (St.)  Abbot.  (July  1) 

Otherwise  St.  EPARCHIUS,  which  see. 
*CYBY  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  5) 

Otherwise  St.  CUBY,  which  see. 
•CYNDEYRN  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  13) 

Otherwise  St.  KENTIGERN,  which  see. 

♦CYNFRAN  (St.)  (Nov.  11) 

(5th  cent.)    A  Welsh  Saint,  one  of  the  sons 

of  the  chieftain  Brychan  of  Brecknock,   and 

founder  of  a  church  in  Carnarvonshire.     There 

is  also  a  St.  Cynfran's  Well. 

•CYNIDR  (KENEDRUS)  (St.)  Abbot.       (April  27) 

Otherwise  St.  ENODER,  which  see. 
♦CYNOG  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  7) 

Otherwise  St.  CANOG,  which  see. 
•CYNWL  (St.)  (April  30) 

(6th    cent.)    The    brother    of    St.    Deiniol, 
first  Bishop  of  Bangor.     He  lived  an  austere 
life  in  North  Wales,  and  after  his  death  churches 
were  dedicated  in  his  honour. 
CYBARD  (St.)  Abbot.  (July  1) 

Otherwise  St.  EPARCHIUS,  which  see. 


*CYNFARCH  (St.)  (Sept.  8) 

Otherwise  St.  KINGSMARK,  which  see. 
*CYNLIO  (St.)  (July  17) 

(5th  cent.)     A  Welsh  Saint,  as  it  would  appear 

of    the    fifth    century.     Several    churches    are 

dedicated  in  his  honour,  but  we  have  no  reliable 

account  of  him. 

CYPRIAN  (St.)  M.  (March  10) 

See  SS.  CODRATUS,  DIONYSIUS,    &c. 
CYPRIAN  (St.)  M.  (July  11) 

See  SS.  SAVINUS  and  CYPRIAN. 
CYPRIAN  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Sept.  14) 

(3rd  cent.)  Thascius  Csecilius  Cyprian,  a 
cultured  and  wealthy  Carthaginian,  after  teach- 
ing with  distinction  Philosophy  and  Rhetoric, 
was  converted  to  Christianity  (it  is  believed 
comparatively  late  in  life).  He  was  soon 
raised  to  the  priesthood  and  a  year  after  was 
consecrated  Bishop  of  Carthage  (a.d.  248). 
Cheerful  and  courteous  to  every  one,  his  charity 
and  piety  speedily  won  all  hearts.  But  it  was 
by  his  writings,  of  which  even  the  literary  merit 
is  very  great,  that  he  has  chiefly  served  the 
Church.  He  was  linked  in  bonds  of  cordial 
sympathy  and  friendship  with  the  Martyr-Pope, 
St.  Cornelius,  and  in  his  own  books  bears  explicit 
and  striking  witness  to  the  necessary  Oneness 
of  the  Church  founded  on  the  Rock  of  Peter. 
His  conviction  appears  the  more  from  his  bold- 
ness and  insistency  in  maintaining  his  own 
erroneous  views  on  the  validity  of  Baptism 
conferred  by  heretics,  to  which  he  sought  in 
vain  to  draw  Pope  St.  Stephen.  His  treatise 
on  Lapsed  or  Fallen  Christians  is  a  noble  sum- 
mary of  the  merciful  doctrine  of  Rome  in  regard 
to  sinners.  St.  Cyprian  by  a  prudent  retreat 
escaped  the  persecution  of  Christians  under 
Decius  (a.d.  250).  He  won  his  crown  under 
Valerian  (a.d.  258),  when  he  was  beheaded  in 
presence  of  his  sorrowing  flock.  For  a  vivid 
description  of  the  Martyrdom  of  St.  Cyprian, 
see  his  Life  by  his  disciple  Pontius.  With  him 
in  his  triumph  were  associated  SS.  Crescentianus, 
Victor,  Generalis,  Rosula,  and  other  Christians 
of  Carthage. 
CYPRIAN  and  JUSTINA  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  26) 

(4th  cent.)  Cyprian,  from  leading  a  life  of 
sin  and  making  his  livelihood  as  a  necromancer 
and  astrologer,  was  converted  to  Christianity 
by  the  virgin  St.  Justina,  whom  he  had  thought 
to  lead  astray.  In  the  persecution  under 
Diocletian  they  were  both  arrested  and  taken 
to  the  Imperial  residence  at  Nicomedia  (Asia 
Minor)  and  there  condemned  and  beheaded 
on  account  of  their  religion  (a.d.  300  about). 
Their  relics  are  now  enshrined  in  Rome  in  the 
Baptistery  of  the  Church  of  St.  John  Lateran. 
CYPRIAN  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  12) 

See  SS.  FELIX  and  CYPRIAN. 
CYPRIAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Dec.  9) 

(6th  cent.)  A  monk  of  P6rigueux  (France) 
who  ended  a  holy  life  as  a  hermit  on  the  banks 
of  the  Dordogne  (a.d.  586).  St.  Gregory  of 
Tours  speaks  of  the  many  miracles  wrought  by 
him  both  in  life  and  after  death. 
CYR  (St.)  M.  (June  16) 

Otherwise  St.  QUIRICUS,  which  see. 
CYRA  (St.)  (Aug.  3) 

See  SS.  MARANA  and  CYRA. 
CYRENIA  and  JULIANA  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  1) 

(4th  cent.)    Two  Christian  women  burned  to 

death  for  their  religion  at  Tarsus  in  Asia  Minor, 

in  the  last  great  persecution  under  the  Roman 

Emperors  (a.d.  306). 

CYRIA  (St.)  M.  (June  5) 

See  SS.  ZENAIDES,  CYRIA,    &c. 
CYRIACUS,  CYRIACA,  &c. 

These  names,  common  to  many  Saints,  are 
often  found  written  QUIRIACUS,  QUIRIACA, 
&c,  or  again,  for  them  are  substituted  the  equi- 
valent Latin  forms,  DOMINICUS,  DOMINICA, 
<fec.  Less  frequently,  the  forms  KYRIAOUS, 
KIRIACUS,  &c,  are  met  with. 
CYRIACA  (St.)  M.  (March  20) 

See  SS.  PHOTINA,  JOSEPH,   &c. 

73 


CYRIACA 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


CYRIACA  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  VV.MM.     (May  19) 

(4th     cent.)     Six    Christian    maidens     who 

perished  at  the  stake,  at  Nicomedia,  the  Imperial 

residence,  under  Maximinian  Galerius  (a.d.  307). 

CYRIACA  (DOMINICA)  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  21) 

(3rd  cent.)      A  wealthy  Roman  widow  who 

sheltered  the  persecuted  Christians  and  to  whose 

house  St.  Laurence,  the  deacon  and  Martyr,  was 

accustomed  to  repair  to   distribute  his   alms. 

Her  courageous  charity  cost  her  her  life.     She 

was  scourged  to  death  as  a  Christian  (a.d.  249). 

The  Roman  Church  of  St.  Mary  in    Domnica 

perpetuates  her  name. 

CYRIACUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  31) 

See  SS.  TARCISIUS,  ZOTICUS,    &c. 
CYRIACUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  8) 

See  SS.  PAULUS,  LUCIUS,    &c. 
CYRIACUS,  LARGUS,  SMARAGDUS  and  OTHERS 
(SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  8) 

(4th  cent.)  A  group  of  more  than  twenty 
Christians,  among  the  victims  in  Rome  of  the 
great  persecution  under  the  Emperors  Dio- 
cletian and  Maximian  Herculeus  (a.d.  303). 
They  were  beheaded  after  having  been  put  to 
the  torture.  St.  Cyriacus,  who  was  a  deacon, 
gave  his  name  to  a  famous  church,  seat  or  title 
of  a  Cardinal  deacon.  On  its  falling  in  the 
fifteenth  century  into  ruin,  its  privileges,  with 
the  relics  enshrined  in  it,  were  transferred  to  the 
church  called  Santa  Maria  in  Via  Lata. 
CYRIACUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  7) 

(Date    unknown.)     Eleven   Christians   regis- 
tered in  the  Martyrologies  as  having  suffered 
at  Nicomedia  in  Asia  Minor.     But  the  date  and 
all  particulars  have  been  long  since  lost. 
CYRIACUS  (St.)  M.  (May  2) 

See  SS.  EXUPERIUS,  ZOE,    &c. 
CYRIACUS  and  JULITTA  (SS.)  MM.         (June  16) 
Otherwise  SS.   QUIRIACUS  and  JULITTA, 

CYRIACUS  "(QUIRIACUS)  (St.)  Bp.,  M.      (May  4) 

(4th    cent.)    Most    probably    a    Bishop    of 

Ancona  (Italy)  who,  while  making  his  pilgrimage 

to  the  Holy  Land,  perished  in  the  persecution 

of  Julian  the  Apostate  (a.d.  362/.     But  many 

assert  that  he  was  a  Bishop  of  Jerusalem,  put 

to   death   under   Hadrian   (A.D.    117-138).     In 

reality  nothing  certain  is  now  known  about  him. 

His  relics  are  venerated  at  Ancona. 

CYRIACUS  and  PAULA  (SS.)  MM.  (June  18) 

(4th  cent.)     Two  Christians,  stoned  to  death 

at  Malaga  in  Spain  during  the  persecution  under 

Diocletian    (a.d.    305    about).      St.    Paula    is 

registered  as  a  Virgin  Martyr,  but  no  details  are 

extant  of  either  of  these  Martyrs. 

CYRIACUS  (St.)  M.  (June  5) 

See  SS.  FLORENCE,  JULIAN,   &c. 
CYRIACUS  (St.)  M.  (June  20) 

See  SS.  PAUL  and  CYRIACUS. 
CYRIACUS  and  APOLLINARIS  (SS.)        (June  21) 
MM. 

(Date  unknown.)    African  Martyrs  registered 
in  the  Martyrologies,  but  whose  Acts  have  been 
lost. 
CYRIACUS  (St.)  M.  (June  24) 

See  SS.  ORENTIUS  ;   HEROES,  &c. 
CYRIACUS  (St.)  M.  (July  15) 

See  SS.  ANTIOCHUS  and  CYRIACUS. 
CYRIACUS,  PAULILLUS,  SECUNDUS,  ANASTA- 
SIUS,  SINDIMIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM. 

(Dec.  19) 
(4th  cent.)     Some  of  the  numberless  Chris- 
tians who  suffered  at  Nicomedia,  the  residence 
of    the    Emperor    Diocletian    (a.d.    303).     No 
particulars  are  extant. 
CYRIL  and  METHODIUS  (SS.)  Bps.        (March  9) 
(9th  cent.)    Two  brothers,  the  Apostles  of 
the  Sclavonians  or  Slavs,  born  in  Greece  and 
educated  at  Constantinople.    They  were  sent 
by  the  Patriarch  St.  Ignatius  as  missionaries 
to  the  Bulgarians,  which  people,  following  the 
example    of    their    king,    speedily    embraced 
Christianity  (a.d.  861-865).     Cyril  had  previ- 
ously   preached    in    Southern    Russia.    They 
pursued  their  work  in  Moravia  and  Dalmatia. 
74 


On  their  coming  to  Rome  to  render  an  account 
of  their  mission,  Pope  Hadrian  II  consecrated 
them  Bishops.  Cyril,  however,  died  there, 
leaving  Methodius  to  continue  alone  their 
Apostolate,  which  he  did  with  marvellous  success 
in  Moravia,  Bohemia,  Poland  and  the  neigh- 
bouring countries.  To  him  is  attributed  the 
Slav  alphabet,  into  which  tongue  he  translated 
the  Holy  Scriptures.  He  died  in  Moravia  at  an 
advanced  age  at  the  close  of  the  ninth  century. 
The  relics  of  the  two  brothers  are  venerated 
in  the  church  of  San  Clemente  in  Rome,  and 
Pope  Leo  XIII  ordered  their  festival  to  be 
solemnly  kept  throughout  the  Christian  world 
on  July  7. 

CYRIL  of  JERUSALEM  (St.)  Bp.,  (March  18) 

Doctor  of  the  Church. 

(4th  cent.)  Born  near  Jerusalem  a.d.  315. 
He  was  ordained  priest  a.d.  345,  and  became 
Patriarch  in  350.  Driven  by  the  Arians  from 
his  See  he  returned  to  Jerusalem  under  Julian, 
and  was  an  eye-witness  of  the  futile  attempt 
of  the  Apostate  Emperor  to  rebuild  the  Temple. 
After  enduring  a  second  banishment  lasting 
eleven  years,  he  passed  away  in  peace  at  Jeru- 
salem (A.D.  386).  His  Catecheses  or  simple 
expositions  of  Catholic  doctrine  are  most 
valuable.  Especially  luminous  is  his  clear 
teaching  of  the  Faith  on  the  subject  of  the 
Holy  Eucharist.  He  was  numbered  by  Pope 
Leo  XIII  among  the  Doctors  of  the  Church. 

CYRIL  (St.)  M.  (March  20) 

See  SS.  PAUL,  CYRIL,    &c. 

CYRIL  (St.)  M.  (March  29) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Palestinian  deacon,  martyred 
under  Julian  the  Apostate  (A.D.  362).  Accord- 
ing to  Theodoret,  his  body  was  frightfully 
mutilated  before  the  executioner  put  an  end  to 
his  sufferings. 

CYRIL  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (July  9) 

(3rd  cent.)  An  aged  prelate,  Bishop  of 
Gortyna  in  the  Island  of  Crete,  tortured  and 
beheaded  in  the  Decian  persecution  (a.d.  250). 

CYRIL  of  ALEXANDRIA  (St.)  Bp.,  (Jan.  28) 

Doctor  of  the  Church. 

(5th  cent.)  By  birth  an  Egyptian,  and  nep- 
hew of  St.  Theophilus,  whom  he  succeeded 
(A.D.  412)  in  the  Patriarchate  of  Alexandria. 
From  the  outset  he  showed  himself  a  zealous 
champion  of  the  Catholic  Faith.  He  was 
unsparing  in  his  efforts  to  eradicate  the  last 
vestiges  of  Paganism,  but  that  he  was  an  abettor 
of  the  murder  of  Hypatia,  the  girl-philosopher, 
is,  in  the  words  of  a  Protestant  writer,  "  an 
unsupported  calumny."  He  wrote  Com- 
mentaries on  the  Holy  Scriptures  and  other 
notable  works,  but  his  chief  glory  is  his  success- 
ful overthrowing  of  the  subtle  heresy  of  Nestorius 
(who  taught  that  Christ  was  not  truly  God, 
but  a  mere  man,  the  instrument  of  the  Godhead, 
that  is,  that  in  Him  there  axe  two  Persons), 
condemned  in  the  great  Council  of  Ephesus 
(A.D.  431),  which  was  presided  over  by  St.  Cyril 
as  Legate  of  Pope  St.  Celestine.  In  this 
Council  Our  Lady's  title  of  Theotokos  (Mother 
of  God)  was  formally  recognised.  Intrigues 
at  Constantinople  led  to  St.  Cyril's  imprison- 
ment, but  liberated,  in  consequence  of  the  strong 
action  of  the  Pope,  he  returned  to  Alexandria, 
and  there  passed  away  in  peace,  Jan.  28,  444. 
Leo  XIII  proclaimed  him  a  Doctor  of  the  Church 
and  assigned  Feb.  9  as  his  Festival  Day. 

CYRIL  (St.)  M.  (March  4) 

See  SS.  ARCHELAUS  and  CYRIL. 

CYRIL,  ROGATUS,  FELIX,  ROGATUS,  HERENIA, 

FELICITAS,     URBANUS,     SYLVANUS     and 

MAMILLUS  (SS.)  MM.  (March  8) 

(Date    unknown.)     African    Martyrs    (Cyril 

is  described  as  a  Bishop),  registered  in  all  the 

ancient   lists,   but   of   whom   nothing   is   now 

known. 

CYRIL  (St.)  Bp.  (July  22) 

(3rd  cent.)     The  successor  of  Timseus  (a.d. 

280)  in  the  Patriarchate  of  Antioch.     He  was 

conspicuous  both  for  piety  and  for  learning. 


THE  BOOK  OP  SAINTS 


DAMASUS 


Like  other  prelates  of  his  age,  he  had  much  to 
endure  from  the  enemies  of  Christianity,  but 
appears  to  have  passed  away  in  peace  about 
a.d.  300. 

CYRIL,   AQUILA,   PETER,    DOMITIAN,   RUFUS 

and  MENANDER  (SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  1) 

(Date  unknown.)    Martyrs  of  one  of  the  early 

centuries,  registered  in  the  Martyrologies  as  of 

Philadelphia  in  Arabia. 

CYRIL  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  2) 

See  SS.  PRIMUS,  CYRIL,    &c. 

CYRIL  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  28) 

See  SS.  ANASTASIA  and  CYRIL. 

CYRILLA  (St.)  M.  (July  5) 

(4th  cent.)  An  aged  Christian  widow  of 
Cyrene  (Africa)  who,  with  others,  was  put  to 
death  in  that  place,  for  refusing  to  sacrifice  to 
idols.  She  appears  to  have  expired  in  the 
torture  chamber,  and  so  not  to  have  been 
beheaded,  as  was  usual  in  the  official  persecu- 
tions of  the  early  centuries  (a.d.  300  about). 

CYRILLA  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  28) 

(3rd  cent.)  The  daughter  of  St.  Tryphonia 
and  a  sharer  in  the  good  works  of  that  holy 
Roman  widow.  She  was  put  to  death  as  a 
Christian  under  the  Emperor  Claudius  II 
(A.D.  268-270). 

CYRINUS,  PRIMUS  and  THEOGENES       (Jan.  3) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(4th  cent.)  Martyrs  at  Cyzicus  on  the 
Hellespont,  under  the  Emperor  Licinius  (a.d. 
320).  They  were  soldiers  in  the  Imperial  army 
and  preferred  to  die  rather  than  to  share  in  the 
idolatrous  sacrifices  at  which  the  troops  were 
compelled  to  assist.  St.  Theogenes  in  parti- 
cular has  from  early  times  been  in  great  venera- 
tion both  in  the  East  and  in  the  West. 

CYRINUS  (St.)  M.  (April  26) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Roman  Martyr  under  Dio- 
cletian of  whom  mention  is  made  in  the  Acts 
of  St.  Marcellinus,  Pope  and  Martyr. 

CYRINUS  (St.)  M.  (May  10) 

See  SS.  ALPHIUS,  PHILADELPHIA,    &c. 

CYRINUS  (St.)  M.  (June  12) 

See  SS.  BASILIDES,  CYRINUS,    &c. 

CYRIO,  BASSIANUS,  AGATHO  and  MOSES  (SS.) 
MM.  (Feb.  14) 

(Date  uncertain.)  Bede  and  all  the  Martyr- 
ologies commemorate  these  Saints  as  having 
suffered  at  Alexandria  in  Egypt.  St.  Cyrio 
was  a  priest,  St.  Bassian  a  Lector,  St.  Agatho 
an  Exorcist,  and  St.  Moses  a  layman.  It  would 
appear  that  on  Feb.  14  the  Church  of  Alexandria 
celebrated,  besides,  the  Martyrdom  of  a  great 
number  of  Christians,  probably  done  to  death 
in  a  single  massacre,  distinguishing  them  into 
various  groups  according  to  the  nature  of  the 
sufferings  they  endured.  St.  Cyrio  and  his 
companions  as  above  perished  at  the  stake. 
St.  Bassus  {which  see)  with  many  others  were 
drowned,  SS.  Dionysius  and  Ammonius  {which 
see)  were  beheaded. 

CYRION  and  CANDIDA  (SS.)  MM.  (March  9) 

The  two  most  conspicuous  among  the  famous 
FORTY  MARTYRS  OF  SEBASTE,  which  see. 

CYRUS  and  JOHN  (SS.)  MM.  (Jan.  31) 

(4th  cent.)  Martyrs  of  the  last  stages  of  the 
great  persecution  under  Diocletian  and  his 
colleagues  (a.d.  312).  Cyrus,  an  Egyptian 
physician,  and  John,  a  Syrian,  were  devoting 
themselves  to  good  works  (some  say  in  the 
monastic  state  of  life)  when  they  were  seized, 
condemned  as  Christians,  and  beheaded  at 
Alexandria.  Their  remains  were  subsequently 
translated  to  Rome.  Metaphrastes  has  a  prolix 
description  of  their  trial  and  Passion. 

CYRUS  of  CARTHAGE  (St.)  Bp.  (July  14) 

(Date  unknown.)  Who  this  Saint  may  have 
been  is  quite  uncertain.  St.  Possidius  in  his 
Life  of  St.  Augustine  speaks  of  the  holy  Doctor's 
Sermon  on  the  Feast  of  St.  Cyrus,  Bishop  of 
Carthage  ;  but  it  is  not  unlikely  that  the  name 
may  be  a  mistake  for  that  of  St.  Cyprian. 

CYTHINUS  (St.)  M.  (July  17) 

One  of  the  SCILLITAN  MARTYRS,  which  see. 


D 

*DABIUS  (DAVIUS)  (St.)  (July  22) 

(Date  uncertain.)  Butler  describes  him  as  an 
Irish  priest  who  worked  in  Scotland,  where  his 
name  appears  as  title  of  churches.  He  may  be 
identical  with  St.  Movean  or  Biteus,  disciple  of 
St.  Patrick.  According  to  Smith  and  Wace, 
more  to  him  than  to  St.  David  of  Wales  are  the 
Celtic  dedications  under  that  name  to  be  as- 
signed. 
DACIANUS  (St.)  M.  (June  4) 

See  SS.  ARETIUS  and  DACIANUS. 
DACIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  1) 

See  SS.  OESARIUS,  DACIUS,    &c. 
DADAS   (DIDAS),   SAPOR,   CASDOE   and   GAB- 

DELAS  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  29) 

(4th  cent.)  St.  Dadas,  a  noble  Persian, 
Casdoe,  his  wife,  and  Gabdelas,  probably  their 
son,  together  with  Sapor,  a  near  relative  of  the 
King,  were  of  the  number  of  the  many  Christians 
who  suffered  martyrdom  under  Sapor  II 
(A.D.  310-363).  They  underwent  terrible  tor- 
tures before  finally  being  put  to  the  sword. 
DADAS  (St.)  M.  (April  13) 

See  SS.  MAXIMUS,  QUINCTILLIANUS,  &c. 
DAFROSA  (AFFROSA)  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  4) 

(4th  cent.)  The  wife  of  Fabian  (Flavian) 
also  a  Martyr,  and  the  mother  of  SS.  Bibiana 
and  Demetria,  VV.MM.  After  the  death  of 
her  husband  some  writers  say  that  she  herself 
was  decapitated  (a.d.  363).  Others  with  better 
reason  that  she  was  exiled  and  succeeded  in 
converting  to  Christianity  and  animating  to 
martyrdom  a  certain  Faustus  who  pretended 
to  her  hand,  and  who  may  be  the  Saint  of  that 
name  venerated  with  others  on  June  24.  But 
it  is  admitted  that  the  Acts  of  St.  Bibiana  are 
untrustworthy,  and  that  she  and  the  other 
Saints  referred  to  therein  may  have  flourished 
a  century  earlier  than  the  date  given.  The 
name  Dafrosa  is  often  written,  and  more 
correctly  Daphrosa. 
*DAGAN  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  27) 

Otherwise  St.  DECUMAN,  which  see. 
*DAG^EUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  18) 

(6th  cent.)    An  Irish  Bishop  at  Iniskin  near 
Dundalk.     He  ministered  at  the  deathbed  of 
St.  Mochteus.     He  died  about  a.d.  560. 
♦DALLAN  FORGAILL  (CLUAIN  DALLAIN) 

(St.)  M.  (Jan.  29) 

(6th  cent.)  A  kinsman  of  St.  Edan  of  Ferns, 
born  in  Connaught  and  a  great  scholar  who, 
through  his  application  to  study,  became  blind. 
He  wrote  a  poem  in  honour  of  St.  Columba, 
called  Ambra  Chohiim  Kille  which  was  only 
published  after  St.  Columba's  death.  The 
legend  averring  that  on  its  publication  Dalian's 
sight  was  restored  to  him  is  found  in  several 
authors.  St.  Dalian  was  murdered  at  Trisccel 
by  pirates  (a.d.  598),  and  his  head  thrown  into 
the  sea.  It  was  recovered  and  miraculously 
reunited  to  his  body. 
DALMATIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Dec.  5) 

(4th  cent.)  A  former  Missionary  in  Gaul  who 
was  for  one  year  Bishop  of  Pavia  in  Lombardy, 
where  he  laid  down  his  life  for  the  Faith  during 
the  persecution  under  Maximian  Herculeus 
(A.D.  304). 
DAMASUS  (St.)  Pope.  (Dec.  11) 

(4th  cent.)  "  An  incomparable  man "  (so 
St.  Jerome  styles  him),  "  the  Virgin  Doctor  of 
the  Virgin  Church."  Of  Spanish  extraction, 
but  born  in  Rome,  he  attended  Pope  Liberius 
in  exile,  and  was  in  constant  communion  with 
St.  Athanasius.  He  succeeded  Liberius  (a.d. 
366),  but  had  to  struggle  against  an  Anti-Pope, 
Ursinus,  whose  rebellion  was  finally  crushed, 
not  without  bloodshed,  by  the  Emperor  Valen- 
tinian.  St.  Damasus  held  Councils  in  Rome 
against  the  Arians  and  Apollinarians.  A 
cultured  man  (as  is  seen  from  Ids  verses)  he  was 
the  great  patron  of  St.  Jerome,  who  under  his 
direction   re-translated   into   Latin   or   revised 

75 


DAMIAN 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


the  current  versions  of  Holy  Scripture.  St. 
Damasus  is  famous  for  having  restored  and 
beautified  in  Rome  the  tombs  of  the  holy 
Martyrs.  His  share  in  the  development  of  tJae 
Roman  Liturgy,  mainly  by  the  introduction 
of  certain  elements  borrowed  from  the  Eastern 
Rites,  was  considerable.  He  died  nearly  eighty 
years  old,  A.D.  364,  and  was  buried  in  one  of 
the  two  important  churches  he  had  built  in 
honour  of  St.  Laurence  the  Martyr. 

DAMIAN  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  12) 

(Date  unknown.)  According  to  the  Bol- 
landists  there  are  two  Saints,  Damian,  whose 
Feasts  are  kept  on  Feb.  12  •  one,  a  soldier 
who  gave  his  life  for  his  religion  in  Africa, 
probably  at  Alexandria,  the  other,  a  Roman 
Martyr,  whose  body  was  found  in  the  cemetery 
of  St.  Callistus,  and  afterwards  taken  to  Sala- 
manca in  Spain.  But  dates  and  particulars 
are  altogether  wanting. 

*DAMHNADE  (St.)  V.  (June  13) 

(Date  uncertain.)  An  Irish  Virgin  famed 
for  miracles  and  greatly  venerated  in  Cavan, 
Fermanagh,  &c.  Colgan  identifies  her  with 
St.  Dympna,  the  Martyr  of  Gael  in  Belgium, 
but  he  can  scarcely  be  right,  as  neither  can  be 
iEngus,  who  makes  her  out  to  have  been 
sister  to  St.  Fursey.  Nothing  is  really  known 
of  her  life  or  date. 

DAMIAN  (St.)  Bp.  (April  12) 

(8th  cent.)  Of  noble  birth  and  early  dis- 
tinguished for  learning  and  piety,  he  was 
(a.d.  680)  consecrated  Bishop  of  Pavia  in 
Lombardy.  He  strenuously  opposed  the  Mono- 
thelites,  heretics  of  the  time  who  taught  that 
in  Christ  there  was  no  human  will.  He  acted 
successfully  as  peacemaker  between  the  Byzan- 
tine Emperor  and  the  Lombards,  his  fellow- 
countrymen.  But  he  is  chiefly  in  honour  for 
his  devotedness  to  the  sick  and  to  the  poor, 
to  whom  he  ministered  personally  in  a  year  of 
plague.  By  his  kiss  he  is  said  to  have  healed 
a  leper.  He  went  to  his  reward  (A.D.  710), 
and  was  buried  in  his  Cathedral. 

DAMIAN  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  27) 

See  SS.  COSMAS  and  DAMIAN. 

DAMIAN  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  16) 

See  St.  ELIAS  and  MARTYRS  OF  EGYPT. 

DANIEL  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  3) 

(2nd  cent.)  St.  Daniel,  a  deacon,  said  to 
have  been  of  Jewish  extraction,  aided  St. 
Prosdocimus,  first  Bishop  of  Padua,  in  his 
Apostolate  of  the  North-East  of  Italy.  An 
eloquent  preacher,  he  was  seized  and  tortured 
to  death  in  the  Fourth  General  Persecution 
(A.D.  168).  His  body  was  miraculously  dis- 
covered many  centuries  later  and  found  in- 
corrupt. His  Festival  is  kept  on  Jan.  3,  that 
being  the  anniversary  of  the  Translation  of  his 
Relics  in  the  year  1064. 

DANIEL  and  VERDA  (SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  21) 

(4th  cent.)  Persian  Martyrs,  greatly  honoured 
in  the  East,  who  suffered  under  King  Sapor  II 
(A.D.  344). 

DANIEL  (St.)  M.  (July  10) 

See  St.  LEONTIUS  and  MARTYRS  OF 
ARMENIA. 

♦DANIEL  (St.)  (March  31) 

(15th  cent.)  A  Camaldolese  monk  at  Venice, 
a  German  by  birth.  He  was  murdered  by 
robbers  (A.D.  1411).  He  was  a  man  of  almost 
continuous  prayer  ;  and  while  still  in  the  world 
remarkable  for  the  sacrifice  he  made  of  all  his 
property  in  order  to  alleviate  the  misery  of  the 
poor. 

DANIEL  (St.)  Prophet.  (July  21) 

(5th  cent.  B.C.)  One  of  the  Four  Great 
Prophets,  and  the  inspired  writer  of  the  book 
under  his  name  in  Holy  Scripture,  of  which  the 
Church  recognises  some  sections  whose  Divine 
origin  was  unknown  to  the  Jews.  Besides 
what  is  therein  narrated,  tradition  holds  that 
the  holy  Prophet  did  not  return  into  Judaea 
with  his  fellow-countrymen,  but  remained  in 
Persia,  where  he  died,  a  centenarian.  The 
76 


Roman  Martyrology  indicates  Babylon  as  the 
place  of  his  death,  but  his  tomb  is  still  shown 
at  Susa.  His  relics,  translated  to  Alexandria, 
are  now  venerated  at  Venice.  The  Greeks  keep 
his  Feast  on  Dec.  17,  together  with  that  of  the 
Three  Children  cast  into  the  fiery  furnace 
(Dan.  iii.). 
*DANIEL  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  11) 

(6th  cent.)  Consecrated  first  Bishop  of 
Bangor  by  St.  Dubritius,  he  governed  his  See 
with  zeal  and  success.  After  his  death  (a.d. 
545)  the  Cathedral  at  Bangor  and  other  churches 
were  dedicated  in  his  honour.  He  was  buried 
in  the  Isle  of  Bardsey.  His  Festival  is  variously 
kept  on  Nov.  23  and  Dec.  1. 
DANIEL,  SAMUEL,  ANGELUS,  DOMNUS,  LEO, 

NICHOLAS  and  HUGOLINUS  (SS.)  MM. 

(Oct.  13) 

(13th  cent.)  St.  Daniel,  Provincial  in 
Calabria  of  the  newly-founded  Franciscan 
Order,  was  sent  by  St.  Francis  of  Assisi,  with 
six  of  his  brethren  to  preach  Christianity  to  the 
African  Mohammedans.  They  landed  at  Ceuta 
in  Morocco  and  at  once  applied  themselves  to 
their  holy  work ;  but  arrested  after  a  few  days 
and  at  first  treated  as  madmen,  they  were 
finally  sentenced  to  be  beheaded  (a.d.  1221). 
Their  bodies,  torn  to  pieces  by  the  populace, 
were  collected  by  Christians  and  later  carried 
over  to  Spain. 
DANIEL  THE  STYLITE  (St.)  (Dec.  11) 

(5th  cent.)  One  of  the  most  famous  of  the 
Pillar-Saints  of  the  fifth  century.  He  entered 
a  monastery  near  Samosata  on  the  Upper 
Euphrates,  but  travelling  with  his  Abbot 
came  to  know  the  celebrated  St.  Simon  Stylites 
who  did  penance  on  the  top  of  a  pillar  near 
Antioch.  St.  Daniel,  resolved  on  imitating 
him,  and  encouraged  by  him,  embraced  the 
same  strange  form  of  austere  life  at  a  spot 
a  few  miles  outside  the  walls  of  Constantinople. 
He  lived  thirty  years  on  his  pillar,  whereon  he 
was  ordained  priest  and  used  to  say  Mass. 
Thereon  also,  honoured  by  the  Greek  Emperor 
and  the  idol  of  the  people  whose  sick  he  mira- 
culously healed,  he  passed  away  a.d.  492, 
four  score  years  old. 
*DARERCA  (St.)  Widow.  (March  22) 

(5th  cent.)  St.  Patrick's  sister.  Her  name, 
derived  from  the  Irish  Diar-sheare,  signifying 
constant  or  firm  love,  denotes  her  characteristic 
in  God's  service.  At  what  date  in  the  fifth 
century  she  died  is  not  known.  She  is  reputed 
to  have  left  many  sons,  some  of  whom  became 
Bishops. 
DARIAS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  25) 

See  SS.  CHRYSANTHUS  and  DARIAS. 
DARIUS,   ZOSIMUS,    PAULUS   and   SECUNDUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Dec.  19) 

(Date  unknown.)    Of  these  Martyrs,  the  old 

Martyrologies  make  mention  as  having  suffered 

at    Nicsea,  but  nothing  is  extant  concerning 

them. 

♦DARLUGDACHA  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  1) 

(6th  cent.)    The  successor  of  St.  Brigid  and 
second  Abbess  of  Kildare.     She  died  a.d.  524. 
The  legend  of  her  journeying  in  Scotland  seems 
devoid  of  evidence. 
DASIUS,  ZOTICUS,   CAIUS   and   OTHERS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  21) 

(4th  cent.)  Fifteen  Christian  soldiers  who 
suffered  under  Diocletian  (a.d.  303  about)  at 
Nicomedia,  the  Imperial  residence  on  the 
Black  Sea.  After  undergoing  appalling  tortures 
they  were  taken  out  in  boats  and  cast  into  the 
sea. 
DASIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Nov.  20) 

(4th  cent.)  At  Dorostorum  in  Mysia  (Asia 
Minor)  this  holy  Bishop,  as  in  duty  bound,  set 
his  face  and  authority  against  the  shameless 
immorality  practised  in  the  Saturnalia  and  other 
heathen  festivals.  His  zeal  cost  him  his  life, 
and  he  won  the  crown  of  martyrdom  under 
Diocletian  in  the  first  years  of  the  fourth 
century. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


DECLAN 


DATHIUS  (DATUS)  (St.)  Bp.  (July  3) 

(2nd  cent.)  An  Archbishop  of  Ravenna,  the 
miraculous  appearance  of  a  dove  hovering  over 
whose  head  had  led  to  his  election.  He  faith- 
fully discharged  his  duty  to  his  flock  during  the 
respite  to  persecution  under  Commodus  and 
entered  into  rest  about  A.D.  190. 
DATIVA  (St.)  V.M.  (Dec.  6) 

See  SS.  DIONYSIA  and  DATIVA. 
DATIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  14) 

(6th  cent.)  Of  the  illustrious  family  of  the 
Alliati,  he,  because  of  his  piety  and  learning, 
was  appointed  Archbishop  of  Milan.  He  was  of 
invaluable  assistance  to  Pope  Vigilius  in  the 
dispute  about  the  "  Three  Chapters."  In  A.D. 
551  he  took  part  in  the  Council  of  Constantinople 
and  in  the  condemnation  of  the  Patriarch  Men- 
nas.  In  consequence  he  was  ill-treated  by  the 
Emperor  Justinian.  He  died  A.D.  552,  a  few 
months  after  his  return  to  his  See.  St.  Gregory 
the  Great  speaks  of  him  in  terms  of  honour 
and  esteem,  and  many  miracles  are  attributed 
to  his  intercession.  He  is  said  to  have  ordered 
to  be  written  the  History  of  the  Church  of 
Milan  known  as  the  "  Historia  Datiana. 
DATIUS,    REATRIUS    (RESTIUS)    and   OTHERS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Jan.  27) 

(5th  or  6th  cent.)  African  Martyrs  who 
suffered  under  the  Vandals.  These  barbarians 
under  Genseric  invaded  Africa  (A.D.  427),  the 
Roman  Provinces  having  been  betrayed  to  them 
by  Count  Boniface,  the  Governor,  who,  after- 
wards penitent,  vainly  sought  to  stay  their 
progress.  Hippona,  the  city  of  St.  Augustine, 
fell  in  the  year  431,  that  next  after  the  death 
of  the  holy  Doctor  ;  and  Carthage  was  taken 
A.D.  437.  The  Vandals  professed  Arianism 
and  persecuted  the  Catholics  cruelly  and 
persistently.  The  persecution,  begun  in  427, 
became  more  sanguinary  under  King  Hunneric 
(477-485)  and  cannot  be  said  to  have  ceased 
before  a.d.  534,  when  the  famous  leader  Belis- 
sarius  recovered  for  the  Emperor  Justinian  the 
Roman  Provinces  of  Africa  and  extinguished 
the  Vandal  Kingdom.  Of  the  earlier  phases  of 
the  persecution  we  have  particulars  from  the 
pen  of  the  contemporary  historian,  Victor 
Vitensis.     Procopius  may  also  be  referred  to. 

The  time,  precise  place,  and  circumstances  of 
the  martyrdom  of  St.  Datius  and  his  fellow- 
sufferers  are  unknown. 
DATIVUS    (DATIUS),    JULIAN,    VINCENT    and 

OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Jan.  27) 

(Date  unknown.)  These  holy  men,  thirty 
in  number,  are  usually  described  as  having 
suffered  for  Christ  in  Africa  in  the  third  century, 
but  Surius  believes  that  they  were  victims 
of  the  Vandal  persecution,  two  hundred  years 
later.  Another  and  perhaps  very  tenable 
opinion  holds  that  they  were  martyred  in 
Galicia  in  the  north-west  of  Spain,  and  as  early 
as  a.d.  95.  No  particulars  are  known. 
DATIVUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  11) 

See  SS.  SATURNINUS,  CASTULUS,  &c. 
DATIVUS  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Sept.  10) 

See  SS.  NEMESIAN,  FELIX,   etc. 
♦DAVID  (St.)  Bp.  (March  1) 

(6th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Wales  and 
perhaps  the  most  illustrious  of  the  ancient 
British  Bishops.  His  life  by  Giraldus  Cambrcn- 
sis  is  very  unreliable,  and  the  traditions  con- 
cerning him  are  the  subject  of  much  merited 
criticism.  The  Breviary  approved  lessons 
describe  him  as  born  of  noble  parents  in  South 
Wales  and  educated  by  St.  Paulinus,  the  disciple 
of  St.  Germanus  of  Auxerre.  Later,  he  was  a 
strenuous  opposer  of  the  Pelagian  heresy,  and 
the  founder  of  the  See  of  St.  David's  or  Menevia. 
Thither,  when  appointed  successor  of  St. 
Dubritius,  he  transferred  the  chief  Welsh 
Bishopric  from  Caorleon.  He  is  said  to  have 
been  zealous  for  good  discipline  among  both 
clergy  and  laity,  and  to  have  presided  over  the 
Synod  of  Brewi.  The  middle  of  the  sixth  cen- 
tury is  rightly  given  as  the  time  of  his  death, 


that  of  a.d.  601,  adopted  by  Haddan  and 
Stubbs  from  the  Annales  Cambrenses  being 
clearly  impossible.  In  art  St.  David  is  often 
represented  preaching  on  a  hill  with  a  dove 
resting  on  his  shoulder. 

DAVID  (St.)  Hermit.  (June  26) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Saint  held  in  great  veneration 
in  the  Patriarchate  of  Constantinople,  whither 
he  is  reported  to  have  come  from  his  native 
Mesopotamia.  From  his  youth  upwards  a 
contemplative,  he  was  raised  by  Almighty  God 
to  a  high  degree  of  prayer,  and  privileged  to 
work  miracles.  He  settled  in  a  solitary  place 
outside  Thessalonica,  where  he  served  God  for 
seventy  years.  He  flourished  probably  in  the 
fifth  century,  though  there  is  much  uncertainty 
as  to  this.  His  relics  were  translated  to  Pavia 
in  a.d.  1054. 

*DAVID  (St.)  Abbot.  (July  15) 

(10th  cent.)  An  Englishman  of  noble  birth 
who  followed  St.  Sigfried  into  Sweden  and  there 
governed  with  zeal  a  monastery  of  Benedictine 
monks.  He  died  at  a  great  age,  and  many 
miracles  have  been  worked  at  his  intercession. 

DAVID  (St.)  King.     Prophet.  (Dec.  29) 

(10th  cent.  B.C.)  In  the  First  and  Second 
Books  of  Kings,  and  in  Parallepomenon,  or 
Chronicles,  are  related  all  the  facts  which  God 
has  been  pleased  to  reveal  to  us  concerning  this 
man  "  after  His  own  Heart."  The  Book  of 
Psalms  almost  in  its  entirety  is  by  Holy  Church 
attributed  to  him,  "  the  sweet  singer  in  Israel." 
The  tomb  of  David  was  recognised  in  Jerusalem 
as  late  as  the  second  century  of  our  iEra,  when 
Hadrian  destroyed,  or  rather  attempted  to 
destroy  it,  as  it  is  still  pointed  out.  Josephus 
narrates  the  miracles  worked  thereat,  especially 
on  the  occasion  of  the  pillage  attempted  by 
Herod.  Eusebius  refers  to  the  endeavours  of 
Vespasian  to  uproot  the  House  of  David,  of 
whom  the  descendants  were  in  his  time  in  great 
consideration  among  the  Jews.  The  Greeks 
keep  the  Feast  of  St.  David  together  with  all 
the  other  Saints,  ancestors  of  Our  Blessed  Lord, 
on  Dec.  19.  The  reason  of  the  choice  of  Dec.  29 
by  the  Latins  lies  probably  in  their  traditional 
reluctance  to  celebrate  the  Offices  of  Saints 
during  the  week  preceding  Christmas  Day. 

DAVINUS  (St.)  (June  3) 

(11th  cent.)  A  native  of  Armenia  who  selling 
all  that  he  had  and  giving  its  price  to  the  poor 
set  out  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome  and  to  St. 
James  of  Compostella  in  Spain.  On  his  journey 
he  was  hospitably  entertained  by  a  noble  matron 
of  Lucca  in  Tuscany.  But,  attacked  there  by 
a  fatal  malady,  he  succumbed  June  3,  A.D.  1051, 
and  was  buried  in  a  church  of  that  town.  His 
spirit  of  prayer  and  penance  earned  him  the 
honour  and  reputation  of  a  Saint.  His  cultus 
was  approved  (it  would  seem)  by  Pope  Alex- 
ander III. 

DECOROSUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  15) 

(7th  cent.)  For  thirty  years  Bishop  of  Capua 
in  Southern  Italy,  St.  Decorosus  was  one  of  the 
Prelates  who  assisted  at  and  signed  the  Acts 
of  the  Council  of  Rome  under  Pope  St.  Agatho 
(a.d.  680).  In  high  repute  of  sanctity,  he  died 
suddenly  before  the  altar  of  his  church  (A.D.  695). 

*DAVY  (JOHN)  (Bl.)  M.  (May  4) 

See  CARTHUSIAN  MARTYRS. 

*DAY  (DYE)  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  18) 

(Date  uncertain.)  This  Saint,  otherwise 
unknown,  to  whom  a  Cornish  church  is  dedi- 
cated, may  possibly  be  St.  DEICOLUS,  Abbot, 
which  see. 

♦DAVID  (GLEB)  (St.)  (July  24) 

See  SS.  ROMANUS  and  DAVID. 

♦DEGADH  (St.)  (Aug.  18) 

Otherwise  St.  DAGiEUS,  ivhich  see. 

♦DE  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  31) 

The  Breton  form  of  the  name  of  St.  iEDAN  or 
EDAN  of  FERNS,  which  see. 

♦DECLAN  (St.)  Bp.  (July  24) 

(6th  cent.)    A  disciple  of  St.  Colman  who 

became  Bishop  of  Ardmore,  and,  like  so  many 

77 


DECUMAN 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


other  sixth  century  Prelates  of  his  time,  illus- 
trated the  Church  of  Ireland  by  his  ability  and 
sanctity  of  life. 
♦DECUMAN  (DAGAN)  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  27) 

(8th  cent.)    A  Welsh  Saint  who  lived  a  holy 

life  as  a  hermit  in  Somersetshire,  where  he  was 

murdered  (a.d.   716).     No  reliable  particulars 

concerning  him  have  come  down  to  us. 

DEEL  (DEILLE)  (St.)  (Jan.  18) 

Otherwise   St.   DEICOLA   (DICHUL),   which 
see. 
DEICOLA  (DEICOLUS,  DICHUL)  (St.)      (Jan.  18) 

Abbot. 

(7th  cent.)  Irish  by  birth,  he,  with  St. 
Gallus,  followed  St.  Columbanus  into  Gaul  and 
took  part  in  the  foundation  of  the  Abbey  of 
Luxeuil.  But  when  his  master  was  driven  into 
Switzerland  and  Italy,  Deicola,  remaining 
behind,  founded  another  monastery  at  Lure 
in  the  Vosges  mountains,  where  he  died  in  great 
fame  of  sanctity  at  an  advanced  age  (A.D.  621). 
♦DEIFER  (St.)  Abbot. 

(6th  cent.)    A  Welsh  Saint,  founder  of  Bod- 
fari  in  Flintshire. 
♦DEINIOL  (St.)  (Sept.  11) 

Welsh  form  of  the  name  St.  DANIEL,  which 
see. 
DELPHINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  24) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Bordeaux  in  France, 
held  in  high  esteem  by  St.  Ambrose  and  other 
holy  men  of  his  time.  He  baptised  St.  Paulinus 
of  Nola,  whose  Epistles  addressed  to  St.  Del- 
phinus  are  touching  in  their  expressions  of 
gratitude  and  veneration.  St.  Delphinus  as- 
sisted at  the  Spanish  Council  of  Saragossa 
(A.D.  380),  against  the  Priscillianist  heretics, 
whom  later  he  again  condemned  in  a  Synod  of 
his  own  (A.D.  385).  The  year  403  is  given  as 
that  of  his  death. 
DEMETRIA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  21) 

(4th  cent.)  Sister  of  St.  Bibiana  and  daughter 
of  SS.  Flavian  and  Dafrosa.  She  was  martyred 
in  Borne  under  Julian  the  Apostate  (a.d.  363), 
or  rather,  after  having  bravely  confessed  her 
Faith  in  Christ,  fell  dead  at  the  feet  of  the 
judge.  However,  as  elsewhere  noted,  there  is 
much  uncertainty  as  to  dates  and  details  in 
regard  to  all  the  facts  regarding  St.  Bibiana 
and  the  Saints  connected  with  her.  The  relics 
of  SS.  Bibiana  and  Demetria  are  enshrined  in 
the  church  in  Rome  dedicated  in  honour  of  the 
former  from  ancient  times.  It  was  restored  by 
Pope  Urban  VIII  in  the  seventeenth  century. 
DEMETRIUS,  CONCESSUS,  HILARY  and 

OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  9) 

(Date  unknown.)  Baronius  notes  these 
Martyrs  as  having  suffered  in  Borne  ;  but  he 
cannot  support  his  statement  by  any  good  proof. 
The  older  manuscripts  register  them,  using  the 
phrase  :  "  Rome  and  elsewhere."  No  parti- 
culars concerning  any  of  them  have  come  down 
to  our  time. 
DEMETRIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  14) 

(Date  unknown.)  The  Roman  and  other 
Martyrologies  describe  him  as  an  African 
Martyr,  and  in  support  of  this,  Baronius  appeals 
to  ancient  manuscripts  ;  but  nothing  is  known 
with  any  certainty  about  him. 
DEMETRIUS  (DIMITRI)  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  8) 

(4th  cent.)  Born  and  educated  at  Thes- 
salonica  where  he  exercised  the  profession  of 
Rhetor  or  Public  Speaker,  he  made  many 
converts  to  Christianity.  Some  say  that  he 
became  a  high  Officer  of  State  and  even  a 
Proconsul ;  but  this  is  hardly  probable.  Ar- 
rested as  a  Christian  and  brought  before  Dio- 
cletian's colleague,  Galerius  Maximianus,  he 
appears  to  have  been  stabbed  to  death  without 
the  formality  attending  a  legal  execution.  This 
was  in  one  of  the  first  years  of  the  fourth 
century.  His  relics  are  in  great  veneration  in 
the  East,  and  a  magnificent  Basilica  was  soon 
after  his  martyrdom  erected  over  his  tomb 
at  Thessalonica.  The  Greek  Emperor  Michael 
IV  obtained   a  notable  victory  over  the  Bul- 

78 


garians  through  his  intercession.  On  account 
of  the  many  miracles  that  have  taken  place  at 
his  shrine  St.  Demetrius  has  always  been  in 
great  honour  in  the  East,  and  his  name  is 
frequently  given  in  Baptism  to  children.  His 
Feast  is  there  kept  on  Oct.  26.  The  Acts 
of  St.  Demetrius  as  published  by  Surius  are 
manifestly  interpolated  and  cannot  be  relied 
upon  for  details. 
DEMETRIUS,  ANIANUS,  EUSTASIUS  and 

OTHERS  (S.S.)  MM.  (Nov.  10) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  band  of  twenty-two 
Martyrs  registered  as  having  suffered  at  Antioch 
in  Syria.  St.  Demetrius  is  described  as  a 
Bishop  and  St.  Anianus  as  his  deacon.  Nothing 
whatever  is  now  known  of  their  date  or  lives. 
DEMETRIUS  and  HONORIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  21) 

(Date  unknown.)     Old   Roman  manuscripts 

describe  these  Saints  as  Christians,  who  were 

put  to  death  at  Ostia  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tiber. 

Nothing  more  has  come  down  to  us  about  them. 

DEMETRIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  29) 

See  SS.  BLASIUS  and  DEMETRIUS. 
DEMETRIUS,   HONORATUS   and  FLORUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Dec.  22) 

(Date  unknown.)  They  are  stated  to  have 
suffered  at  Ostia  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tiber ; 
but  all  dates  and  particulars  have  been  long 
since  lost.  It  is  possible  that  these  SS.  Deme- 
trius and  Honoratus  (though  the  names  are 
very  common)  may  be  identical  with  the  Saints 
of  the  same  names  venerated  on  Nov.  21. 
DENIS  (St.). 

The  French  abbreviation  of  the  name  DION  Y- 
SIUS,  which  see. 
DEMOCRITUS,  SECUNDUS  and  DIONYSIUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (July  31) 

(Date  unknown.)  Baronius  describes  these 
Martyrs  as  having  suffered  at  Synnada  in 
Phrygia ;  but  the  Bollandists  think  it  more 
likely  that  they  were  African  Martyrs,  which 
was  also  the  judgment  of  Venerable  Bede. 
Nothing  beyond  their  names  has  come  down 
to  us. 
DEODATUS  (DIEUDONNE)  (St.)  Bp.      (June  19) 

(7th  cent.)    A  Bishop  of  Nevers  in  France 

who  resigned  his  See  and  embraced  the  life  of 

a  hermit.     He  passed  away  A.D.  679,  leaving 

his  name  to  the  town  of  St.  Di6. 

♦DENTLIN  (DENAIN)  (St.)  (March  16) 

(7th  cent.)  The  little  son  of  St.  Vincent  of 
Soignies  and  St.  Waltrude,  brother  of  SS. 
Landric,  Aldetrude  and  Madelberta.  Though 
only  seven  years  old  when  he  died,  he  is  in 
Belgium  with  them  venerated  as  a  Saint.  A 
church  in  the  Duchy  of  Cleves  is  dedicated  in 
his  honour. 
♦DERFEL-GADARN  (St.) 

(6th  cent.)     A  Welsh  Saint,  a  soldier,  and 
afterwards  a  hermit  at  Llanderfel  in  Merioneth- 
shire.    He  was  greatly  venerated  by  the  Catholic 
Welsh. 
DEOGRATIAS  (St.)  Bp.  (March  12) 

(5th  cent.)  Consecrated  to  the  See  of  Car- 
thage, A.D.  456,  after  it  had  remained  vacant 
for  fourteen  years  on  account  of  the  devastating 
persecution  of  the  Vandal  Arians  who  had  driven 
his  predecessor  St.  Quodvultdeus  into  exile. 
Genseric,  the  Vandal  King,  from  the  plunder 
of  Rome  and  Italy,  having  brought  many 
Romans  of  every  condition  of  life  prisoners 
to  Carthage,  St.  Deogratias  sold  all  that  he  or 
his  Church  possessed,  even  the  Sacred  Vessels 
of  the  Altar,  to  buy  them  back  to  liberty.  He 
moreover  fed  them  and  housed  them,  day  and 
night  visiting  the  sick  among  them.  But  being 
already  very  old  he  did  not  resist  long  the  many 
calls  on  his  endurance,  and  after  only  one  year 
of  such  strenuous  pastoral  labours,  died  a.d.  457. 
Victor  Vitensis,  the  historian,  writing  a  century 
later,  enlarges  on  his  merits  and  holiness. 
DERPHUTA  (St.)  M.  (March  20) 

See  SS.  ALEXANDRA,  CLAUDIA,    &c. 
*DERUVIANUS  (St.)  M.  (May  14) 

Otherwise  St.  DYFAN,  which  see. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


DIDACUS 


DESIDERIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Feb.  11) 

(7th  cent.)  A  French  Saint,  born  at  Autun 
and  educated  at  Vienne,  who  became  succes- 
sively Archdeacon  and  Bishop  of  the  latter 
city.  The  powerful  Queen  Brunehaut,  mother 
of  the  weak  Thierry  III,  had  him  exiled  and 
deposed  by  a  Synod,  but  four  years  afterwards, 
fearing  his  sanctity  and  popularity,  allowed 
him  to  return.  On  his  continuing  to  urge  the 
reform  of  the  morals  of  the  depraved  Court, 
Brunehaut  hired  three  assassins,  who  put  the 
holy  Bishop  to  death,  while  he  was  visiting  his 
Diocese  in  the  twelfth  year  of  his  Episcopate 
(May  23,  A.D.  608,  or,  according  to  some  his- 
torians, a.d.  612),  at  a  place  since  called  St. 
Didier  (the  French  form  of  the  name  Desiderius) 
de  Chalarone.  His  relics  were  enshrined  at 
Vienne  (a.d.  620).  St.  Desiderius  was  for  his 
age  a  distinguished  classical  scholar.  He  is 
one  of  the  Bishops  to  whose  protection  St. 
Gregory  the  Great  recommended  St.  Augustine 
and  his  companions  journeying  on  their  mission 
to  preach  Christianity  to  the  Anglo-Saxons 
of  Britain. 

DESIDERIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  25) 

See  SS.  BARONTIUS  and  DESIDERIUS. 

*DERWA  (St.)  M. 

(Date  uncertain.)  The  Patron  Saint  of 
Menadarva  (Merthyr-Dava — The  Martyr  Derwa) 
in  Cornwall,  near  Camborne.  Nothing  is  now 
known  about  this  Saint.  Possibly  he  is  no 
other  than  St.  Dyfan  (Damian  or  Deruvianus), 
one  of  the  Missionaries  sent  to  Britain  in  the 
second  century  by  Pope  St.  Eleutherius. 

DESIDERIUS   (DIDIER,   DIZIER)   of   LANGRES 
(St.)  Bp.,  M.  (May  23) 

(Date  uncertain.)  The  traditions  concerning 
this  Saint,  who  was  Bishop  of  Langres  in  France, 
are  so  conflicting  that  it  is  now  believed  that 
there  were  two  or  more  of  the  same  name 
connected  with  Langres.  Surius  assigns  to 
St.  Desiderius  a  date  in  the  third  century ; 
and  the  compilers  of  the  Gallia  Christiana  one 
in  the  fourth  ;  while  the  common  opinion  fixes 
his  Martyrdom  on  May  23,  A.D.  411.  All  agree 
that,  being  Bishop  of  Langres  in  North- Eastern 
Gaul,  during  a  raid  of  Teutonic  barbarians,  he 
boldly  sought  out  their  chieftain  to  beg  mercy 
for  his  flock,  but  was  forthwith  himself  struck 
down,  his  blood  staining  the  Book  of  the  Gospels 
he  held  in  his  hand.  With  him  perished  very 
many  of  his  faithful  people.  Numerous 
churches  are  dedicated  in  his  honour,  and  from 
him  the  town  of  St.  Dizier  takes  its  name. 

DESIDERIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  19) 

See  SS.  JANUARIUS,  FESTUS,    &c. 

♦DEUSDEDIT  (St.)  Bp.  (July  14) 

(7th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Honorius 
in  the  See  of  Canterbury,  over  which  he  presided 
with  zeal  and  charity  for  over  ten  years,  passing 
away  a  victim  of  the  great  Pestilence  of  a.d. 
664. 

DEUSDEDIT  (St.)  (Aug.  10) 

(6th  cent.)  A  poor  shoemaker  in  Rome, 
contemporary  of  St.  Gregory  the  Great  (in  the 
latter  half  of  the  sixth  century),  of  whom  the 
holy  Pope  relates  that  he  worked  hard  all  the 
week  at  his  trade  and  on  each  Saturday  gave 
to  the  poor  all  his  earnings  beyond  what  was 
necessary  for  bare  sustenance  for  himself. 

DEUSDEDIT  (St.)  Abbot,  M.  (Oct.  9) 

(9th  cent.)  The  fifteenth  Abbot  of  the  great 
monastery  of  Monte  Cassino,  conspicuous  for 
learning  and  holiness  of  life.  He  was  especially 
liberal  as  an  almsgiver.  While  on  a  journey 
he  was  seized  and  held  to  ransom  by  a  robber 
baron,  but  so  maltreated  that  he  died  in  his 
prison  (a.d.  834).  Many  miracles  were  wrought 
at  his  tomb. 

DEUSDEDIT  (ADEODATUS)  (St.)  Pope.  (Nov.  8) 
(7th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Boniface  IV 
(a.d.  615).  He  ruled  the  Church  for  three 
years.  Though  little  is  known  of  the  details 
of  his  Pontificate,  his  self-sacrificing  devotedness 
to  his  flock  during  a  year  of  pestilence  endeared 


him  to  his  people  and  ensured  the  veneration 
of  his  memory.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the 
first  Pope  to  append  to  his  Decrees  the  leaden 
seals  or  Bullae  from  which  the  word  Bull, 
describing  them,  has  been  derived. 

DEUSDEDIT  of  BRESCIA  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  10) 

(7th  cent.)  The  last  of  the  canonised  Bishops 
of  Brescia  in  Lombardy.  He  was  a  strenuous 
opposer  of  the  Monothelite  heretics  (those  who 
denied  to  Christ  a  Human  Will),  and  took  part 
in  the  Councils  summoned  in  his  time  in  Italy 
to  deal  with  them.  He  died  some  time  between 
A.D.  679  and  A.D.  700. 

*DEVEREUX  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  14) 

Otherwise  St.  DUBRITIUS,  which  see. 

*DEVINICUS  (DENICK,  TEAVNECK)      (Nov.  13) 
(St.;  Bp. 

(6th  cent.)  A  native  of  the  North  of  Scotland 
who  in  his  old  age  associated  himself  with  the 
missionary  work  of  SS.  Columba  and  Machar, 
and  evangelised  Caithness.  He  certainly  flour- 
ished in  the  sixth  century,  and  is  reputed  to 
have  been  consecrated  a  Bishop. 

*DEVOTA  (St.)  V.M.  (Jan.  27) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  maiden  in  Corsica 
who  expired  on  the  rack  during  the  persecution 
under  the  Emperor  Diocletian  (a.d.  303).  Her 
remains  were  brought  by  a  priest  who  knew 
her  to  Monaco  on  the  Riviera,  of  which  town 
she  is  venerated  as  the  Patron  Saint. 

*DEWI  (St.)  Bp.  (March  1) 

Otherwise  St.  DAVID  of  WALES,  which  see. 

DIACONUS  (St.)  M.  (March  14) 

(6th  cent.)  So  described  on  account  of  the 
office  (that  of  deacon)  he  held  in  the  Church  of 
the  Marsi  in  Central  Italy.  St.  Gregory  relates 
of  him  that  together  with  two  monks  he  was 
put  to  death  by  the  Lombards  what  time  they 
were  ravaging  Italy  in  the  sixth  century. 

*DIARMIS  (DIERMIT,  DERMOT)  (St.)     (Jan.  18) 
Abbot. 

(6th  cent.)  Remarkable  from  his  earliest 
years  for  sanctity,  Diarmaid  became  spiritual 
director  and  teacher  to  St.  Kiernan  of  Clon- 
macnois,  and  later  founded  a  monastery  on 
Innis-Clotran  Island. 

*DEYNIOLEN  (St.)  (Nov.  22) 

(7th  cent.)  He  is  also  known  as  St.  Deyniol 
the  Younger,  and  was  Abbot  of  Bangor  at  the 
time  of  the  slaughter  of  his  monks  and  destruc- 
tion of  their  monastery  by  King  Ethelfrid  of 
Northumbria  after  the  Battle  of  Chester  (a.d. 
616).  The  Saint  appears  to  have  escaped  the 
massacre  and  to  have  lived  on  till  about  A.d. 
621. 

*DICHU  (St.)  (April  29) 

(5th  cent.)  The  first  convert  made  by  St. 
Patrick  in  Ulster.  He  was  originally  a  swine- 
herd. After  his  conversion  it  is  written  that 
he  continued  faithful  to  the  end  to  Christ  and 
St.  Patrick.     The  year  of  his  death  is  unknown. 

DICHUL  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  18) 

Otherwise  St.  DEICOLA,  which  see. 

*DIDACUS  CARVALHO  (Bl.)  M.  (Feb.  22) 

(17th  cent.)    A  Jesuit  Martyr  in  Japan,  who 

was  exposed  naked  on  a  frozen  lake  by  order  of 

the  heathen  magistrates,  and  thus  laid  down  his 

life  for  Christ,  A.D.  1624. 

*DIGAIN  (St.)  (Nov.  21) 

(5th  cent.)  A  son  of  Constantine,  king  or 
chieftain  of  Cornwall.  Llangernw  (Denbighshire), 
perpetuates  his  memory. 

DIDACUS  (DIEGO)  (St.)  (Nov.  12) 

(15th  cent.)  A  native  of  Seville  in  Spain, 
a  Franciscan  lay-brother,  who  attended  mis- 
sionaries of  his  Order  to  the  Canary  Islands 
and  aided  them  effectually  in  their  Apostolate. 
Later  he  was  recalled  to  Spain,  where  he  died 
in  the  Convent  of  Alcala  in  Castile,  A.D.  1463. 
He  was  a  miracle  of  penance  and  contemplative 
prayer,  his  chief  devotion  being  to  Our  Lord 
in  the  Blessed  Sacrament,  and  to  the  Holy 
Mother  of  God.  The  many  miracles  worked  at 
his  tomb  led  to  his  canonisation  by  Pope 
Sixtus  V  in  the  year  1588. 

79 


DIDIER 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


DIDIER  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (May  23) 

Otherwise  St.  DESIDERIUS,  which  see. 
DIDIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  26) 

See  SS.  FAUSTUS,  DIDIUS,   &c. 
DIDYMUS  (St.)  M.  (April  28) 

See  SS.  THEODORA  and  DIDYMUS. 
DIDYMUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  11) 

See  SS.  DIODORUS,  DIOMEDES,   &c. 

DIE  (DEODATUS)  (St.)  Bp.  (June  19) 

(7th  cent.)    A  Bishop  of  Nevers  (France), 

who  resigned  his  See  to  embrace  the  life  of  a 

hermit.     He  is  the  founder  of  the  Abbey  of 

Jointures,  around  which  sprang  up  a  town,  the 

seat  of  a  Bishopric  called  that  of  St.  Di6.     The 

Saint  died  A.D.  679. 

DIEGO  (St.)  (Nov.  12) 

Otherwise  St.  DIDACUS,  which  see. 
DIEUDONNE  (St.). 

The   French  name  for  St.  DEUSDEDIT  or 
ADEODATUS,  which  see. 
DIGNA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  14) 

See  SS.  ANASTASIUS,  FELIX,   &c. 
*DINGAD  (St.)  (Nov.  1) 

(5th  cent.)    A  son  of  the  chieftain  Brychan  of 
Brecknock,  who  led  a  monastic  or  eremitical 
life  at  Llandingad  in  Monmouthshire. 
DIGNA  (St.)  V.  (Aug.  11) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  maiden  of  Todi  in 
Umbria  (Central  Italy),  who  during  the  persecu- 
tion under  Diocletian  in  the  beginning  of  the 
fourth  century  lived  a  life  of  penance  and 
prayer  in  the  surrounding  mountains,  and 
acquired  a  great  reputation  for  holiness. 
DIGNA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  12) 

See  SS.  HILARIA,  DIGNA,   &c. 
DIGNA  and  EMERITA  (SS.)  VV.MM.      (Sept.  22) 
(3rd  cent.)     Roman  maidens  seized  and  put 
to  the  torture  as  Christians  in  the  persecution 
of   Valerian   (A.D.    254-A.d.    259),    who   whilst 
standing    before    their    judges    and    praying, 
expired.     Their    sacred    remains,    thrown    un- 
buried  into  the  open  country,  were  rescued  by 
the  Christians  and  honourably  interred  in  the 
catacombs  with  those  of  SS.  Felix  and  Adauctus. 
They    are   now   venerated   in   the   Church   of 
St.  Marcellus  in  Rome. 
*DIMAN  (DIMAUS,  DIMA,  DUBH)  (Jan.  6) 

(St.)  Bp. 

(7th  cent.)  A  monk  under  St.  Colman, 
Apostolic  Delegate  to  Ireland  in  the  sixth 
century.  Diman  was  made  Abbot,  and  later 
Bishop  of  Connor.  He  died  Jan.  6,  A.D.  658. 
He  is  one  of  the  prelates  to  whom  (A.D.  640) 
the  Roman  Church,  after  the  death  of  Pope 
Honorius,  addressed  the  well-known  Epistle  on 
the  Paschal  controversy  and  on  the  errors  of 
Pelagianism. 
DIMITRI  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  8) 

Otherwise  St.  DEMETRIUS,  which  see. 
DIOCLES  (St.)  M.  (May  24) 

See  SS.  ZCELLUS,  SERVILIUS,    &c. 
DIOCLETIUS  (St.)  M.  (May  11) 

See  SS.  SISINNIUS,  DIOCLETIUS,    &c. 
DIODORUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  26) 

See  SS.  PAPIAS,  DIODORUS,    &c. 
DIODORUS  and  RHODOPIANUS  (SS.)        (May  3) 
MM. 

(4th  cent.)     Two  deacons    put  to  death    as 

Christians     under     the     persecuting     Emperor 

Diocletian  at  the  beginning  of  the  fourth  century 

in  the  Province  of  Caria  (Asia  Minor). 

DIODORUS  (St.)  M.  (July  6) 

See  SS.  LUCY,  ANTONINUS,    &c. 
DIODORUS,  DIOMEDES  and  DIDYMUS  (Sept.  11) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  unknown.)     Martyrs  of  unknown  date 
of  Laodicea  in  Syria  (Kulat-el-Husn  or  Ladhi- 
kijeh). 
DIODORUS.  MARIANUS  and  OTHERS      (Dec.  1) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(3rd  cent.)  Roman  Martyrs  under  Uumcrian 
(A.D.  283).  They  are  mentioned  in  the  Acts  of 
SS.  Chrysanthus  and  Darias  ;  but  these  cannot 
be  trusted  for  accuracy  of  detail.  The  tradition 
is  that  they  were  walled  up  in  the  Catacombs  and 
80 


there  left  to  die.  A  Feast  is  also  kept  on  Jan.  17 
in  memory  of  the  finding  of  their  remains 
(A.D.  886).  These  Martyrs  are  described  as 
being  very  numerous.  In  fact,  it  appears  to 
have  been  a  case  of  a  Christian  Congregation 
surprised  while  assembled  for  prayer,  and 
disposed  of  by  having  the  entrance  to  their 
subterranean  Oratory  blocked  up. 
DIOGENES  (St.)  M.  (April  6) 

See  SS.  TIMOTHY  and  DIOGENES. 
DIOMEDES  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  16) 

(4th  cent.)  A  native  of  Tarsus,  the  birthplace 
of  St.  Paul,  by  profession  a  physician  and  a 
zealous  propagator  of  Christianity,  who  was 
arrested  at  Nicsea  in  Bithynia  and  put  to  death 
by  Diocletian  about  A.D.  300. 
DIOMEDES,  JULIAN,  PHILIP,  EUTYCHIANUS, 

HESYCHIUS,  LEONIDES,  PHILADELPHUS, 

MENALIPPUS     and     PANAGAPIDES     (SS.) 

MM.  (Sept.  2) 

(Date  unknown.)  Some  of  these  Martyrs  are 
believed  to  have  been  burned  at  the  stake, 
others  drowned,  others  crucified  and  the  rest 
beheaded,  but  in  what  persecution  and  at  what 
place  has  passed  from  memory. 
DIOMEDES  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  11) 

See  SS.  DIODORUS,  DIOMEDES,   &c. 
♦DIAMMA  (St.)  (May  12) 

(5th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint,  Patron  of  Kildim 
(Limerick),  and  commemorated  in  the  Martyr  - 
ologies  of  Tallaght  and  Donegal.  He  is  said 
to  have  been  the  master  or  teacher  of  St.  Declan 
of  Ardmore  and  of  other  Saints.  But  parti- 
culars of  his  life  are  lacking. 
DION  (St.)  M.  (July  6) 

See  SS.  LUCY,  ANTONINUS,    &c. 
DIONYSIA  (St.)  M.  (May  15) 

See  SS.  PETER,  ANDREW,    &c. 
DIONYSIA,      DATIVA,      LEONTIA,      TERTIUS, 

-ffiMILIAN,  BONIFACE    and    OTHERS  (SS.) 

MM.  (Dec.  6) 

(6th  cent.)  African  Martyrs  (A.D.  505)  under 
the  Arian  Vandal  King  Hunneric.  Victor  of 
Utica,  in  his  History  of  the  Persecution,  gives  a 
graphic  account  of  the  fearful  ordeal  these  holy 
men  and  women  went  through.  Dionysia,  a 
widow,  perished  at  the  stake  with  her  little 
child  and  her  sister  Dativa.  iEmilian  (or 
Emilius),  a  physician,  and  Tertius,  a  monk, 
were  flayed  alive.  The  fanatics  seem  to  have 
amused  themselves  in  devising  strange  forms 
of  death  for  the  rest  of  the  heroic  band. 
DIONYSIA  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  12) 

See  SS.  AMMONARIA  and  DIONYSIA. 
DIONYSIUS,   >EMILIAN   and  SEBASTIAN 

(SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  8) 

(Date  unknown.)  The  Roman  Martyrology 
describes  them  as  Armenian  monks  ;  but  there 
have  been  disputes  among  the  learned  as  to  the 
nationality  of  some  of  them.  In  reality  we  are 
no  longer  in  possession  of  anything  like  adequate 
evidence  bearing  on  their  date,  lives  or  martyr- 
dom. 
DIONYSIUS  and  AMMONIUS  (SS.)  MM.   (Feb.  14) 

(Date  unknown.)  Beyond  the  fact  that  the 
ancient  Martyrologies  commemorate  these 
Saints  as  having  been  beheaded  on  a  Feb.  14, 
and  seem  to  indicate  Alexandria  of  Egypt  as 
the  place  of  their  martyrdom,  nothing  whatever 
is  now  known  about  them. 
DIONYSIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  10) 

Sec  SS.  CODRATUS,  DIONYSIUS,    &c. 
DIONYSIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  16) 

See  SS.  HILARY,  TATIANUS,    &c. 
DIONYSIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (March  24) 

Two  of  the  same  name  who  suffered  together. 

See  SS.  TIMOLAUS,  DIONYSIUS,    &c. 
DIONYSIUS  (DENIS)  of  CORINTH  (St.)     (April  8) 

Bp. 

(2nd  cent.)  A  famous  and  learned  Bishop 
of  Corinth  who  flourished  in  the  second  century 
of  our  Mia,  and  of  whose  letters  some  fragments 
have  been  preserved  to  us.  One  in  which  he 
bears  testimonv  to  the  martyrdom  on  the 
same  day  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul  in  Rome  is 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


DIONYSIUS 


very  noteworthy.  St.  Dionysius  was  in  regular 
communication  with  St.  Soter  and  other  Popes 
of  his  age.  He  zealously  repressed  the  Marcion- 
ites  and  other  philosophising  heretics  of  his 
time.  The  Greeks  honour  him  as  a  Martyr 
(Nov.  20) ;  the  Latins  as  a  Confessor.  He 
died  before  A.d.  198,  when  we  find  his  successor 
at  Corinth  attending  a  Council. 

DIONYSIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  18) 

See  SS.  SOCRATES  and  DIONYSIUS. 

DIONYSIUS  (DENIS)  (St.)  Bp.  (May  8) 

(2nd  cent.)  The  sixth  of  the  Bishops  of 
Vienne  in  Dauphine  (France).  He,  like  his  Ave 
predecessors,  has  been  commemorated  in  all  the 
Western  Martyrologies.  Ado,  himself  a  Mar- 
tyrologist  and  Bishop  of  Vienne  in  the  ninth 
century,  tells  us  that  St.  Dionysius,  successor 
of  St.  Justus,  lived  till  the  reign  of  Pertinax 
(A.D.  193).  He  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  the 
ten  missioners  sent  into  Gaul  by  Pope  St.  Sixtus 
I,  early  in  the  century  with  St.  Peregrin  us. 
Some  have  erroneously  described  him  as  a 
Martyr. 

♦DIONYSIUS  of  AUGSBURG  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Feb.  26) 
(4th  cent.)  Venerated  as  the  first  Bishop  of 
Augsburg  in  Germany.  He  is  said  to  have  been 
converted  to  Christianity,  baptised  and  later 
consecrated  Bishop  by  St.  Narcissus.  He 
suffered  martyrdom  under  Diocletian  about 
A.D.  303. 

DIONYSIUS  (St.)  M.  (May  12) 

(4th  cent.)  An  Asiatic  by  birth  and  uncle  of 
the  youthful  Martyr,  S.  Pancras,  to  whom  he 
acted  as  guardian.  Coming  to  Home,  St. 
Dionysius  charitably  gave  shelter  to  the  Pope 
(either  St.  Marcellus  or  St.  Melchiades),  sought 
after  by  the  agents  of  the  persecuting  Emperor 
Diocletian.  With  his  nephew  he  was  rewarded 
by  the  grace  of  conversion  to  Christianity. 
Having  publicly  declared  themselves  servants 
of  Christ,  they  were  cast  into  prison,  where  we 
read  that  after  some  days  St.  Dionysius  rendered 
up  his  soul  to  God  (A.D.  304). 

DIONYSIUS  of  MILAN  (St.)  Bp.  (May  25) 

(4th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Protasius  in 
the  See  of  Milan.  With  St.  Eusebius  of 
Vercelli  and  St.  Lucifer  of  Cagliari  he  was 
banished  into  Cappadocia  (A.D.  355)  by  the 
Arian  Emperor  Constantius.  Two  years  later, 
when  his  fellow-exiles  were  returning  to  their 
Churches  under  the  Emperor  J  ulian,  St.  Diony- 
sius died  in  Asia,  where  he  had  acquired  a  high 
reputation  for  sanctity.  St.  Aurelius  the  local 
Bishop,  and  St.  Basil  the  Great,  enabled  St. 
Ambrose  to  effect  (A.D.  375)  the  Translation 
to  Milan  of  the  remains  of  his  holy  prede- 
cessor 

DIONYSIUS  (St.)  M.  (June  3) 

See  SS.  LUCILLIAN  and  DIONYSIUS. 

DIONYSIUS  (St.)  M.  (July  27) 

See  the  HOLY  SEVEN  SLEEPERS. 

DIONYSIUS  (St.)  M.  (Julv  31) 

See  SS.  DEMOCRITUS,  SECUNDUS,    &c. 

DIONYSIUS  and  PRIVATUS  (SS.)  MM.    (Sept.  20) 

(Date  unknown.)    Beyond  the  Martyrology 

note  that  they  suffered  in  Phrygia  (Asia  Minor), 

nothing  has  reached  our  times  regarding  these 

holy  men. 

DIONYSIUS,  FAUSTUS,  CAIUS  (GAIUS),  PETER, 
PAUL  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  3) 

(3rd  cent.)  To  the  above  should  be  added 
the  names  of  St.  Eusebius,  Bishop  of  Laodicea, 
and  of  St.  Maximus,  successor  at  Alexandria  of 
St.  Dionysius.  By  some  error  these  Saints  are 
twice  commemorated  in  the  Roman  Martyrology, 
or  rather,  there  is  allotted  to  them  taken 
together  this  special  Feast  in  addition  to  that 
of  St.  Dionysius  (one  and  the  same  with  the 
famous  Bishop  of  Alexandria)  on  Nov.  17,  and 
to  that  of  St.  Faustus,  his  deacon,  on  Nov.  19. 
Banished  in  the  persecution  of  Decius  (A.D.  250) 
into  Libya,  all  these  Christians  were  again  in  a 
body  brought  to  trial  at  Alexandria,  under 
Valerian  (a.d.  257),  on  account  of  their  religion. 
Some  of  them  were,  it  would  seem,  stoned  to 


death,  and  others  died  in  prison.  In  one  of  his 
genuine  Epistles,  still  extant,  St.  Dionysius 
mentions  all  the  above  by  name  as  fellow- 
sufferers  with  himself.  Venerable  Bode  by 
mistake  confuses  this  St.  Dionysius  or  Denis 
of  Alexandria  with  Denis  the  Areopagite  (Acts 
xvii.  34). 
DIONYSIUS,  RUSTICUS  and  ELEUTHERIUS 
(SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  9) 

(1st  or  3rd  cent.)  It  has  been  the  fashion 
in  modern  times  to  date  the  martyrdom  of 
St.  Denis,  first  Bishop  of  Paris,  of  St.  Eleu- 
therius,  his  priest  or  deacon,  and  of  St.  Rusticus, 
a  cleric,  his  companions,  as  having  come  to  pass 
in  the  course  of  the  third  century  in  the  persecu- 
tion of  the  Emperor  Decius.  This  view  is 
based  on  the  authority  of  the  sixth  century 
historian,  St.  Gregory  of  Tours.  For  the 
arguments  in  its  favour,  Smith  and  Wace 
(besides  the  Bollandist  Acta  Sanctorum)  may 
be  consulted.  The  traditional  belief  that 
St.  Denis  was  sent  into  Gaul  to  evangelise  the 
country  by  Pope  St.  Clement  I  in  the  first 
century,  and  suffered  martyrdom  under  Domi- 
tian  or  Trajan,  especially  if  one  takes  into 
account  the  frequent  inaccuracies  of  St.  Gregory 
of  Tours,  seems  nevertheless  to  be  fairly  well 
authenticated.  Of  the  arguments  supporting 
it,  Abp.  Darboy's  work  and  Darras's  History 
of  the  Church,  have  excellent  summaries. 

As  to  the  facts  of  the  martyrdom  of  the 
Saint  and  his  fellow-sufferers,  we  know  little  or 
nothing  save  that  they  were  put  to  the  torture 
and  decapitated  near  Paris,  after  having  con- 
verted many  pagans  to  belief  in  Christ,  and  that 
their  bodies  cast  into  the  Seine  were  recovered 
by  their  disciples  and  buried  on  the  spot  where, 
several  centuries  later,  the  Merovingian  King 
Dagobert,  at  the  prayer  of  St.  Genevieve,  built 
the  famous  Abbey  of  St.  Denis. 
DIONYSIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Oct.  9) 

(1st  cent.)  This  is  Denis  the  Aeropagite, 
converted  by  St.  Paul  (Acts  xvii.  34),  and 
afterwards  first  Bishop  of  Athens.  A  Greek 
tradition  maintains  that  he  was  burned  alive 
under  Domitian  (a.d.  95).  But  an  opinion 
strongly  held  in  the  Middle  Ages,  and  still  ably 
defended,  identifies  him  with  the  St.  Denis 
asserted  to  have  been  sent  by  Pope  St.  Clement 
to  evangelise  Gaul,  and  martyred  at  Paris. 
His  authorship  of  the  wonderful  works  passing 
under  his  name,  which  have  laid  the  foundation 
in  the  West  of  both  Mystical  and  Scholastic 
Theology,  is  equally  or  even  more  controverted. 
It  has  become  usual  in  modern  times  to  attri- 
bute them  to  an  unknown  genius  of  the  fourth 
or  fifth  century.  And  doubtless,  as  we  have 
them,  they  are  seriously  interpolated.  Who- 
ever be  their  author,  it  is  scarcely  possible 
(says  Baring-Gould)  to  speak  too  highly  of  their 
value  and  importance.  A  confusion  of  this 
St.  Denis  with  his  homonym  of  Alexandria  has 
led  Butler,  following  certain  ancient  Martyrolo- 
gies, to  assign  his  festival  to  Oct.  3. 
DIONYSIUS  of  ALEXANDRIA  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  17) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  celebrated  Father  of  the 
Church  and  pupil  of  Origen,  who  became 
Patriarch  of  Alexandria  a.d.  248,  and  two  years 
afterwards  was  arrested  as  a  leader  of  Christians 
during  the  fierce  persecution  under  the  Em- 
peror Decius.  He  escaped  into  hiding  in  the 
Libyan  Desert,  and  returned  to  Alexandria 
A.D.  251.  Under  Valerian  he  was  again  arrested 
and  again  banished ;  but  was  recalled  and 
restored  under  Gallienus.  He  died  at  Alexan- 
dria A.D.  265.  St.  Athanasius  styles  him 
"  the  Doctor  of  the  Catholic  Church."  He  was 
ever  zealous  for  the  Catholic  Faith,  and  easily 
justified  himself  when  accused  at  Rome  to  his 
namesake  Pope  St.  Dionysius.  The  fragments 
of  his  letters  still  extant  are  doctrinally  very 
valuable,  and  bear  abundant  evidence  to  his 
pastoral  zeal. 
DIONYSIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  20) 

See  SS.  BASSUS,  DIONYSIUS,  &c. 

F  81 


DIONYSIUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


DIONYSIUS  (St.)  Pope.  (Dec.  26) 

(3rd  cent.)    Perhaps  a  native  of  Calabria. 

In  early  life  he  embraced  the  monastic  state, 

but  later  was  enrolled  in  the  Roman  clergy, 

and  by  them  elected  Pope  (a.d.  259)  in  the  room 

of  the  Martyr,  St.  Sixtus  II.     St.  Basil  greatly 

extols  his  charity  to  the  poor,  and  St.  Denis  of 

Alexandria  (of  whom  he  had  had  occasion  to 

require  an  explanation  of  some  writings)  praises 

his  learning.    He  denounced  Sabellianism  and, 

when  later  called  upon  by  the  Emperor  Aurelian 

to  judge  the  Rationalistic  Paul  of  Samosata, 

condemned  and  deposed  the  latter.     He  is  said 

to  have  rearranged  the  boundaries  of  the  Roman 

city  parishes.    He  died  A.D.  269. 

DIOSCORIDES  (St.)  M.  (May  10) 

(Date    unknown.)    A    Martyr    of    uncertain 

date  who,  after  bravely  enduring  severe  torture, 

gave  his  life  for  Christ  at  Smyrna  in  Asia  Minor. 

DIOSCORIDES  (St.)  M.  (May  28) 

See  SS.  CRESCENS  and  DIOSCORIDES. 
DIOSCORUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  25) 

See  SS.  VICTORINUS  and  DIOSCURUS. 
DIOSCURUS  (St.)  M.  (May  18) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  Lector  or  Reader  in  one 
of  the  churches  of  Egypt,  who  in  one  of  the 
early  persecutions  was  arrested  and  subjected 
as  a  Christian  to  exceptionally  savage  tortures, 
such  as  the  tearing  out  of  his  nails  and  the 
burning  of  his  sides  with  torches.  A  miraculous 
intervention — a  dazzling  beam  of  light  from  a 
quarter  of  the  Heavens  opposite  to  that  in 
which  was  the  sun — is  said  to  have  startled  his 
executioners,  and  to  have  procured  him  a 
brief  respite  in  his  agony.  In  the  end  he  was 
burned  to  death  by  the  pressing  of  his  body 
between  red-hot  metal  plates.  This  is  all  that 
has  cone  down  to  our  time  respecting  St. 
Dioscurus.  Death  by  laminae,  or  sheets  of 
hot  metal,  was  an  accepted  form  of  execution 
in  Roman  times. 
DIOSCURUS  (St).  M.  (Dec.  14) 

See  SS.  HERO  and  DIOSCURUS. 
*DIRAVIANUS  (St.)  (Jan.  3) 

Otherwise  St.  DAMIAN,  tohich  see. 
DISMAS  (St.)  (March  25) 

The  name  given  by  tradition  to  the  GOOD 
THIEF,  which  see. 
*DISIBODE  (DISEN)  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  8) 

(7th  cent.)  Said  to  have  been  born  in  Ireland 
and  to  have  worked  as  a  missionary  in  the  East 
of  France  and  in  Germany.  He  founded  the 
monastery  of  Diseubourg,  near  Mainz,  where 
he  died  a.d.  700. 
DIZIER  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (May  23) 

Otherwise  St.  DISIDERIUS,  which  see. 

*DOCHOW  (St.)  (Feb.  15) 

(Date    uncertain.)    The    English    Menology 

mentions  him  on  this  day  as  a  Welsh  Saint. 

But  there  is  much  uncertainty  about  the  name. 

He  may  be  St.  Cadoc,  sometimes  called  Dockoe, 

or   St.   Dogmsel   Docmsel.      A   church  in  the 

Diocese  of  St.  Asaph  is  dedicated  to  a  St.  Docwy 

or  Dogway. 

*DOCANUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Nov.  7) 

Otherwise  St.  CUNGAR,  which  see. 
♦DOCUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Jan.  24) 

Otherwise  St.  CADOC,  which  see. 
*DODA  (St.)  V.  (April  24) 

See  SS.  BONA  and  DODA. 
*DOGFAN  (DCSWAN)  (St.)  M.  (July  13) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Saint  in  Wales,  one  of  the  sons 
of  the  famous  chieftain,  Brychan.  He  is  said 
to  have  been  put  to  death  by  heathen  invaders 
of  Pembrokeshire,  where  a  church  was  built 
to  his  memory. 
*DOGMJEL  (DOCM^EL)  (St.)  (June  14) 

(6th  cent.)    A  holy  hermit  in  Pembrokeshire 
who  flourished  early  in  the  sixth  century  and  to 
whom  several  churches  were  dedicated. 
♦DOMANGARD  (DONARD)  (St.)  (March  24) 

(5th   cent.)    The    Patron   of   Maghera   (Co. 
Down),  who  in  the  time  of  St.  Patrick  lived  as 
a  hermit  on  the  mountain  now  called  after  lxim 
Slieve-Donard.     He  seems  to  have  passed  away 
82 


some  time  before  A.D.  500,  perhaps  even  in  the 
lifetime  of  St.  Patrick,  who  died  A.D.  464. 

DOMETIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.         (Aug.  7) 
Otherwise  St.  DOMITIUS,  which  see. 

DOMINATOR  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  5) 

(Date  uncertain.)  Nothing  with  reference  to 
the  history  or  writings  of  this  Saint  has  been 
handed  down  to  us,  nor  is  it  known  for  certain 
in  what  century  he  lived.  Surius  puts  the  date 
of  his  death  a.d.  495.  He  was  the  fourteenth 
Bishop  of  Brescia  in  Lombardy,  and  succeeded 
St.  Rustician  in  that  See. 

DOMINIC  of  SORA  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  22) 

(11th  cent.)  A  Benedictine  Abbot  of  Sora 
in  the  old  Kingdom  of  Naples,  and  the  founder 
of  nine  monasteries.  He  was  famous  for  his 
sanctity  and  for  the  many  miracles  worked  by 
his  intercession  both  in  life  and  after  his  death 
(A.D.  1031). 

DOMINIC  DELLA  CALZADA  (St.)  (May  12) 

(11th  cent.)  A  Spanish  hermit  who  fixed 
his  abode  at  a  lonely  spot  in  Old  Castile,  which, 
from  his  having  constructed  there  a  hospice 
and  pilgrim's  road  to  Compostella,  acquired  the 
name  of  the  "  Calzada."  He  built  there  also 
a  chapel  to  Our  Blessed  Lady.  He  became  so 
famous  for  sanctity  and  miraculous  powers  that 
after  his  death  (a.d.  1109  or  perhaps  as  early 
as  a.d.  1060)  his  own  shrine  became  a  noted 
place  of  pilgrimage.  The  Bishopric  afterwards 
founded  at  Calzada  has  since  been  transferred 
to  Calahorra. 

DOMINIC  GUZMAN  (St.)  (Aug.  4) 

(13th  cent.)  The  mother  of  St.  Dominic, 
a  scion  of  the  illustrious  Guzman  family,  dreamt, 
before  his  birth  (A.D.  1170)  at  Calaruega  (Old 
Castile),  that  she  had  given  life  to  a  dog  bearing 
a  lighted  torch  which  was  setting  the  world  on 
fire.  Professed  as  a  Canon  Regular  in  the 
Reformed  Chapter  of  Osma,  he  helped  many 
Spanish  Bishops  to  restore  Ecclesiastical 
discipline  among  their  clergy.  In  attendance 
on  his  own  Bishop,  he  stayed  two  years  at 
Montpellier  in  the  South  of  France,  where  the 
immoral  heresy  of  the  Albigenses  was  then  at 
its  height  and  causing  tremendous  havoc. 
They  were  indefatigable  in  preaching  against  it, 
a  mission  which  St.  Dominic  continued  for 
eight  more  years,  after  the  return  of  the  Bishop 
to  Osma.  Many  were  the  miracles  he  worked  ; 
numberless  the  souls  he  converted  ;  far-reaching 
the  fruit  of  the  Rosary  devotion  he  established. 
In  the  end  he  began  his  great  Order  of  Preaching 
Friars,  which  with  that  of  the  Friars  Minor, 
founded  by  his  friend  and  contemporary,  St. 
Francis  of  Assisi,  was  the  chief  means  employed 
by  Almighty  God  to  renew  the  fervour  of 
Christians  during  the  later  Middle  Ages.  Popes 
Innocent  III  (a.d.  1215)  and  Honorius  III 
approved  and  confirmed  the  new  Institutes. 
To  St.  Dominic  was  allotted  in  Rome  the  ancient 
church  of  St.  Sixtus  for  his  first  convent.  He 
afterwards  ceded  it  to  his  nuns,  the  Friars 
passing  to  St.  Sabina's  on  the  Aventine.  The 
Saint  next  established  them  at  St.  James's  in 
Paris,  returning  to  Italy  in  a.d.  1218,  and 
fixing  his  residence  in  Bologna,  where  he  died 
(a.d.  1121),  and  where  his  relics  are  enslirined. 
In  his  lifetime  he  sent  missionary  Friars  to 
Morocco,  Portugal,  Sweden,  Norway,  Ireland, 
England  (where  the  convents  of  Canterbury, 
London  and  Oxford  date  from  then)  and  other 
countries.  Chief  among  the  miracles  bearing 
witness  to  his  sanctity  are  his  having  raised 
more  than  once  the  dead  to  life. 

DOMINIC  LORICATUS  (St.)  (Oct.  14) 

(11th  cent.)  An  Italian  Saint,  born  a.d.  995, 
and  from  the  outset  destined  by  his  parents 
for  the  clerical  state.  To  get  him  ordained  they 
wrongfully  made  a  present  to  a  Bishop  and  the 
young  priest  on  becoming  aware  of  this  crime 
of  simonv  (at  that  time  rife  in  Italy)  devoted 
himself  in  atonement  to  a  life  of  penance.  From 
the  circumstance  of  an  iron  cuirass  worn  con- 
stantly next  his  skin  having  been   his   chief 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


DOMNINA 


instrument  of  self-torture,  he  acquired  the  name 
of  Loricatus.  He  first  retired  to  the  solitude  of 
Luceolo,  thence  passing  to  Montefeltro  in  the 
Apennines,  where  a  certain  Abbot  John,  with 
eighteen  disciples,  was  leading  a  terribly  austere 
life.  Finally,  he  entered  the  monastery  of 
Fonte  Avellano,  then  ruled  by  the  celebrated 
St.  Peter  Damian,  where  he  died  A.d.  1060. 
DOMINIC  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  20) 

(7th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Anastasius 
in  the  See  of  Brescia  in  Lombardy,  where, 
after  a  zealous  Pastorate,  he  passed  away  about 
a.d.  612.  St.  Charles  Borromeo  translated  and 
enshrined  his  relics. 
DOMINIC  of  SILOS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Dec.  20) 

(11th  cent.)  He  was  born  of  poor  parents  in 
Cantabria  (north-west  of  Spain).  He  was  at 
first  a  shepherd  ;  but  having  shown  great  piety 
and  aptitude  for  learning,  he  became  a  priest, 
and  embraced  a  hermit's  life  under  the  Rule 
of  St.  Benedict.  Elected  Prior  of  St.  Millan 
in  Aragon,  he  refused  to  surrender  certain  goods 
of  the  monastery  to  the  King  of  Navarre  and, 
banished  from  that  country  but  welcomed  by 
the  King  of  Castile,  was  appointed  by  him  Abbot 
of  St.  Sebastian's  at  Silos.  This  monastery  he 
thoroughly  reformed.  His  fame  spread  far  and 
wide  on  account  of  the  many  miracles  he 
wrought  in  his  lifetime.  After  his  holy  death 
(a.d.  1073)  he  miraculously  delivered  more  than 
three  hundred  prisoners  taken  by  the  Moors, 
and  his  shrine  is  still  decorated  with  many 
chains  brought  as  "  ex  votos. 

The  Countess  Guzman  having  recommended 
herself  to  his  intercession,  in  answer  to  his 
prayers,  gave  birth  (a.d.  1170)  to  the  great 
St.  Dominic,  founder  of  the  Order  of  Friars 
Preachers.  Even  to  our  day  the  Abbot  of  Silo 
brings  to  the  Queens  of  Spain,  when  in  labour, 
the  staff  of  St.  Dominic  which  remains  by  her 
bedside  till  the  birth  has  taken  place. 
DOMINIC,     VICTOR,     PRIMIANUS,     LYBOSUS, 

SATURNINUS,    CRESCENTIUS,    SECUNDUS 

and  HONORATUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Dec.  29) 

(Date    unknown.)    African    Martyrs    whose 
Acts  have  been  lost. 
DOMINICA  (St.)  V.M.  (July  6) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  maiden  probably  of 
Grecian  parentage,  who  for  having  destroyed 
idols  was  condemned  to  be  devoured  by  wild 
beasts,  but  being  uninjured  by  them  was 
beheaded.  There  is  much  uncertainty  about 
her  and  about  her  name,  winch  is  not  found 
in  the  older  Martyrologies,  but  it  is  generally 
agreed  that  she  suffered  under  Diocletian  at 
the  beginning  of  the  fourth  century.  The 
Roman  Martyrology  now  locates  her  martyrdom 
in  Campania ;  but  her  Breviary  legend  has  it 
that  it  took  place  at  Nicomedia,  and  that  her 
body  was  carried  by  Angels  to  Tropea  in 
Calabria,  where  from  time  immemorial  it  has 
been  venerated. 
DOMINICA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  21) 

Ordinarily    and    more    properly    written    St. 
CYRIACA.     Similarly     CYRIACUS     is     not 
unfrequently  Latinised  DOMINICUS. 
DOMITIAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (July  1) 

(5th  cent.)  Born  in  Rome  about  a.d.  347, 
and  left  an  orphan  at  an  early  age,  he  gave  up 
his  possessions  to  the  poor  and  retired  to  one 
of  the  monasteries  in  the  city.  Thence  he 
passed  into  Gaul  and  received  the  priesthood 
in  the  famous  Abbey  of  Lerins.  Later,  we  find 
him  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Lyons,  where  he 
built  a  little  Oratory  dedicated  to  St.  Christo- 
pher, and  lived  some  time  as  a  hermit.  Finally, 
he  founded  the  monastery  of  Bebron,  now 
St.  Rambert  de  Joux,  where  he  died  in  extreme 
old  age  towards  the  middle  of  the  fifth  century. 
Extant  sources  of  information  concerning 
St.  Domitian  are  very  unsatisfactory.  Such 
particulars  as  we  have  come  mainly  through 
Trithemius,  a  comparatively  modern  author, 
who  avers  that  he  had  seen  the  Acts  of  the 
Saint. 


DOMITIAN  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  1) 

See  SS.  CYRIL,  AQUILA,   &c. 
DOMITIAN  of  CHALONS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  9) 

(Date  uncertain.)  The  third  Bishop  of 
Chalons-sur-Marne  in  France,  remarkable  for 
his  zeal  and  success  in  the  conversion  of  the 
heathen.  He  entered  into  his  rest  towards  the 
close  of  the  fourth  century  and  was  buried  in 
the  same  grave  as  his  predecessors,  St.  Memmius 
(Menge)  and  St.  Donatian,  of  the  latter  of  whom 
he  was  a  disciple  in  Rome.  But  Baronius  and 
the  old  traditions  antedate  all  three  Saints  by 
two  centuries  and  probably  with  good  reason. 
DOMITIAN  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  28) 

See  SS.  EUTYCHIUS  and  DOMITIAN. 
DOMITILLA  (St.)  V.M.  (May  7) 

More  correctly  ivritten  St.  FLA  VIA  DOMI- 
TILLA, which  see. 
DOMITIUS,    PELAGIA,    AQUILA,    EPARCHIUS 

and  THEODOSIA  (SS.)  MM.  (March  23) 

(4th  cent.)  St.  Domitius  was  a  Phrygian, 
and  died  by  the  sword  under  J  ulian  the  Apostate 
(a.d.  361),  probably  at  Caesarea  in  Palestine.  St. 
Domitius  is  said  to  have  provoked  his  own  arrest 
by  publicly  attacking  the  errors  of  heathenism 
in  the  Circus  where  the  people  were  gathered 
for  the  festival  games  held  in  honour  of  the  gods. 
With  him  several  other  Christians  suffered. 
DOMITIUS  (St.)  M.  (July  5) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Persian  or,  as  some  say,  a 
Phrygian,  converted  at  Nisibi  in  Mesopotamia, 
who  embraced  the  monastic  life  and  later 
retired  into  a  cave,  somewhere  in  Asia  Minor, 
where  he  converted  to  Christianity  many  of 
the  neighbouring  country  people.  Julian  the 
Apostate,  irritated,  it  is  alleged,  by  the  re- 
proaches Domitius  ventured  to  address  to  him, 
had  him  stoned  to  death  (a.d.  362).  Two  of  his 
disciples  suffered  with  him.  St.  Gregory  of 
Tours  mentions  a  St.  Domitius  of  Syria ;  but 
it  is  not  clear  that  he  is  identical  with  the  St. 
Domitius  of  July  5.  The  latter,  however,  may 
be  very  well  one  and  the  same  with  the  St. 
Dometius  or  Domitius  commemorated  in  the 
Roman  Martyrology  on  Aug.  7. 
DOMITIUS  (DOMETIUS)  and  OTHERS     (Aug.  7) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(4th  cent.)  The  entry  in  the  Roman  Martyr- 
ology is :  "At  Nisibis  in  Mesopotamia  St. 
Domitius,  a  Persian  monk  who  with  two  of  his 
disciples  was  stoned  to  death  under  Julian  the 
Apostate."  But  modern  criticism  has  great 
difficulty  in  accepting  this  St.  Domitius  or 
Dometius  as  other  than  the  Martyr  of  the  same 
name  commemorated  on  July  5.  Julian  the 
Apostate  was  never  at  Nisibi.  On  the  other 
hand,  it  is  fairly  clear  that  this  Saint  Domitius 
the  Hermit  is  not  the  Phrygian  soldier-saint 
venerated  on  March  23. 
DOMITIUS  (St.)  (Oct.  23) 

(8th  cent.)  A  priest  of  the  Diocese  of  Amiens, 
who  retired  into  a  solitude  where  he  practised 
austere  penance.  He  flourished  either  in  the 
seventh  or  in  the  eighth  century  of  our  Era. 
But  the  Lives  we  have  of  him  are  of  late  date 
and  little  reliance  is  to  be  placed  upon  them. 
Surius  maintains  and,  it  would  seem,  with  good 
reason,  that  St.  Domitius  was  not  a  priest  but 
only  a  deacon,  and  as  such  he  is  described  in 
the  Proper  Lections  of  his  Office. 
DOMNA  (St.)  V.M.  (Dec.  28) 

See  SS.  INDES  and  DOMNA. 
*DOMNEVA  (EBBA)  (St.)  W.  (Nov.  19) 

Otherwise  St.  ERMENBURGA,  which  see. 
DOMNICA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  21) 

Otherwise  St.  CYRIACA,  which  see. 
DOMNINA  and  ANOTHER  (SS.)  (April  14) 

VV.MM. 

(Date  uncertain.)  Virgin  Martyrs  who  suf- 
fered at  Teramo  or  perhaps  at  Terni  in  Umbria, 
probably  about  the  middle  of  the  third  century, 
at  the  same  time  as  their  Bishop  St.  Valentine. 
All  the  Martyrologies  commemorate  them,  but 
whether  there  were  not  in  the  same  locality 
two  or  more  Virgin-Martyrs  by  name  Domnina 

83 


DOMNINA 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


is  altogether  uncertain.  Jacobilli  contends  for 
a  Domnina  Martyr  under  Totila  at  Teramo  in 
the  sixth  century. 

DOMNINA  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  12) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  woman  who,  after 
cruel  torments,  died  in  prison  at  Anazarbus  in 
Cilicia,  Lysias  being  Prefect,  A.D.  303.  The 
Roman  Martyrologist  must  have  used  a  corrupt 
manuscript  in  which  Lycia  was  substituted  for 
Lysias,  as  he  places  St.  Domnina's  martyrdom 
in  the  Province  of  that  name. 

DOMNINUS  (St.)  M.  (March  21) 

See  SS.  PHILEMON  and  DOMNINUS. 

DOMNINUS,  VICTOR  and  OTHERS       (March  30) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  uncertain.)  St.  Domninus  suffered 
various  torments  under  Maximian  Herculeus, 
the  colleague  of  Diocletian  in  A.D.  300,  and 
gave  his  life  for  Christ  at  Thessalonica,  together 
with  Philocalus,  Achaicus  and  Palotinus.  The 
Greeks  keep  their  Feast  on  Oct.  1 ;  and  the 
St.  Domninus  commemorated  on  that  day  in  the 
Roman  Martyrology  is  probably  one  and  the 
same  with  the  Martyr  of  March  30,  inserted 
there  by  mistake.  St.  Victor  and  his  com- 
panions (in  all  about  ten  in  number)  suffered 
elsewhere,  but  the  place  and  the  date  are  alike 
unknown,  though  the  Greek  manuscripts  specify 
the  names  of  several  among  them  and  give 
particulars  about  them. 

DOMNINUS  (St.)  (April  20) 

See  SS.  MARCELLINUS  AND  DOMNINUS. 

DOMNINUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  1) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  who  suffered  at 
Thessalonica  about  A.D.  300  under  Maximinian 
or  Diocletian.  He  is  in  all  probability  the 
same  as  the  St.  Domninus  commemorated  with 
others  on  March  30. 

DOMNINUS  (DONNINO)  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  9) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  of  Parma  in  Italy 
who,  while  trying  to  escape  a  band  of  soldiers 
sent  to  arrest  him,  was  overtaken  and  beheaded 
on  the  Via  Claudia  or  iEmilia,  a  few  miles  out 
of  Parma  at  a  place  now  called  after  him  Borgo 
San  Donnino,  where  his  relics  are  venerated  to 
this  day.  His  martyrdom  is  alleged  to  have 
taken  place  A.D.  304 ;  but  the  narration  accepted 
in  the  Middle  Ages  as  the  Acts  of  St.  Domninus 
is  altogether  untrustworthy. 

DOMNINUS,  THEOTIMUS.  PHILOTHEUS,  SYL- 
VANUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  5) 
(Date  uncertain.)  This  St.  Domninus  was  a 
young  man  said  to  have  been  a  physician,  at 
first  condemned  to  work  in  the  mines,  but 
afterwards  burned  to  death  somewhere  in 
Palestine.  SS.  Theotinvus  and  Philotheus 
appear  to  have  suffered  elsewhere  and  at 
another  time.  St.  Sylvanus,  a  Syrian  Bishop, 
was  condemned  to  the  mines  together  with 
St.  Domninus,  but  wa3  martyred  much  later. 
A  St.  Sylvanus  is  commemorated  as  having 
suffered  at  Rome  on  May  5,  and  it  may  possibly 
be  he.  All  these  holy  men  are  said  to  have 
confessed  Christ  under  the  Emperor  Maximian. 
Most  authors  understand  Maximin  Daza  and 
date  this  martyrdom  A.D.  310.  Surius,  however, 
thinks  Maximin  the  Thracian  to  be  referred  to, 
and  dates  it  A.D.  237  or  A.D.  238. 

DOMNIO  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  11) 

(1st  cent.)  Tradition  has  it  that  St.  Domnio, 
a  Syrian,  was  one  of  the  seventy-two  disciples 
chosen  by  Christ  to  go  before  His  Pace  (Luke  x. 
1),  and  that  he  came  to  Rome  with  St.  Peter ; 
that  he  was  afterwards  sent  by  the  Apostle 
into  Dalmatia,  where  he  evangelised  the  country 
on  the  Eastern  shores  of  the  Adriatic,  and  in  the 
end  was  beheaded  by  order  of  the  Imperial 
Prefect,  Maurelius,  together  with  eight  soldiers, 
converts  made  by  him.  His  relics  are  still 
honoured  at  Salona,  though  the  Church  of  St. 
John  Lateran  in  Rome  has  claimed  to  possess 
a  large  portion  of  them  since  the  time  of  Pope 
John  IV  (A.D.  641).  It  appears  historically 
certain  that  this  Pontiff  did  cause  to  be  brought 
to  Rome  the  body  of  a  Martyr,  Domnio  by  name. 

84 


DOMNIO  (St.)  M.  (Julv  16) 

(3rd  cent.)  St.  Domnio,  a  zealous  Christian, 
was  beheaded  at  Bergamo  in  Lombardy  under 
Maximian  Herculeus,  the  colleague  of  Diocletian, 
towards  the  end  of  tbe  third  century.  Thus, 
the  local  historians  ;  but  it  must  be  "confessed 
that  no  ancient  Martyrology  so  much  as  men- 
tions his  name.  Of  his  niece,  St.  Eusebia, 
Virgin-Martyr,  the  Feast  is  similarly  kept  at 
Bergamo  (Oct.  29). 
DOMNIO  (St.)  (Dec.  28) 

(4th  cent.)  A  saintly  priest,  member  of  the 
Roman  clergy  in  the  latter  half  of  the  fourth 
century.  St.  Jerome,  who  dedicated  to  him 
some  of  his  works,  styles  him  "  a  most  holy 
man,  the  Lot  of  our  times,"  and  St.  Augustine 
speaks  of  him  as  "  truly,  a  most  holy  Father." 
Popular  veneration  no  doubt  canonised  him 
immediately  after  his  passing  to  a  better  life,  and 
secured  him  a  place  in  the  Roman  Martyrolocv. 
*DOMNOC  (St.)  (Feb.  13) 

Otherwise  St.  MADOMNOC  or  MODOMNOC, 
which  see. 
DOMNOLUS  (St.)  Bp.  (May  16) 

(6th  cent.)  A  holy  Religious  who  from  having 
been  Abbot  of  a  monastery  near  Paris,  was 
called  (A.D.  543)  to  be  Bishop  of  Le  Mans 
(Cenomanensis)  in  the  West  of  France.  His 
life  of  prayer  and  penance,  his  zeal  for  the  good 
of  his  people  and  his  great  love  of  the  poor  made 
him  conspicuous  for  sanctity  among  the  prelates 
who  with  him  assisted  at  the  celebrated  Council 
of  Tours  (A.D.  566).  He  died  A.D.  581,  having 
founded  many  monasteries,  hospitals  and 
chinches. 
DOMNUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  13) 

See  SS.  DANIEL  and  FRANCISCAN  MAR- 
TYRS. 
DOMNUS  of  VIENNE  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  3) 

(6th  cent.)  St.  Ado,  one  of  the  successors 
of  St.  Domnus,  relates  in  his  Chronicle  that 
St.  Domnus  succeeded  St.  Desidexius  the 
Martyr,  in  the  Bishopric  of  Vienne  in  France ; 
and  that  he  was  a  prelate  of  surpassingly  holy 
life,  distinguished  by  his  charity  to  the'  poor, 
and  zealous  in  the  redeeming  of  the  captives 
taken  in  the  incessant  wars  of  the  period.  He 
died  A.D.  527.  We  know  nothing  more  about 
him.  His  Feast  is  not  kept  in  the  Liturgy, 
not  even  locally. 
*DONALD  (DONIVALD)  (St.)  (July  15) 

(8th  cent.)  A  holy  man  in  Scotland  who 
with  his  nine  daughters  led  the  life  of  a  Religious 
at  Ogilvy  in  Forfarshire.  Various  memorials 
of  the  nine  maidens  remain  to  this  day  in 
Scotland. 
DONARD  (St.)  (March  24) 

Otherwise  St.  DOMANGARD,  which  see. 
DONAS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  14) 

Otherwise  St.  DONATIAN,  which  see. 
*DANAT  (DUNWYD)  (St.). 

The  Patron  Saint  of  St.  Donat's  or  Llan- 
dunwyd  (Glamorgan).     This  from  the  English 
Menology.     Nothing  more  is  discoverable. 
DONATA  (St.)  M.  (July  17) 

One  of  the  SCILLITAN  MARTYRS,  which 

SCB 

DONATA,  PAULINA,  RUSTICA,  NOMINANDA, 
SEROTINA,  HILARIA  and  OTHERS  (SS.) 
MM.  (Dec.  31) 

(Date  unknown.)    A  band  of  Christian  women 
put  to  death  for  the  Faith  in  Rome  in  one  of 
the  early  persecutions,  and  whose  relics  were 
enshrined  with  those  of  other  Martyrs  in  the 
Catacombs  of  the  Via  Salaria.     Beyond  their 
names  duly  registered  in  the  official  Martyrolo- 
gies  nothing  is  known  about  them. 
DONATIAN  and  ROGATIAN  (SS.)  MM.     (May  24) 
(3rd  cent.)     Two  brothers  of  Nantes  in  Brit- 
tany, put  to  death,  by  Rictius  Varus,  Governor 
of    Gaul,    for   the    crime    of   being    Christians 
(a.d.  299)  during  the  great  persecution  under 
Diocletian. 
DONATIAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  7) 

(Date    uncertain.)    The    second    Bishop    of 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


DOROTHEUS 


Chalons-sur-Marne,  disciple  and  successor  of 
St.  Memmius  (Menge),  the  founder  of  the  See, 
whose  deacon  he  was.  Baronius  and  the  old 
tradition  holds  that  St.  Memmius  was  sent  into 
Gaul  by  St.  Peter  (a.d.  46)  and  consequently 
that  St.  Donatian  flourished  in  the  first  and 
second  centuries  of  our  era.  Surius  and  the 
moderns  substitute  Pope  St.  Fabian  for  St. 
Peter.  Consequently  St.  Donatian  would  have 
lived  in  the  third  century.  A  Donatian,  Bishop 
of  Chalons,  assisted  at  a  Council  of  Cologne 
A.D.  346.  All  agree  that  he  was  a  zealous  and 
able  Bishop,  but  evidently  he  is  other  than  the 
Saint  of  August  7. 
DONATIAN,  PRiESIDIUS,    MANSUETUS,  GER- 

MANUS,  FUSCULUS   and  L^ETUS  (SS.)  MM. 

(Sept.  6) 

(5th  cent.)  Some  of  the  more  conspicuous 
among  the  Catholics  driven  from  Africa  into 
exile  by  Hunneric,  the  Arian  King  of  the 
Vandals  (A.D.  484),  of  whom  a  particular  ac- 
count is  given  by  Victor  of  Utica  in  his  History 
of  that  Persecution.  It  is  said  that  they 
numbered  in  all  nearly  five  thousand  in  a  single 
year.  Lsetus,  a  Bishop  and  a  most  zealous 
Prelate,  was,  however,  burned  to  death  at  the 
stake  ;  the  others,  part  priests,  part  laymen, 
scourged  and  banished. 
DONATIAN  (DONAS)  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  14) 

(4th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Bruges  in 
Belgium,  whither  his  relics  were  translated  in 
the  ninth  century.  He  was  a  Roman  by  birth, 
and  Bishop  of  Reims  from  A.D.  360  to  A.D.  390, 
between  SS.  Maternus  and  Viventius,  and 
appears  in  life  as  after  death  to  have  been  in 
high  repute  of  sanctity.  But  no  trustworthy 
account  of  him  has  come  down  to  our  age. 
DONATELLA  (St.)  V.M.  (July  30) 

See  SS.  MAXIMA,  DONATILLA,  &c. 
DONATUS,  SABINUS  and  AGAPE  (Jan.  25) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  unknown.)  Apart  from  the  mere 
registration  of  their  names  on  Jan.  25,  we  have 
no  record  of  these  Martyrs.  Baronius  refers 
for  them  to  old  manuscripts  without  specifying 
the  latter. 
DONATUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  4) 

See  SS.  AQUILINUS,  GEMINUS,  &c. 
DONATUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  9) 

See  SS.  PRIMUS  and  DONATUS,  &c. 
DONATUS,      SECUNDIANUS,      ROMULUS      and 

OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  17) 

(4th  cent.)  Martyrs  under  Diocletian  (A.D. 
304).  They  were  of  Vicenza,  but  suffered  at 
Porto  Gruaro  (Concordia),  not  far  from  Venice, 
and  were  eighty-nine  in  number.  Other 
particulars  are  lacking. 
DONATUS,  JUSTUS,  HERENA  and  OTHERS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  25) 

(3rd  cent.)    Fifty  Martyrs  who  suffered  in 

Africa  in  the  Decian  persecution  in  the  middle 

of  the  third  century.     Beyond  the  names  of 

the  above,  nothing  is  known  about  them. 

DONATUS  (St.)  M.  (March  1) 

See  SS.  LEO,  DONATUS,   &c. 
DONATUS  (St.)  M.  (April  7) 

See  SS.  EPIPHANIUS,  DONATUS,   &c. 
DONATUS  (St.)  Bp.  (April  30) 

(4th  cent.)  Bishop  of  Eursea  in  Epirus 
(Albania)  towards  the  end  of  the  fourth  century. 
Sozomen  and  other  Creek  writers  extol  his 
sanctity  and,  in  the  ninth  century,  Anastasius 
the  Librarian  translated  one  of  their  accounts 
into  Latin. 
DONATUS  (St.)  M.  (May  21) 

See  SS.  POLYEUCTE,  VICTORIUS,  <vx. 
DONATUS  and  HILARY  (SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  7) 

(4th  cent.)  St.  Donatus,  Bishop  of  Arczzo 
in  Tuscany,  is  commemorated  liturgically  on 
Aug.  7.  He,  with  Hilary  (or  Hilarimis),  a 
monk,  uas  put  to  death  for  the  Faith  under 
Julian  tin-  apostate  (a. it.  :>(;i).  Hilary  was 
scourged  to  death ;  Donatus  was  beheaded. 
St.  Gregory  and  others  relate  the  many  miracles 
wrought  by  these  holy  men,  among  wliich  the 


restoring  as  before  a  glass  altar-chalice  dashed 
in  pieces  by  the  Pagans. 

DONATUS  (St.)  (Aug.  19) 

(6th  cent.)  A  deacon,  native  of  Orleans  in 
France,  who  lived  the  life  of  a  hermit  on  Mount 
Jura  near  Sisteron  in  Provence,  and  was 
renowned  for  his  sanctity  and  for  the  miracles 
worked  by  his  prayers.  He  died  towards  the 
year  535. 

DONATUS  of  ANTIOCH  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  23) 

See  SS.  RESTITUTUS,  DONATUS,   &c. 

DONATUS  of  CAPUA  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  5) 

See  SS.  QUINCTIUS,  ARCONTIUS,  Ac. 

DONATUS  of  MESSINA  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  5) 

See  SS.  PLACIDUS  and  OTHERS. 

DONATUS  of  FIESOLE  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  22) 

(9th  cent.)  By  birth  an  Irishman,  who,  on 
his  return  from  a  pilgrimage  he  had  made  to 
Rome,  while  passing  through  Tuscany,  was  on 
account  of  his  virtues  and  learning  made 
Bishop  of  Fiesole  near  Florence.  He  died 
about  A.D.  874  after  nearly  half  a  century  of 
Episcopate.  He  is  said  to  have  left  some 
poems,  besides  prose  writings  ;  but  nothing  of 
them  now  remains. 

DONATUS  of  CORFU  (St.)  (Oct.  29) 

(Date  unknown.)  All  we  know  of  this  Saint 
is  that  about  A.D.  600  St.  Gregory  the  Great 
directed  that  his  relics,  brought  to  Corfu  by 
some  refugee  priest  from  Asia  Minor,  should  be 
reverently  enshrined  in  one  of  the  churches  of 
the  island. 

DONATUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  12) 

See  SS.  HERMOGENES,  DONATUS,   &c. 

DONATUS  of  ALEXANDRIA  (St.)  M.       (Dec.  30) 
See  SS.  MANSUETUS,  SEVERUS,  &c. 

DONVINA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  23) 

See  SS.  CLAUDIUS,  ASTERIUS,  &c. 

*DORBHENE  (St.)  Abbot.  (Oct.  28) 

(8th  cent.)  An  Abbot  of  Iona,  descended 
from  a  brother  of  St.  Columba.  A  copy  of 
St.  Adamnan  s  Life  of  the  latter  written  by 
St.  Dorbhene  is  still  in  existence.  He  died 
A.D.  713. 

DOROTHEA  (DOROTHY)  (St.)  V.M.  (Feb.  6) 

(4th  cent.)  The  famous  Virgin-Martyr  of 
Csesarea  in  Cappadocia,  who  was  racked, 
scourged  and  beheaded  under  Diocletian,  about 
a.d.  300,  and  whose  relics  are  now  venerated 
in  Rome.  She  converted  to  the  Christian  Faith 
the  very  persons  sent  to  persuade  her  to  renounce 
it.  She  is  represented  with  fruit  and  flowers, 
in  allusion  to  a  lawyer  having  mockingly  asked 
her  to  send  him  "  roses  and  apples  "  from  the 
garden  of  her  Heavenly  Bridegroom,  and  to  his 
having  mysteriously  received  them  on  the  day 
of  her  martyrdom  amid  the  snows  of  a  Cappa- 
docian  winter.  The  cultus  of  St.  Dorothy 
appears  to  have  been  curiously  neglected  in  the 
East. 

DOROTHEA  (St.)  V.M.  (Sept.  3) 

See  SS.  EUPHEMIA,  DOROTHEA,   &c. 

DOROTHEUS  (St.)  M.  (March  28) 

See  SS.  CASTOR  and  DOROTHEUS. 

DOROTHEUS  of  TYRE  (St.)  M.  (June  5) 

(4th  cent.)  There  is  much  uncertainty  as  to 
the  true  history  of  this  Saint.  The  Roman 
Martyrology  adopts  the  view  that  he  was  a 
priest  of  Tyre,  imprisoned  and  otherwise  made 
to  suffer  for  the  Faith  in  the  great  persecution 
at  the  beginning  of  the  fourth  century,  and  who 
survived  to  undergo  banishment  under  Julian 
the  Apostate  (A.D.  362)  dying  at  Verya  on  the 
Black  Sea  at  the  age  of  107.  The  Bollandists 
(probably  with  reason)  make  him  Bishop  of 
Tyre,  and  one  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Council 
of  Nicaea  (A.D.  325).  He  is  said  to  have  written 
in  Greek  and  in  Latin  and  on  several  subjects  ; 
but  it  is  curious  that  neither  Eusebius  nor 
St.  Jerome,  his  contemporaries,  make  any 
mention  of  him. 

DORYMEDON  (St.)  M.  (Sept,  10) 

See  SS.  TROPHIMUS.  SABBATIUS,   <fec. 

DOROTHEUS  and  GORGONIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  8) 
(4th    cent.)    Favourites    of    the     Emperor 

So 


DOSITHEUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


Diocletian  and  officials  of  his  Court  of  Nico- 
media  in  Asia  Minor,  whom  he  sacrificed  to  his 
hatred  for  the  Christian  religion,  causing  them 
to  be  put  to  the  torture  and  eventually  hanged 
(a.d.  303).  Eusebius  of  Csesarea,  a  contem- 
porary, has  left  us  a  detailed  and  trustworthy 
account  of  their  sufferings.  The  body  of 
St.  Gorgonius  was  translated  to  Rome  under 
Pope  St.  Gregory  IV  (827-844).  Hence  it  has 
come  about  that  he  is  not  only  registered  in 
the  Roman  Martyrology,  but  liturgically  com- 
memorated each  year. 
DOSITHEUS  (St.)  (Feb.  23) 

(6th  cent.)  An  Egyptian  solitary,  a  simple 
and  unlearned  man,  whose  weak  health  hindered 
him  from  practising  the  austerities  of  his 
fellow-monks,  but  who  nevertheless  by  prayer 
and  self-denial  attained  to  great  sanctity. 
The  Lives  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Desert  give 
interesting  particulars  concerning  him. 
•DOTTO  (St.)  Abbot.  (April  9) 

(6th  cent.)    A  Saint  who  has  left  his  name  to 

one  of  the  Orkney  Islands,  where  he  is  said  to 

have    been    head    of    a    monastery.     Nothing 

certain  is  known  about  him. 

♦DONNAN  (DOUNAN)  and  OTHERS        (April  17) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(7th  cent.)  St.  Donnan,  an  Irish  Saint, 
following  the  example  of  St.  Columba,  settled 
with  his  disciples  on  Egg  Island,  off  the  Western 
coast  of  Scotland.  He  and  fifty-two  of  his 
companions  were  done  to  death  by  the  heathen 
Picts.  From  the  traditional  connection  between 
St.  Donnan  and  St.  Columba  the  date  of  the 
Passion  of  these  holy  Martyrs  may  safely  be 
put  at  the  end  of  the  sixth  or  beginning  of  the 
seventh  century. 
DREUX  (St.)  (April  16) 

Otherwise  St.  DROGO,  which  see. 
*DRILLO  (St.)  (June  15 

(6th  cent.)  Patron  Saint  at  Llandrillo 
(Denbigh)  and  at  Llandrillo  (Merioneth).  He 
appears  to  have  been  a  sixth  century  Saint, 
son  of  an  Armorican  chief  in  Brittany,  and  to 
have  lived  as  a  monk  at  Bardsey. 
*DRITHELM  (St.)  (Aug.  17) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Northumbrian,  who  after 
leading  a  reprehensibly  worldly  life,  was  terri- 
fied by  a  vision  of  the  Judgment  to  come  and 
of  Hell.  In  consequence  of  this  he  embraced 
a  career  of  severe  penance  as  a  monk  of  Melrose, 
persevering  therein  to  the  day  of  his  holy  death, 
about  A.d.  700. 
DROCTOVEUS  (DROCTONIUS)  (St.)      (March  10) 

Abbot. 

(6th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  St.  Germanus  of 
Paris,  who  became  Abbot  of  the  monastery  of 
St.  Symphorian  at  Autun,  a  Religious  House 
in  which  a  Rule  was  followed  modelled  upon 
that  of  the  Solitaries  of  Egypt.  When  St. 
Germanus  had  become  Bishop  of  Paris  and 
King  Childebert  had  founded  the  Abbey  of 
St.  Vincent  (since  called  St.  Germain  des  Pres) 
St.  Germanus  set  St.  Droctoveus  over  it.  He 
ruled  the  monastery  till  his  death  at  the  age  of 
forty-five  (about  A.D.  580),  "  the  embodiment 
(so  the  chroniclers  describe  him)  of  Christian 
and  monastic  perfection."  Venantius  For- 
tunatus  has  left  us  some  lines  of  verse  in  praise 
of  St.  Droctoveus. 
*DRAUSINUS  (DRAUSIUS)  (St.)  Bp.       (March  5) 

(7th    cent.)     A    native    of    Soissons    and    a 
Bishop  of  that  city.     He  died  A.D.  675,  and  is 
locally  venerated  as  a  Saint. 
DROGO  (DREUX,  DRUON)  (St.)  (April  16) 

(12th  cent.)  One  of  the  Patron  Saints  of 
shepherds.  He  lost  both  parents  at  birth, 
and  when  twenty  years  of  age  disposed  of  all 
his  property  to  embrace  a  life  of  utter  poverty. 
For  more  than  twenty  years  he  tended  the 
cattle  of  a  rich  and  pious  lady,  busying  himself 
at  the  same  time  with  practices  of  prayer  and 
penance.  He  is  said  to  have  made  nine  times 
the  pilgrimage  to  Rome.  Finally,  he  built 
himself  a  hut  against  the  church  of  Sebourg  in 

86 


Hainault  (Belgium)  where  he  subsisted  for 
forty-five  years  on  barley  bread  and  water. 
He  died  A.d.  1186,  at  the  age  of  eighty-four. 

*DROSTAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (July  11) 

(7th  cent.)    An  Irish  Saint,  disciple  of  St. 

Columba  and  one  of  the  Apostles  of  Scotland. 

He  was  the  first  Abbot  of  Deer  in  Aberdeenshire. 

DRUSUS,  ZOSIMUS  and  THEODORE      (Dec.  14) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  unknown.)  Christians  who  suffered 
martyrdom  in  Syria,  probably  at  Antioch. 
Some  MSS.  have  Drusina  for  Drusus.  Their 
Acts  are  lost  and  dates  unknown,  though  St. 
John  Chrysostom  has  left  a  Homily  preached 
on  their  Festival  day. 

DRUSUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  24) 

See  SS.  LUCIAN,  METROBIUS,   &c. 

*DUBTACH  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  7) 

(6th  cent.)  An  Archbishop  of  Armagh,  who 
governed  that  Diocese  for  sixteen  years,  dying 
a.d.  513. 

*DUMHAID  (St.)  Abbot.  (May  25) 

Otherwise  St.  DUNCHAID,  which  see. 

*DUBRITIUS  (DYFFRYG,  DEVEREUX)  (St.) 

Bp.  (Nov.  14) 

(6th  cent.)  A  famous  Welsh  Saint,  of  the 
race  of  Brychan  and  the  founder  of  monachism 
in  Wales.  He  was  Bishop  of  Llandaff  and 
Archbishop  of  Caerleon,  which  latter  See  he 
resigned  to  the  yet  more  celebrated  St.  David. 
St.  Dubritius  is  said  to  have  been  consecrated 
Bishop  of  St.  Germanus  of  Auxerre.  He  died 
probably  about  the  middle  of  the  sixth  century, 
and,  as  it  would  appear,  in  the  Isle  of  Bardsey, 
to  which  he  had  retired  in  his  old  age.  His 
relics  were  solemnly  translated  A.d.  1120. 

DULA  (St.)  V.M.  (March  25) 

(Date  unknown.)  The  Christian  slave  of  a 
Pagan  soldier  at  Nicomedia  in  Asia  Minor. 
She  suffered  death  at  his  hands  in  defence  of 
her  chastity.  The  date  is  unrecorded.  In  art 
St.  Dula  is  represented  as  lying  dead  with  a  dog 
watching  by  her. 

DULAS  (TATIAN)  (St.)  M.  (June  15) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  of  Zephyrinum  in 
Cilicia  (Asia  Minor),  put  to  death  in  the  great 
persecution  under  Diocletian  about  A.d.  300. 
His  Acts  and  the  relation  of  Metaplirastes  give 
a  graphic  description  of  the  frightful  tortures 
to  which  St.  Dulas  was  put,  a  sample  of  what 
also  many  other  Christians  endured  in  that 
terrible  age  of  trial.  He  was  savagely  scourged 
back  and  front,  then  half-roasted  on  a  gridiron 
and  so  dismissed  to  his  dungeon.  Next  day, 
the  proceedings  began  by  the  piling  of  burning 
charcoal  on  his  head ;  after  which  he  was 
hung  up  by  his  wrists  and  his  body  was  torn 
with  iron  rakes,  so  that  his  flesh  hung  down 
in  ribbons  and  his  bowels  were  exposed.  Then 
the  dying  man  was  ordered  to  be  dragged  to 
Tarsus,  the  chief  city  of  Cilicia  for  the  continuing 
of  his  execution.  Happier  in  this  than  some  of 
his  fellow-Christians,  Dulas  expired  on  the  way. 
Over  his  body  thrown  into  a  ditch,  a  sheep- 
dog is  said  to  have  stood  guardian,  until  eventu- 
ally the  Christians  found  and  reverently  interred 
his  remains.  As  we  find  stated  in  the  report 
of  the  Interrogatory  through  which  he  was  put 
by  the  judges,  Dulas  was  only  a  sort  of  nickname 
given  him  ;  his  real  name  was  Tatian. 

*DUNCHADH  (DUMHAID)  (St.)  Abbot.  (May  25) 
(8th  cent.)  From  a  monastery  over  which 
he  had  presided  in  his  native  Ireland,  St. 
Dunchadh  was  called  to  Scotland  to  become 
Abbot  of  Ion  a.  He  was  a  man  of  singular 
piety  and  was  highly  favoured  with  super- 
natural gifts.  In  his  time  the  Roman  tonsure 
and  the  Roman  date  of  Easter  were  finally 
adopted  by  the  Celtic  monks  in  Scotland. 
a.d.  717  is  given  as  the  year  of  his  death. 

*DUNCHAID  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  16) 

(10th  cent.)     This  Saint,  surnamed  O'Raoin, 

was  born  in  West  Meath,  and  having  long  led 

the  life  of  an  anchorite  near  the  monastery  of 

Clonmacnoise,  was  elected  its  Abbot  in  a.d.  969. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


EBBA 


He  is  famous  for  many  miracles,  amongst  others 
for  having  raised  a  dead  child  to  life.  In  his 
old  age  he  retired  to  Armagh,  where  he  died 
a.d.  988. 

DUNSTAN  (St.)  Bp.  (May  19) 

(10th  cent.)  St.  Dunstan,  one  of  the  most 
famous  Saints  of  Anglo-Saxon  England,  was 
born  about  A.D.  925,  and  was  educated  at 
Glastonbury  Abbey,  whither,  after  spending 
some  time  at  the  court  of  King  Athelstan, 
he  returned  to  become  a  monk.  In  his  mona- 
stery he  lived  in  great  fervour,  dividing  his  time 
between  prayer,  study  and  manual  labour. 
Under  King  Edmund,  he  was  appointed  Abbot ; 
but,  having  rebuked  the  unworthy  King  Edwy 
for  his  shameless  life,  was  afterwards  forced 
into  a  year's  exile  in  Flanders.  Of  Edgar  the 
Peaceful  he  was  a  favourite  and  a  chief  adviser, 
and  during  his  reign  was  made  successively 
Bishop  of  Worcester  (A.D.  957)  and  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury  (A.D.  961).  Moreover,  Pope 
John  XII  appointed  Dunstan  his  Legate  in 
England.  The  Saint  never  faltered  in  the 
execution  of  his  duty,  and  did  not  spare  even 
his  Royal  Patron,  guilty  at  least  on  one  occasion 
of  flagrant  immorality.  By  his  "  Canons " 
St.  Dunstan  did  much  to  restore  Ecclesiastical 
discipline  in  England,  where  his  influence 
worked  immense  good.  He  expired  calmly, 
May  19,  A.D.  988,  and  was  buried  at  Canter- 
bury. 

♦DUTHAC  (St.)  Bp.  (March  8) 

(11th  cent.)    A  native  of  Scotland  and  first 

Bishop    of    Boss.     Having    acquired    a    great 

reputation  for  learning  and  piety,  he  passed 

away  A.D.  1065. 

♦DWYNWEN  (St.)  Widow.  (July  18) 

Otherwise  St.  THENEUVA  or  THENNEW, 
wJiicfi  sec 

*DWYNWEN  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  25) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Welsh  Saint  of  the  family  of 
Brychan  of  Brecknock.  The  maxim  :  "  Noth- 
ing wins  hearts  like  cheerfulness,"  is  attributed 
to  her.  After  a  troubled  life,  she  passed  away 
about  a.d.  460.  Churches  dedicated  to  her  are 
found  both  in  Wales  and  in  Cornwall. 

*DYFAN  (St.)  M.  (May  14) 

(2nd  cent.)  Said  to  have  been  one  of  the 
missionaries  sent  to  the  Britons  by  Pope  St. 
Eleutherius  at  the  prayer  of  the  king,  St.  Lucius. 
His  name  has  been  Latinised  into  Deruvianus 
or  Daraian ;  or  rather  it  is  some  such  Latin 
appellation  which  has  been  rendered  into  the 
Celtic  Dyfan.  His  church  of  Merthyr  Dyfan 
shows  the  popular  tradition  that  he  ended  his 
days  by  martyrdom. 

♦DYFNAN  (St.)  (April  24) 

(5th  cent.)  A  son  of  the  Welsh  chieftain, 
Brychan.    He  founded  a  church  in  Anglesey. 

♦DYFNOG  (St.)  (Feb.  13) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Welsh  Saint  of  the  family  of 
Caradog.  He  was  formerly  in  local  veneration 
in  Denbighshire. 

DYFRIG  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  14) 

Otherwise  St.  DUBRITIUS,  which  see. 

DYMPNA  (DYMPHNA)  (St.)  V.M.  (May  15) 

(6th  cent.)  Dympna,  the  daughter  of  a 
Pagan  Irish  chieftain,  but  herself  secretly  a 
Christian,  was  forced  to  fly  her  country  in  order 
to  escape  the  guilty  love  of  her  unnatural  par- 
ent. She  settled  at  Gheel,  a  village  in  the 
present  Province  of  Brabant,  and  devoted 
herself  to  works  of  charity.  Her  father  pursued 
her  and  murdered  both  the  Saint  and  the  old 
priest  who  had  advised  and  accompanied  her. 
At  her  shrine  lunatics  and  those  possessed  by 
devils  were  often  miraculously  cured  ;  and  in 
art  she  is  frequently  represented  as  dragging 
away  a  devil.  She  is  the  Patron  Saint  of  the 
insane  ;  and  Gheel  to-day  is  famous  for  asylums 
for  lunatics,  which  arc  among  the  best  managed 
establishments  of  the  sort.  St.  Dympa  is  a 
sixth  century  Saint ;  but  exact  dates  are  not 
ascertainable. 


E 


Saints  names  beginning  with  the  letter  E  are 
often  found  written  with  "  M  "  (diphthong)  as 
the  initial. 

'EADBERT  (EADBERHT)  (St.)  Bp.  (May  6) 

(7th  cent.)  A  monk  of  Lindisfarne,  successor 
of  St.  Cuthbert  in  that  See,  which  he  governed 
for  eleven  years.  Towards  the  close  of  his  life 
he  enshrined  afresh  the  incorrupt  body  of  his 
holy  predecessor,  directing  that  his  own  remains 
should  be  laid  underneath  it.  This  was  duly 
done  when  St.  Eadbert  passed  away  on  May  6 
of  that  same  year,  698.  St.  Eadbert  was 
remarkable  for  his  profound  knowledge  of  the 
Holy  Scriptures  and  for  his  exceeding  charity 
to  the  poor. 

*EADBURGA  (EDBURGA)  (St.)  V.  (Dec.  12) 

(8th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Mildred  as 
Abbess  of  Minster  in  the  Isle  of  Thanet.  She 
built  there  a  new  church,  and  was  in  corre- 
spondence with  St.  Boniface  of  Germany.  She 
died  about  a.d.  751. 

*EADFRID  (St.)  (Oct.  26) 

(7th  cent.)  "  Supposed  to  be  Eadfrid,  the 
Northumbrian  priest  who  visited  Mercia,  effected 
the  conversion  of  King  Merewald  and  preached 
the  Gospel  to  his  subjects  "  (English  Meno- 
logy).  If  so,  it  is  he  who  founded  Leominster 
Priory,  and  passed  away  about  a.d.  675. 

*EADNOTHUS  (ESNEU)  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Oct.  19) 
(11th  cent.)  A  Saint  difficult  to  trace. 
Migne's  Dictionary  (where  the  name  is  spelled 
Eadnochus)  says  that  he  was  a  Bishop  and 
Martyr  in  England,  honoured  at  York.  Baring- 
Gould  puts  on  Oct.  19 :  "  Eadnoth,  Bishop 
and  Martyr,  at  Dorchester,  A.D.  1016." 

*EADSIN  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  28) 

(11th  cent.)  An  Archbishop  of  Canterbury 
and  a  great  patriot.  He  crowned  St.  Edward 
the  Confessor  on  the  restoration  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  line  in  England.  He  resigned  his  See 
some  years  before  his  holy  death,  a.d.  1050. 

*EANFLEDA  (St.)  Queen,  Widow.  (Nov.  24) 

(7th  cent.)  A  daughter  of  King  St.  Edwin 
of  Northumbria  and  of  his  wife  St.  Ethelburga 
of  Kent,  baptised  as  an  infant  by  St.  Paulinus. 
She  naarried  King  Oswy  of  Northumbria  and 
showed  herself  a  great  protector  of  St.  Wilfrid. 
On  the  death  of  her  husband  she  retired  to 
Whitby  Abbey,  where  she  closed  her  holy  life 
about  a.d.  700. 

*EANSWITH  (EANSWIDA)  (St.)  V.  (Aug.  31) 
(7th  cent.)  A  princess  of  Kent,  grand- 
daughter of  King  St.  Ethelbert.  She  founded 
and  as  Abbess  presided  over  a  monastery  at 
Folkestone,  where  the  Parish  church  is  still 
called  after  her.  A.D.  640  is  given  as  the  date 
of  her  holy  death. 

*EATA  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  26) 

(7th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  St.  Aidan,  and 
himself  master  of  St.  Cuthbert  at  Melrose. 
Afterwards,  he  was  by  St.  Theodore  consecrated 
first  Bishop  of  Hexham,  and  for  a  time  of 
Lindisfarne.  "  A  most  reverend  man,  and  of 
all  men  the  most  meek  and  simple."  He  died 
at  Hexham,  A.D.  685. 

*EBBA  (St.)  Widow.  (Nov.  19) 

Otherwise  St.  ERMENBUBGA,  which  see. 

*EBBA  THE  ELDER  (St.)  V.  (Aug.  25) 

(7th  cent.)  The  sister  of  the  holy  King 
St.  Oswald  of  Northumbria,  and  foundress  of 
the  great  Abbey  of  Coldingham,  near  Berwick- 
on-Tweed.  The  friend  of  St.  Cuthbert  and  of 
St.  Adamnan,  she  was  the  mistress  in  the 
spiritual  life  of  St.  Etheldreda.  She  was 
venerated  in  life  and  after  her  death  (a.d.  683) 
as  a  most  lovable  Saint. 

*EBBA  THE  YOUNGER,  and  OTHERS  (SS.) 

MM.  (Aug.  23) 

(9th    cent.)    The    noble    Virgin-Martyrs    of 

Coldingham   who,    assaulted   by   the    heathen 

Danes,    courageously    protected    their    honour 

by  mutilating  their  faces,  enraged  at  which  the 

87 


EBERHARD 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


barbarians  burned  them  alive  in  their  monas- 
tery (a.d.  870). 
♦EBERHARD  (EVERARD)  (St.)  Bp.        (June  22) 
(12th  cent.)    A   German   Benedictine  made 
Archbishop  of  Salzburg   by  Pope  Innocent  II, 
one  of  the  most  able  and  most  holy  of  the 
prelates  of  his  age.     He  died  A.D.  1164  at  the 
age  of  seventy-nine. 
*EBERHARD  (EVERARD)  (St.)  Abbot.  (Aug.  11) 
(10th  cent.)    The  holy  founder  of  the  great 
Abbey  of  Einsiedeln  in  Switzerland,  notable  not 
only  for  his  zeal  and  piety,  but  also  for  his  great 
charity  to  the  poor.     He  died  A.D.  958. 
*E"  JRHARDUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  8) 

Otherwise  St.  ERARD,  which  see. 
EBREGESILUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Oct.  24) 

Otherwise  St.  EVERGISTUS,  which  see. 
EBRULPHUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Dec.  29) 

Otherwise  St.  EVROUL,  which  see. 

*ECHA  (ETHA)  (St.)  (May  5) 

(7th  cent.)     A  hermit  in  Yorkshire,  greatly 

venerated  for  holiness  of  life  and  graced  with 

the  power  of  working  miracles  and  with  other 

supernatural  gifts.    He  died  A.D.  677. 

*EDAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  31) 

Otherwise  St.  iEDAN,  which  see. 

*EDANA  (ETAOIN)  (St.)  V.  (July  5) 

(Date  uncertain.)     An  Irish  Saint,  Patron  of 

Parishes  in  the  West  of  Ireland.     A  famous 

holy  well  bears  her  name.     She  appears  to  have 

lived  near  the  confluence  of  the  rivers  Boyle 

and  Shannon.     Some  have  thought  her  to  be 

one  and  the  same  with  St.  Modwenna,  who  is 

also  commemorated  on  July  5. 

*EDBERT  (St.)  Bp.  (May  6) 

Otherwise  St.  EADBERT,  which  see. 
*EDBERT  (St.)  King.  (Aug.  20) 

(8th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Ceolwulph 
on  the  throne  of  Northumbria.  His  reign  was 
prosperous  and  lasted  twenty  years,  at  the 
end  of  which  he  abdicated  in  favour  of  his  son 
and  retired  to  York,  where  he  passed  other  ten 
years  in  the  practices  of  prayer  and  penance 
before  entering  into  everlasting  rest  (A.D.  768). 
*EDBURGA  (IDEBERGA)  (St.)  V.  (June  20) 

(7th  cent.)  The  daughter  of  the  Pagan 
Penda,  King  of  Mercia,  a  nun  at  Caistor  in 
Northamptonshire,  whence  her  relics  were 
transferred  to  Peterborough  and  later  to 
Flanders. 
*EDBURGA  (St.)  V.  (Dec.  21) 

(10th  cent.)     The  saintly  daughter  of  King 
Edward  the  Elder,  a  nun  and  Abbess  at  Win- 
chester,   where   she    passed    to    her    heavenly 
reward  (A.D.  960). 
*EDBURGA  (EADBURGA)  (St.)  V.  (July  18) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Anglo-Saxon  princess  who 
became  a  nun  at  Aylesbury,  together  with  her 
sister  Edith,  and  took  charge  of  their  third 
sister,  St.  Osith  the  Martyr.  St.  Edburga  died 
in  great  repute  of  sanctity  about  a.]).  620. 
*EDEYRN  (St.)  (Jan.  6) 

(6th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Landeyrn 
(Brittany).  Various  legends  describe  him  as 
a  Briton,  and  associate  him  with  King  Arthur. 
It  is  further  recounted  of  him  that  in  his  old 
age  he  crossed  the  seas  to  become  a  hermit  in 
Armorica. 
EDILBURGA  (St.)  V.  (July  7) 

Otherwise  St.  ETHELBURGA,  which  see. 
EDILTRUDIS  (St.)  V.  (June  23) 

Otherwise  St.  ETHELDREDA  (AUDREY), 
which  see. 
EDISTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  12) 

(4th  cent.)    A  Martyr  at  Ravenna  (Italy) 
during     the     persecution     under     Diocletian, 
probably  a.d.  303  ;    but  particulars  have  been 
lost. 
*EDITH  (St.)  V.  (July  15) 

(9th  cent.)  This  Saint,  other  certainly  than 
the  better  known  St.  Edith  of  Wilton,  daughter 
of  King  Edgar,  was,  like  her,  connected  with 
the  Royal  House  of  Wessex.  She  was  a 
daughter  probably  of  King  Egbert,  and  seems 
to  have  succeeded  St.  Modwenna  as  Abbess  of 
88 


Polesworth,  some  time  towards  the  end  of  the 
ninth  centurv. 

EDITH  (St.)  v.'  (Sept.  16) 

(10th  cent.)  The  natural  daughter  of  King 
Edgar  the  Peaceful,  brought  up  by  her  mother 
Wulfridis,  who  had  become  a  nun  in  the  mona- 
stery of  Wilton  near  Salisbury,  and,  her  father 
reluctantly  consenting,  admitted  while  quite  a 
child  to  make  her  Religious  Profession.  Of 
her  the  Martyrology  simply  says  :  "  She  did 
not  leave  the  world ;  she  never  knew  it." 
The  sick  and  poor,  more  especially  lepers,  were 
her  care  through  life,  and  she  persistently 
refused  the  position  offered  her  of  Abbess. 
Her  holy  death,  foretold  by  St.  Dunstan,  took 
place  at  the  early  age  of  twenty-three  (A.D.  984) ; 
and  numerous  miracles  have  since  borne  witness 
to  her  sanctity. 

EDMUND  of  CANTERBURY  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  16) 
(13th  cent.)  The  eldest  son  of  Reynold 
Rich,  a  tradesman  of  Abingdon  in  Berkshire, 
who  having  studied  at  Oxford  and  Paris, 
taught  Philosophy  in  the  former  University 
from  A.D.  1219  to  A.D.  1226.  He  became  suc- 
cessively Canon  of  Salisbury  and  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  governing  the  Church  in  England 
with  gentleness,  but  with  all  Apostolic  vigour. 
He  corrected  many  abuses  and  bravely  upheld 
the  rights  of  the  Church  against  the  usurpation 
of  Henry  III.  and  his  advisers.  Driven  into 
exile  to  Pontigny  in  France  (where  his  body 
yet  rests;,  he  died  at  Soissy,  Nov.  16,  A.D.  1242, 
and  four  years  later  was  canonised  by  Pope 
Innocent  IV. 

EDMUND  (St.)  King,  M.  (Nov.  20) 

(9th  cent.)  Born  of  royal  blood  (A.D.  849), 
he  was  made  King  of  the  East  Angles  in  A.D.  855, 
under  the  suzerainty  of  the  monarchs  of  Wessex. 
During  his  fifteen  years  of  reign,  his  one  aim  was 
to  secure  the  happiness  of  his  people.  In  the 
Danish  inroad  of  A.D.  870,  one  of  the  most 
devastating  of  that  terrible  age,  after  the  defeat 
of  his  little  army,  he  was  taken  prisoner  and 
savagely  done  to  death  at  Hoxne  in  Suffolk. 
He  expired  with  the  name  of  Jesus  on  his  lips 
and  has  always  been  venerated  as  a  Martyr. 
His  shrine  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds  was  one  of  the 
most  frequented  in  England. 

*EDMUND  CAMPION  (Bl.)  M.  (Dec.  1) 

(16th  cent.)  One  of  the  most  illustrious  of 
the  Martyrs  of  England.  Born  in  London  and 
educated  at  Christ's  Hospital,  he  distinguished 
himself  at  Oxford,  passing  thence  to  Douai  and 
eventually  entering  the  Society  of  Jesus. 
Returning  to  England,  he  preached  with  bold- 
ness, and  became  known  as  the  "  Pope's 
Champion."  After  a  mock  trial  for  treason  and 
terrible  torturing,  Queen  Elizabeth,  though  not 
believing  him  guilty,  had  him  hanged  at  Tyburn 
A.D.  1581. 

EDWARD  (St.)  King,  M.  (March  18) 

(10th  cent.)  The  son  of  Edgar  the  Peaceful 
and  King  of  England  at  the  age  of  thirteen 
on  his  father's  death  (A.D.  975).  He  reigned 
for  only  a  little  over  three  years  and  a  half ; 
but,  guided  by  St.  Dunstan.  the  great  prelate 
of  the  time,  won  for  himself  by  his  piety  and 
virtuous  life,  the  love  and  reverence  of  his 
subjects.  He  was  murdered  at  Wareham  in 
Dorsetshire  by  emissaries,  hired  by  his  jealous 
and  ambitious  stepmother,  March  18,  A.D.  978  ; 
and  was  forthwith  popularly  acclaimed  as  a 
Martyr.  His  remains  were  translated  to 
Shaftesbury  three  years  after  his  death. 

♦EDWARD  POWEL  (Bl.)  M.  (July  30) 

(16th  cent.)  A  learned  Professor  of  Oxford 
University,  author  of  various  Treatises  in 
defence  of  the  Faith  against  Luther,  and  one  of 
the  three  defenders  of  Queen  Catharine  in  the 
divorce  proceedings.  He  was  put  to  death, 
a.d.  1540,  by  Henry  VIII.  for  rejecting  that 
monarch's  pretended  Supremacy  in  Spirituals. 

EDWARD  THE  CONFESSOR  (St.)  King.   (Oct.  13) 
(11  th  cent.)     The  son  of  Ethelred  the  Un- 
ready, born  A.D.  1004,  and  brought  up  in  exile 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ELEAZAR 


on  account  of  the  Danish  occupation  of  England. 
He  was  crowned  King  of  England  on  the 
restoration  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  line  (A.D.  1042). 
A  just  ruler  and  in  all  things  considerate  of  the 
interests  of  his  subjects,  he  yet,  by  the  con- 
tinuous proofs  of  affection  he  gave  to  the 
Normans,  who  had  befriended  him  in  his 
youth,  stirred  up  a  feeling  against  him  among 
the  high  nobles.  Foremost  among  these  was 
the  powerful  Earl  Godwin,  whose  daughter, 
Edith,  he  had  espoused.  But  the  Commoners 
were  for  "  Good  King  Edward,"  and  for  cen- 
turies idolised  his  memory.  His  armies  were 
successful  in  wars  with  the  Scots  and  Welsh, 
while  peace  was  maintained  within  his  own 
dominions.  His  remission  of  the  odious  tax 
called  the  Dane-Gelt,  and  the  wise  laws  he 
enacted,  endeared  him  to  his  people,  and  his 
care  for  the  interests  of  religion  was  of  lasting 
good  to  them.  He  died  Jan.  5,  A.D.  1060, 
and  his  body  was  enslirined  in  Westminster 
Abbey,  built  or  rather  restored  by  him,  where 
it  yet  remains.  His  festival  is  kept  by  the 
Church  on  Oct.  13,  the  anniversary  of  the 
Translation  at  Westminster  of  his  relics. 

*EDWEN  (St.)  V.  (Nov.  6) 

(7th    cent.)     The    alleged    Patron    Saint   of 

Llanedwen    (Anglesey).     She    is    described    as 

having   been   a   daughter   of   King   Edwin   of 

Northumbria. 

♦EDWIN  (St.)  King,  M.  (Oct.  12) 

(7th  cent.)  The  powerful  King  of  Northum- 
bria, who  after  his  marriage  with  St.  Ethelburga, 
daughter  of  St.  Ethelbert  of  Kent,  embraced 
the  Christian  religion  preached  to  him  by 
St.  Paulinus,  his  Queen's  chaplain,  and  zealously 
promoted  the  conversion  of  his  subjects.  He 
fell  at  Hatfield  Chase,  A.D.  633,  fighting  against 
Cadwallon  of  Wales  and  the  Pagan  tyrant  of 
Mercia,  Penda.  Hence  popular  piety  has 
numbered  him  among  the  Martyrs  to  Chris- 
tianity. 

*EDWOLD  (St.)  (Nov.  27) 

(9th  cent.)  The  brother  of  St.  Edmund  the 
Martyr,  King  of  East  Anglia.  He  lived  an 
austere  life  as  a  hermit  at  Cerne  in  Dorsetshire 
in  the  latter  half  of  the  ninth  century,  and 
after  his  death  was  venerated  as  a  Saint. 

♦EFFLAM  (St.)  (Nov.  6) 

(6th  cent.)     Son   of  a  British   Prince   who, 

crossing  to  France,  became  Abbot  of  a  monastery 

he  had  founded  in  Brittany.      He  died  before 

A.D.  700. 

EGBERT  (St.)  (April  24) 

(8th  cent.)  A  native  of  England  who,  like 
many  of  his  countrymen  in  the  seventh  century, 
passed  over  to  Ireland  to  frequent  its  renowned 
schools  of  piety  and  learning.  He  meditated, 
consecrating  himself  to  the  A  postdate  of  Ger- 
many, but  was  forced  to  be  content  with  being 
instrumental  in  inducing  SS.  Willibrord, 
Wigbert  and  others  to  undertake  the  mission. 
He  himself  repaired  to  St.  Columba's  monastery 
in  the  Isle  of  Iona,  where  he  lived  a  life  of 
prayer  and  penance  till  his  death,  a.d.  729, 
on  the  Festival  of  Easter,  which  he  had  suc- 
ceeded in  causing  the  Celtic  monks  to  celebrate 
on  the  day  appointed  by  the  Universal  Church. 

EGDUNUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (March  12) 
(4th  cent.)  Victims  of  the  persecution  under 
Diocletian  at  Nicomedia  in  Asia  Minor  (A.D.  303). 
Egdunus,  with  seven  other  Christians,  was  hung 
up  by  his  feet  over  a  lire  and  suffocated  with 
its  smoke. 

*EGELNOTH  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  30) 

(11th  cent.)      An  Archbishop  of  Canterbury 

who  died  A.D.  1038  and  was  venerated  as  a  Saint. 

*EGELRED  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  25) 

(9tli  cent.)  One  of  the  Croyland  Abbey 
Martyrs,  killed  with  his  Abbot  and  many  others 
by  the  heathen  Danes  (A.D.  870). 

♦EGELWINE  (St.)  (Nov.  29) 

(7th  cent.)  A  prince  of  the  House  of  Wessex, 
who  lived  a  life  of  great  holiness  in  the  seventh 
century  at  Athelney  in  Somersetshire. 


*EGWIN  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  30) 

(8th  cent.)  The  third  Bishop  of  Worcester 
and  founder  of  the  great  Abbey  of  Evesham, 
where  at  an  advanced  age  he  ended  his  days, 
A.D.  717.  Zealous  in  the  interests  of  his  flock 
and  a  father  to  the  poor,  he  yet  had  to  undergo 
persecution ;  but  driven  from  his  See  he  was 
reinstated  with  honour  by  the  Pope  to  whom 
he  had  made  appeal,  journeying  for  that 
purpose  to  Borne.  His  tomb  became  illustrious 
for  the  many  miracles  wrought  at  his  inter- 
cession. 

EGYPT  (MARTYRS  OF). 

Egypt  having  its  centre  at  Alexandria,  gave 
to  the  Catholic  Church,  besides  SS.  Athanasius, 
Cyril  and  other  illustrious  Doctors*  numerous 
holy  Anchorites,  known  as  the  Fathers  of  the 
Desert,  and  a  glorious  array  of  Martyrs,  who 
suffered  either  in  the  persecutions  under  the 
Roman  heathen  Emperors,  or  in  defence  of 
the  Catholic  Faith  against  the  Arian  and  later 
against  the  Eutychian  heretics,  or  in  the  cause 
of  religion  after  the  Mohammedan  conquest 
of  the  country.  Of  Martyrs  not  associated  with 
the  names  of  any  specially  registered  holy 
leader,  a  few  groups  are  commemorated  in  the 
Martyrologies. 

EGYPT  (MARTYRS  OF).  (Jan.  5) 

(4th  cent.)  In  the  great  persecution  under 
Diocletian,  Upper  Egypt  was  fertile  in  Saints 
and  Martyrs.  Eusebius,  an  eye-witness,  des- 
cribes how  the  executioners  themselves  were 
worn  out  with  their  work.  As  a  rule  after 
torture,  believers  in  Christ  were  either  beheaded 
or  burned  alive  (A.D.  303). 

EGYPT  (MARTYRS  OF).  (May  21) 

(4th  cent.)  Numerous  Christians  (among 
them  many  Bishops  and  Priests),  banished  by 
the  Arian  Emperor  Constantius  (A.D.  357) 
when  St.  Athanasius,  having  also  been  sent 
into  exile,  the  Arian  Archbishop  George  usurped 
the  See  of  Alexandria.  Of  these  Catholic 
Confessors  who  took  refuge  in  the  desert,  many, 
being  old  and  infirm,  died  on  the  journey, 
others  perished  in  the  wilderness,  leaving  but 
few  to  return  to  their  homes  on  the  accession 
of  Julian  (A.D.  361),  whose  aim  it  was  to  recall 
Christians  of  all  denominations,  in  order  later 
to  persecute  all  alike. 

*EIGRAD  (St.)  (Jan.  6) 

(6th  cent.)  A  brother  of  St.  Sampson  of 
York,  trained  by  St.  llltyd,  and  founder  of  a 
church  in  Anglesea. 

*EILAN  (St.)  (Jan.  12) 

Otherwise  St.  ELIAN  or  ALLAN,  which  see. 

*EINGAN  (ENEON,  ANIANUS)  (St.)  (April  21) 
(6th  cent.)  A  British  prince  who  came  from 
Cumberland  into  North  Wales  and  finished  his 
days  in  religious  retirement  at  Llanengan  near 
Bangor.  He  died  about  A.D.  590.  He  appears 
to  have  been  one  of  the  sons  of  the  famous 
chieftain  Cunedda,  whose  family  is  said  to  have 
produced  no  less  than  fifty  Saints. 

*EL^ETH  THE  KING  (St.)  (Nov.  10) 

(6th  cent.)     A  Briton  from  the  North  driven 

into  Wales  by  the  Picts.     He  became  a  monk 

under  St.  Sciriol  in  Anglesea.     Some  poems  of 

his  are  still  extant. 

*ELDATE  (ELDAD)  (St.)  (Feb.  4) 

Otherwise  St.  ALDATE,  which  see. 

ELEAZAR  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  23) 

See  SS.  M1NEIIVUS,  ELEAZAll,  Ac. 

ELEAZAR  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  1) 

One  of  the  MACHABEES,  which  see. 

ELEAZAR  (St.)  (Sept.  27) 

(14th  cent.)  A  nobleman  of  the  Diocese  of 
Avignon,  Count  of  Ariano  in  the  Kingdom  of 
Naples,  and  married  to  Delphina,  who  like  him 
is  honoured  as  a  Saint.  lie  was  distinguished, 
in  the  trying  and  difficult  circumstances  of  the 
turbulent  age  in  which  he  lived,  lor  his  scrupu- 
lous obsi  rvance  of  God's  Law,  ;i^  well  as  for  his 
practice  of  constant  penance  and  prayer.  To 
advance  themselves  yet  more  in  the  way  of 
perfection,    he   and   his    wife   became   fervent 

89 


ELERIUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


Tertiaries  of  St.  Francis,  tending  the  poor  and 
especially  the  lepers.  He  was  engaged  at 
Paris  as  Ambassador  from  the  King  of  Naples 
to  the  French  monarch,  when  death  overtook 
him  (a.d.  1325)  at  the  age  of  forty.  Together 
with  St.  Delphina  he  was  buried  at  Apt  in 
Provence.  Urban  V.  canonised  St.  Eleazar  in 
1369. 
*ELERIUS  (St.)  (Nov.  3) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Welsh  Saint  who  lived  in  the 
sixth  century,  and  who  is  mentioned  in  the 
traditions  concerning  St.  Winifred.  He  is 
supposed  to  have  presided  over  a  monastery 
in  North  Wales. 
ELESBAAN  (St.)  King.  (Oct.  27) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Christian  King  of  Ethiopia 
(Abyssinia)  in  the  first  half  of  the  sixth  century, 
who  distinguished  himself  by  his  warlike  and 
successful  expeditions  in  Arabia,  where  a 
Jewish  usurper  had  almost  exterminated  the 
Christianity  of  the  Southern  part  of  the  Penin- 
sula. In  these  wars  he  was  supported  by  the 
Byzantine  Emperors,  Justin  I.  and  Justinian. 
At  the  close  of  a  long  and  memorable  reign  St. 
Elesbaan  abdicated  and  ended  his  life  as  a  hermit 
in  the  exercises  of  prayer  and  penance.  He 
died  about  a.d.  555.  His  real  name  seems  to 
have  been  Caleb.  Hence,  the  Abyssinians 
style  him  Calam-Negus. 
*ELESMES  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  30) 

Otherwise  St.  ADELELMUS,  which  see. 
*ELETH  (St.)  (Nov.  10) 

(6th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Llaneleth 
in  Anglesea.  He  was  of  the  Cunedda  family, 
brother  of  SS.  Seriol  and  Meirion.  He  was 
surnamed  "  Frenluuin  "  (the  King),  and  lived 
in  the  sixth  century.  Two  hymns  of  his  com- 
position are  extant. 
ELEUCHADIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  14) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  learned  man  of  Greek  origin 
who  was  converted  and  ordained  deacon  by 
St.  Apollinaris,  and  who  governed  the  Church 
of  Ravenna,  together  with  other  deacons  and 
priests,  during  that  Saint's  four  years'  absence. 
Elected  a.d.  100,  on  account  of  the  miraculous 
apparition  of  a  dove  resting  over  his  head,  to 
succeed  St.  Aderitus,  who  had  followed  St. 
Apollinaris,  he  was  for  twelve  years  Bishop  of 
Ravenna.  He  died  Feb.  14,  A.D.  112,  and  was 
at  once  honoured  as  a  Saint.  His  relics  were 
subsequently  translated  to  Pa  via  in  Lorn- 
bardy. 
ELEUSIPPUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  17) 

See  SS.  SPEUSIPPUS,  ELEUSIPPUS,  &c. 
ELEUTHERIUS  of  TOURNAI  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Feb.  20) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Christian  of  Tournai,  chosen 
Bishop  of  that  city  (A.D.  486)  ten  years  before 
the  conversion  of  King  Clovis  and  his  Franks. 
His  great  work  was  the  evangelising  those  of 
that  nation  who  had  settled  in  and  near  Tournai. 
In  this  he  was  successful,  as  also  in  battling 
with  Arianism  at  that  time  rife  in  the  West  of 
Europe.  But  his  zeal  led  to  his  being  persecuted 
and  in  the  end  his  enemies  attacked  and  mur- 
dered him  at  his  church  door,  a.d.  532.  Some 
of  his  writings  are  still  extant. 
ELEUTHERIUS  of  CONSTANTINOPLE  (St.) 

Bp.,  M.  (Feb.  20) 

(Date  uncertain.)  A  Saint,  concerning  whose 
identity  there  is  much  dispute.  The  Bollandists 
believe  him  one  and  the  same  with  the  Byzantine 
Martyr  Eleutherius,  commemorated  with  others 
on  Aug.  4.  Others  will  have  him  to  have  been 
the  fifth  or  perhaps  the  eighth  Bishop  of  Byzan- 
tium, and  to  have  flourished  and  suffered  martyr- 
dom in  the  third  century. 
ELEUTHERIUS  and  ANTHIA  (SS.)  MM.  (April  18) 

(2nd  cent.)  Martyrs  at  Rome  under  Hadrian 
(A.D.  117-138).  St.  Eleutherius,  son  of  Eugeuius 
the  Consul,  a  cleric,  had  been  consecrated  by 
the  then  Pope  as  Bishop  of  Illyricum  ;  but 
while  preparing  to  repair  to  his  field  of  work  he 
was  arrested  as  a  Christian,  together  with 
St.  Anthia,  his  mother.  They  were  put  to  the 
torture    and    beheaded.     Part   of   their   relics 

90 


were  afterwards  transported  to  Constantinople, 
where  a  church  was  built  in  their  honour. 

ELEUTHERIUS  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (May  26) 

(2nd  cent.)  The  successor  in  St.  Peter's 
Chair  of  Pope  St.  Soter,  whose  deacon  he  had 
been.  During  his  Pontificate,  the  Fourth 
General  Persecution,  that  under  Marcus  Aurelius, 
took  place,  raging  chiefly  in  Gaul,  though  there 
were  Martyrs  also  in  Rome.  St.  Eleutherius 
had  likewise  to  deal  with  the  Montanist  heretics 
whom  he  exposed  and  condemned,  and  with 
some  forms  of  Gnosticism  then  rife  even  in 
Rome.  A  remarkable  event  of  the  Pontificate 
of  St.  Eleutherius  (variously  dated  A.d.  170-185, 
or  182-193)  was  his  sending  missionaries  to  the 
Pagans  of  Britain,  for  the  trustworthiness  of  the 
tradition  concerning  which  there  is  very  satis- 
fying evidence.  The  circumstances  of  the 
death  of  St  Eleutherius  are  not  known. 

ELEUTHERIUS  (St.)  (May  29) 

(12th  cent.)  He  is  said  to  have  been  a 
brother  of  SS.  Grimwald  and  Fulk,  and  to  have 
been  born  in  England.  He  died,  whilst  on  a 
pilgrimage,  at  Rocca  d'Arce,  near  Aquino  in 
the  Kingdom  of  Naples.  He  is  usually  set 
down  as  a  Saint  of  the  twelfth  century,  but  there 
is  great  uncertainty  both  as  to  his  date  and  to 
the  particulars  of  his  life. 

ELEUTHERIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  4) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Senator  and  Chamberlain  to 
the  Emperor  Maximian  Galerius  at  Constanti- 
nople. On  becoming  a  Christian  he  left  the 
Court  and  retired  to  a  country  estate  he  owned 
in  Bithynia.  There  he  was  arrested,  tortured 
and  beheaded  (before  A.D.  310).  His  body  was 
buried  near  the  place  of  his  martyrdom,  and  a 
church  afterwards  erected  there.  {See  the 
notice  of  St.  Eleutherius  of  Constantinople, 
Feb.  20). 

ELEUTHERIUS  and  LEONIDAS  (SS.)  MM.  (Aug.8) 
(Date  unknown.)    Martyrs  at  Constantinople, 
where  they  were  burned  to  death  for  the  Faith, 
but  in  which  of  the  early  persecutions  is  un- 
certain. 

ELEUTHERIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  16) 

(6th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Droctoald 
in  the  See  of  Auxerre  (a.d.  532).  His  Episcopate 
lasted  for  twenty-eight  years,  during  which  he 
assisted  at  the  four  Councils  of  Orleans.  Noth- 
ing further  is  now  known  concerning  him. 

ELEUTHERIUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Sept.  6) 

(6th  cent.)  The  head  of  a  monastery  near 
Spoleto  (Central  Italy)  in  the  time  of  Pope 
St.  Gregory  the  Great,  who  personally  experi- 
enced the  efficacy  of  his  prayers  and  super- 
natural gifts.  St.  Eleutherius  died  in  the 
monastery  of  St.  Andrew  (now  San  Gregorio), 
Rome,  about  a.d.  585,  and  his  relics  were  later 
translated  to  Spoleto. 

ELEUTHERIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  2) 
(4th  cent.)  A  group  of  Christians,  to  be 
counted  by  hundreds,  who  falsely  accused  of 
having  set  fire  to  Diocletian's  palace  at  Nico- 
media,  were  savagely  tortured  and  put  to  death 
in  that  city  (a.d.  303,  as  is  commonly  believed). 
But  there  were  two  great  fires  in  the  same  pile 
of  buildings,  with  an  interval  of  two  years 
between  them,  which  makes  the  precise  date 
of  the  martyrdom  uncertain.  Nor  is  it  clear 
how  far  the  company  who  suffered  with  the 
Bishop  St.  Anthimus  (April  27)  are  to  be 
distinguished  from  the  fellow-sufferers  with 
St.  Eleutherius.  Again,  this  St.  Eleutherius 
is  by  some  thought  to  be  identical  with  the 
Martyr  of  the  same  name  who  is  honoured  on 
Aug.  4,  and  may  possibly  be  also  the  Bishop- 
Martyr  of  Feb.  20.  The  whole  history  is  very 
hard  to  unravel. 

ELEUTHERIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  9) 

See  SS.  DIONYSIUS,  ELEUTHERIUS,  &c 

*ELEVATHA  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  1) 

Otherwise  St.  ALMEDHA,  which  see. 

*ELFLEDA  (EDILFREDA,  ETHELFREDA) 

(St.)  (Feb.  14) 

(8th   cent.)     A   Saxon   princess   consecrated 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ELISABETH 


to  God  from  her  infancy  by  her  father  Oswy 
of  Northumbria.  She  was  by  him  committed 
to  the  care  of  St.  Hilda  at  Whitby,  whom  she 
eventually  succeeded  as  Abbess.  St.  Elfleda 
died  a.d.  713. 

*ELFLEDA  (St.)  Widow.  (Oct.  23) 

(10th  cent.)  An  Anglo-Saxon  princess  who 
lived  as  a  Recluse  at  Glastonbury,  held  in  great 
veneration  by  St.  Dunstan,  to  whom  she  foretold 
the  year  and  day  of  her  own  death.  This  took 
place  about  the  middle  of  the  tenth  century. 
This  holy  widow  must  not  be  confused  with  her 
contemporary  and  namesake  the  Abbess  of 
Romsey,  though  their  festivals  were  kept  on 
the  same  dav. 

♦ELFLEDA  (ETHELFLEDA)  (St.)  V.        (Oct.  23) 

(10th  cent.)    One  of  the  nuns  of  St.  Modwenna 

at  Romsey,  to  the  government  of  which  Abbey 

she   eventually   succeeded.     She   lived   in   the 

first  half  of  the  tenth  century. 

♦ELFREDA  (St.)  V.  (May  20) 

Otherwise  St.  ALFREDA,  which  see. 

♦ELFRIC  (jELFRIC)  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  16) 

Otherwise  St.  ALFRIC,  which  see. 

♦ELGAR  (St.)  (June  14) 

(11th  cent.)  Born  in  Devonshire,  after  some 
years  of  captivity  in  Ireland,  he  settled  in  the 
Isle  of  Bardsey  off  the  coast  of  Carnarvon, 
where  he  lived  as  a  hermit  until  his  holy  death 
towards  the  year  1100. 

*ELGIVA  (St.)  Queen,  Widow.  (May  18) 

(10th  cent.)  The  mother  of  Kings  Edwy  and 
Edgar,  and  wife  of  King  Edmund,  the  brother 
of  Athelstan.  On  the  death  of  her  husband 
she  retired  to  King  Alfred's  monastery  at 
Shaftesbury,  and  there  closed  (a.d.  971)  a  life 
wholly  spent  in  the  discharge  of  her  duties  as 
wife  and  mother,  and  in  works  of  piety  and 
charity. 

♦ELIAN  (EILAN,  ALLAN)  (St.)  (Jan.  12) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Cornish  or  Breton  Saint  of 
the  princely  family  to  which  belonged  SS. 
Ismael,  Oudoceus,  Melorius,  Tugdual,  Judictel, 
and  other  holy  men.  He  has  given  his  name 
to  Llanelian  in  Anglesea,  and  was  Titular  of 
St.  Allan's  Church  in  Powder.  He  may  have 
followed  his  friend  St.  Cybi  into  Cornwall. 
Baring-Gould  calls  attention  to  the  not  infre- 
quent confusing  of  his  name  with  that  of  St. 
Hilary. 

♦ELIAN  AP  ERBIN  (St.)  (Jan.  12) 

(5th  cent.)  The  name  of  this  holy  man 
appears  in  some  Welsh  Calendars,  and  on  that 
account  is  given  in  the  English  Menology. 
He  is  possibly  identical  with  the  St.  Eloan, 
son  of  St.  Erbin,  Prince  of  Devon,  a  fifth  century 
Saint,  whose  Feast  is  also  kept  on  Jan.  12. 
He  would  therefore  be  other  than  the  St.  Elian 
or  Allan,  styled  "  the  pilgrim,"  who  lived 
perhaps  a  half  century  later. 

ELIAS,  JEREMIAS,  ISAIAS,  SAMUEL  and 
DANIEL  (SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  16) 

(4th  cent.)  Five  brothers,  who  on  their 
return  from  visiting  some  of  their  fellow- 
Christians  condemned  to  toil  in  the  mines  of 
Cilicia,  were  arrested  at  the  gates  of  Cpesarea 
in  Palestine,  and  after  being  put  to  the  torture, 
beheaded  (a.d.  309)  under  Galerius  Maximianus 
and  Maximin  Daza. 

ELIAS,  PAUL  and  ISIDORE  (SS.)  MM.  (April  17) 
(9th  cent.)  St.  Elias  was  a  priest  venerable 
for  age  and  virtue,  who  together  with  Paul  and 
Isidore,  two  young  Christians,  his  spiritual 
children,  suffered  for  Christ  (A.D.  856)  at  Cordova 
in  Spain  in  the  persecution  under  the  Caliph 
Mohammed.  St.  Eulogius  makes  special  men- 
tion of  them  in  his  History  of  the  Times. 

ELIAS  of  JERUSALEM  (St.)  Bp.  (July  4) 

See  SS.  FLAVIAN  and  ELIAS. 

ELIAS  (ELIJAH)  (St.)  Prophet.  (July  20) 

(8th  cent.  B.C.)  The  great  Prophet  raised  up 
in  the  Kingdom  of  Israel  to  reprove  the  Ten 
Fallen  Tribes,  and  whose  works  are  set  forth 
in  the  Third  and  Fourth  r.ook  of  Kings.  The 
tradition  is  that,  carried  away  from  this  world 


in  a  chariot  of  fire  (4  Kings,  ii.),  he  has  to 
reappear  upon  earth,  and  to  die  for  Christ  at 
the  end  of  time  (Apoc.  xi.).  The  Carmelite 
Order,  tracing  its  origin  to  the  "  sons  of  the 
prophets  "  (4  Kings,  i.  13),  venerates  St.  Elias 
as  its  founder.  His  Festival  is  kept  annually 
in  many  churches,  especially  in  the  East. 
ELIAS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Sept.  19) 

See  SS.  PELEUS,  NILUS,   &c. 
♦ELIER  (St.)  (July  16) 

Otherwise  St.  HELIER,  which  see. 
ELIGIUS  (ELOY)  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  1) 

(7th  cent.)  Born  near  Limoges  (a.d.  588), 
he  was  a  man  of  remarkable  piety  and  ability. 
By  his  skill  in  the  art  of  working  in  precious 
metals — he  is  the  Patron  Saint  of  metal-workers 
— he  acquired  a  place  and  influence  at  the 
Courts  of  Clotaire  II.  and  Dagobert  I.,  Kings 
of  the  Franks.  His  prospects  of  advancement 
he  relinquished  in  a.d.  640,  in  order  to  become 
a  priest,  distributing  the  wealth  which  he  had 
acquired  to  the  poor.  Consecrated  Bishop  of 
Noyon,  he  evangelised  a  great  part  of  Flanders, 
and  more  particularly  the  districts  round 
Antwerp,  Ghent  and  Courtray.  His  death 
probably  took  place  A.D.  658  or  659  ;  but  by 
some  authors  it  is  post-dated  to  a.d.  665. 
*ELINED  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  1) 

Otherwise  St.  ALMEDHA,  which  see. 

The  name  is  also  written  ELLYW,  and  the 
Saint   is   probably   the   one   ivhose   memory   is 
perpetuated  in  the  Welsh  place-name  Llanelly. 
ELIPHIUS  (ELOFF)  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  16) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian,  some  say  by  birth 
an  Irishman  or  a  Scot,  who  suffered  at  Toul  in 
France  under  Julian  the  Apostate  (a.d.  362). 
His  relics  were  translated  in  the  tenth  century 
to  Cologne. 
ELISABETH  of  SCHONAUGE  (St.)  V.      (June  18) 

(12th  cent.)  A  Benedictine  nun  of  the  Abbey 
of  Schonauge,  near  Bingen  on  the  Rhine,  of 
which  monastery  she  was  for  many  years  Ab- 
bess. Her  sufferings  from  ill-health  were  life- 
long, but  borne  with  marvellous  cheerfulness. 
The  friend  of  St.  Hildegarde,  she,  like  that  great 
contemplative,  was  favoured  with  heavenly 
visions,  and  wrote  valuable  books  on  Mystical 
Theology.  She  died  a.d.  1165  at  the  age  of 
thirty-six.  Her  name  was  inserted  in  the 
Roman  Martyrology,  though  she  does  not 
appear  ever  to  have  been  formally  canonised. 
ELISABETH,  QUEEN  OF  PORTUGAL  (St.) 

Widow.  (July  8) 

(14th  cent.)  The  daughter  of  Peter  II., 
King  of  Aragon,  born  in  1271.  Educated  with 
great  care  from  her  earliest  years,  she  gave 
constant  proofs  of  her  spirit  of  self-denial  and 
prayer.  At  the  age  of  twelve  she  was  married 
to  Dionysius,  King  of  Portugal,  becoming  for 
the  King  and  Court  a  striking  pattern  of  every 
virtue.  Her  charity  to  the  poor  and  her 
continuous  endeavours  to  prevent  hostilities 
breaking  out  between  her  relatives  the  Kings 
of  Portugal  and  Castile,  were  characteristic 
of  her  sanctity.  After  the  death  of  her  husband 
(A.D.  1325)  she  took  the  habit  of  the  Third 
Order  of  St.  Francis,  and  devoted  herself  to 
good  works.  She  died  at  Estremos  (A.D.  1336), 
and  was  canonised  (A.D.  1625)  by  Pope  Urban 
VIII. 
ELISABETH  (St.)  Widow.  (Nov.  5) 

The  mother  o>f  St.  John  the  Baptist.  There 
are  legends  and  traditions  extant  concerning 
her ;  but  our  knowledge  is  really  limited  to 
what  we  gather  from  the  first  chapter  of  St. 
Luke's  Gospel.  In  their  commentaries  upon 
this  Gospel,  however,  the  Holy  Fathers  often 
dwell  at  length  upon  the  sanctity  of  her  life. 
ELISABETH  of  HUNGARY  (St.)  Widow.  (Nov.  19) 

(13th  cent.)  The  daughter  of  Alexander  II., 
King  of  Hungary,  born  A.D.  1207,  and  when  only 
four  years  of  age,  promised  in  marriage  to 
Louis,  son  of  the  Landgrave  of  Thuringia. 
She  was  educated  at  the  Thuringian  Court, 
where  she  suffered  much  from  the  jealousy  of  her 

91 


ELISEUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


future  relatives.  Louis,  however,  to  whom  she 
was  married  in  1221 ,  proved  himself  a  husband 
worthy  of  her.  With  his  permission,  and  to 
his  secret  delight,  she  multiplied  her  works  of 
mercy  ;  for  her  love  of  the  poor  was  boundless. 
Even  in  her  dress  she  sought  to  be  like  them. 
On  her  husband's  death  at  Otranto  in  1227, 
while  on  his  way  with  the  Emperor  Frederick 
Barbarossa  to  take  part  in  the  defence  of  the 
Holy  Land,  she  with  her  children  was  stripped 
of  everything  and  reduced  to  the  direst  straits 
by  an  opposing  faction,  headed  by  her  brother- 
in-law.  Befriended  at  length,  and  having  seen 
her  son  Herman  reinstated  in  his  inheritance, 
she  took  the  habit  of  the  Third  Order  of  St. 
Francis  (of  which  she  is  the  Patron  Saint), 
and  remaining  in  the  world,  busied  herself  to 
the  day  of  her  death  (Nov.  19,  1231)  in  works 
of  charity  and  piety.  Her  relics  are  enshrined 
at  Marpurg,  the  place  of  her  decease,  in  Thurin- 
gia.  She  was  canonised  only  four  years  after 
her  death  by  Pope  Gregory  IX. 

ELISEUS  (ELISHA)  (St.)  Prophet.  (June  14) 

(8th  cent.  B.C.)  The  holy  man  on  whom  fell 
the  mantle  of  Elias,  and  who  continued  the  work 
of  that  great  Prophet,  as  is  described  in  the 
Fourth  Book  of  Kings.  In  the  age  of  St. 
Jerome,  his  grave  in  Samaria  was  shown  as 
containing  also  the  body  of  St.  Abdias  the 
Prophet.  The  Feast  of  St.  Eliseus  is  kept 
by  the  Carmelite  Order  and  also  generally  in 
the  East. 

*ELLIDIUS  (ILLOD)  (St.)  (Aug.  8) 

(7th  cent.)     Patron  Saint,  as  would  appear, 

of  Hirnant  (Montgomery),  and  of  a  church  in 

the    Scilly   Islands.     The   name    "  St.    Helen's 

Isle  "  is  a  corrupt  variant  of  St.  Ellidius's  Isle. 

*ELLYN  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  1) 

Otherwise  St.  ALMEDHA,  which  see. 

*ELMO  (St.)  (April  15) 

Otherwise  Bl.  PETER  GONZALEZ,  which 
see.  But  the  name  ELMO  usually  stands  for  an 
abbreviation  of  that  of  St.  ERASMUS  (June  2). 

*ELOAN  (St.)  (Jan.  12) 

Otherwise  St.  ELIAN  AP  ERBYN,  which  see. 

ELOF  (ELOPHIUS)  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  10) 

Otherwise  St.  ELIPHIUS,  which  see. 

ELOI  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  1) 

Otherwise  St.  ELIGIUS,  which  see. 

*ELPHAGE  (ALPHAGE)  (St.)  Bp.  (March  12) 
(10th  cent.)  Called  the  Elder  to  distinguish 
him  from  his  more  famous  namesake,  the 
Martyr  of  Canterbury  and  Greenwich.  St. 
Elphege  the  Elder,  a  monk  of  singularly  holy 
life,  succeeded  St.  Birstan  in  the  See  of  Win- 
chester, where  he  died,  and  his  relics  were 
enshrined  (a.d.  951). 

ELPHEGE  (ALPHAGE)  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (April  19) 
(11th  cent.)  Born  A.D.  954,  of  a  noble  Saxon 
family,  he  became  a  monk,  and  afterwards 
Abbot  of  the  monastery  he  had  founded  near 
Bath.  In  the  year  984  he  was  chosen  Bishop 
of  Winchester,  and  in  1000  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury.  The  following  year  the  Danes 
sacked  Canterbury,  carrying  off  the  holy 
Archbishop,  for  whom  they  expected  a  large 
ransom  ;  but  he  refused  to  allow  his  Church 
to  put  itself  to  such  expense  for  him.  He  was 
therefore  kept  in  prison  at  Greenwich  for  seven 
months,  and,  because  he  still  refused  to  charge 
his  Church  with  his  ransom,  was  stoned  and 
finally  done  to  death  by  a  swordstroke  (A.D. 
1002).  He  fell  asleep  in  Christ,  truly  a 
Martyr,  with  his  last  breath  praying  for  his 
murderers. 

ELPIDEPHORUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  4) 

See  SS.  ACINDYNUS,  PEGASIUS,   &c. 

ELPIDIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (March  1) 

See  SS.  BASIL,  EUGENE,   &c. 

ELPIPIUS(T.)  (Sept.  1) 

See  SS.  PRISCUS  and  ELPIDIUS. 

ELPIDIUS  (St.)   Bp.  (Sept.  2) 

(5th  cent.)     The  successor  of  St.  Antiochus 

in  the  See  of  Lyons.     After  a  saintly  Pontificate 

he  passed  away  (a.d.  422),  and  was  buried   in 

92 


the  church  of  St.  Justus  in  his  Episcopal  city, 

and  honoured  as  a  Saint.     The  particulars  of 

his  life  are  lost. 

ELPIDIUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Sept.  2) 

(4th   cent.)     A   hermit   in   Cappadoeia   who 

in   the    fourth    century   lived    for   twenty-five 

years  in  a  cave  on  a  mountain  side,  and  gathered 

round  him  numerous  disciples.     His  relics  were 

brought  to  a  village  in  the  Marches  of  Ancona 

(Central  Italy),  now  called  Sant'  Elpidio,  where 

they  attract  many  pilgrims.     A  late  tradition 

avers  that  he  preached  and  died  in  that  very 

place,  indicating,  it  is  likely,  some  confusion 

between  two  Saints  of  the  same  name. 

ELPIDIUS,     MARCELLUS,     EUSTOCHIUS     and 

OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  10) 

(4th    cent.)     Elpidius,    a    dignitary    at    the 

Court  of  the  Emperor  Constantius,   degraded 

by    Julian    the    Apostate,    having    generously 

confessed   the    Faith   in   the   presence   of   the 

latter,  is  said  to  have  been,  with  his  companions, 

fastened  to  wild  horses  and  in  the  end  to  have 

perished  at  the  stake,  A.D.  5£2r" 

ELPIS  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  1) 

See  SS.  FAITH,  HOPE  and  CHARITY. 
*ELRIC  (St.)  (Jan.  7) 

Otherwise  St.  ALDRICUS,  which  see. 

*ELSTAN  (St.)  Bp.  (April  0) 

(10th  cent.)     A  monk  of  Abingdon,  trained 

under  the  Abbot  St.  Ethelwald,  and  afterwards 

Bishop   of   Wilton   near    Salisbury,    where   he 

died  A.D.  981. 

*ELVAN  and  MYDWYN  (SS.)  (Jan.  1) 

(2nd    cent.)     The    two    Britons    alleged    by 

tradition  to  have  been  sent  by  King  St.  Lucius 

to  Pope  St.  Eleutherius  to  beg  for  missionaries 

to  Britain,  as  a  result  of  which  petition  SS. 

Fugatius  and  Damian  came  to  South  Wales. 

St.  Elvan  is  alleged  to  have  become  a  Bishop  ; 

and  Glastonbury  is  given  as  the  place  of  burial 

of  both  him  and  St.  Mydwyn. 

ELVIS  (St.)  (Feb.  22) 

Otherwise    St.    ELWYN    or    ALLEYN,    or 

ALLAN,  or  ELIAN,  which  last  see. 

*ELWYN  (ALLAN,  ALLEYN)  (St.)  (Feb.  22) 

(Gth  cent.)     Said  to  have  been  one  of  the 

holy  men  who  accompanied  St.  Breaca  from 

Ireland  to  Cornwall,  and  perhaps  the  title  Saint 

of   St.   Allen's   Church   in   that   county.     But 

the  traditions  are  very  perplexing.     See  also 

St.  ELOAN. 

ELZEAR  (St.)  (Sept.  27) 

Otherwise  St.  ELEAZAR,  which  see. 
EMERENTIANA  (St.)  V.M.  (Jan.  23) 

(4th  cent.)  Emerentiana,  the  foster-sister 
of  St.  Agnes,  the  famous  Roman  Virgin-Martyr, 
while  as  yet  only  a  catechumen  awaiting  Bap- 
tism, was  discovered  by  the  Pagan  Roman  mob 
praying  at  the  tomb  of  her  mistress,  and  was 
stoned  to  death  (A.D.  304). 
EMERIC  (St.)  (Nov.  4) 

(11th  cent.)  The  son  of  St.  Stephen,  the 
first  Christian  King  of  Hungary.  He  was 
remarkable  for  his  piety  and  for  his  austere 
virtue,  and  was  favoured  by  Almighty  God 
with  many  supernatural  gifts.  He  died  still 
a  youth  (A.D.  1031),  and  the  many  miracles 
which  took  place  at  his  tomb,  together  with 
the  insistency  of  the  Hungarian  people,  led  to 
his  canonisation  (A.D.  1083). 
EMERTERIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  3) 

Otherwise  St.  HEMETERIUS,  which  see. 
EMILIAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Nov.  12) 

Otherwise  St.  ^EMILIAN,  which  see. 
EMERITA  (St.)  V.M.  (Sept.  22) 

See  SS.  DIGNA  and  EMERITA. 
EMIDIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Aug.  5) 

Otherwise  St.  EMYGDIUS,  which  sec. 
EMILAS  and  JEREMIAS  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept,  15) 

(9th  cent.)    Two  Christian  youths  (of  whom 
the    former    was    a    deacon),    imprisoned    and 
beheaded  for  the  Faith  at  Cordova  (a.d.  SiyS) 
under  the  Caliph  Abdurrahman. 
*EMMA  (St.)  Widow.  (June  29) 

Otherwise  St.  HEMMA,  which  see. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ENOGATUS 


♦EMMA  (St.)  V.  (Sept.  24) 

Otherwise  St.  AMA,  which  see. 
EMMANUEL  (St.)  M.  (March  26) 

See  SS.  QUADKATUS,  THEODOS1US,   &c. 
EMMELIA  (St.)  Widow.  (May  30) 

See  SS.  BASIL  and  EMMELIA. 
EMMERAMUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Sept.  22) 

(7th  cent.)  A  native  of  Poitiers  in  France, 
where  he  was  raised  to  the  Episcopate  on 
account  of  his  learning  and  holiness  of  life. 
In  the  year  648  he  set  out  to  preach  Christianity 
in  Germany,  and  fixed  his  See  at  Ratisbon  in 
Bavaria,  induced  thereto  by  King  Sigebert  III. 
In  653,  while  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome,  he  was 
set  upon  at  a  place  called  Helffendorff  by  the 
emissaries  of  Lauthbert,  a  young  noble  of 
dissolute  life,  and  put  to  death.  The  shrine  of 
St.  Emmeramus  is  at  Ratisbon. 
EMYGDIUS  (EMIDIUS)  (St.)  Bp.,  M.         (Aug.  5) 

(4th  cent.)  Said  to  have  been  a  native  of 
Germany  who,  converted  to  Christianity  and 
coming  to  Rome,  was  consecrated  Bishop  by 
Pope  St.  Marcellus  and  sent  as  missionary  to 
Ascoli  in  the  Marches  of  Ancuona,  where  he  was 
put  to  death  under  Diocletian  (a.d.  303  or  304). 
His  relics  are  in  great  veneration,  and  many 
miracles  have  been  wrought  at  his  tomb. 
ENCRATIS  (ENGRATIA)  (St.)  V.M.  (April  16) 

(4th  cent.)    A  Christian  maiden  of  Saragossa 
in  Spain,  one  of  the  numerous  victims  of  the  fury 
of  the  persecution  under  Diocletian  (a.d.  306). 
*ENDEUS  (EDNA,  ENNA)  (St.)  Abbot.  (March  21) 

(6th  cent.)  The  brother  of  St.  Fanchea  and 
founder  of  many  monasteries  of  which  the 
principal  one  was  at  Killeany  in  the  Arran 
Islands  (Ireland).  St.  Endeus  counted  SS. 
Kyran  of  Clonmacnoise  and  Brendan  among 
his  disciples.  He  died  early  in  the  sixth 
centurv. 
ENGELBERT  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Nov.  7) 

(13th  cent.)  A  German  of  noble  birth  who 
(a.d.  1215)  succeeded  a  troublesome  and  un- 
worthy Bishop  in  the  important  See  of  Cologne, 
in  which  he  soon  re-established  peace  and  good 
order,  while  himself  becoming  conspicuous  on 
account  of  his  wise  and  considerate  administra- 
tion and  of  his  virtuous  life.  The  Emperor 
Frederick  II  made  him  tutor  of  the  prince  his 
son  ;  also  for  a  time  his  chief  minister  for  the 
government  of  the  Imperial  dominions  north 
of  the  Alps.  Many  were  the  abuses  and 
injustices  he  corrected.  An  evildoer  forced  by 
the  Saint  to  restore  certain  ill-gotten  goods, 
plotted  his  death,  and  while  travelling  in  his 
company  bad  him  murdered  by  hired  assassins 
(Nov.  7,  1225).  Numerous  miracles  wrought  at 
liis  tomb  speedily  attested  the  sanctity  of 
St.  Engelbert. 
♦ENGELMUND  (St.)  (June  21) 

(8th  cent.)     An  Anglo-Saxon  Saint,  fellow- 
missionary    with    St.    Willibrord    in    Holland, 
where  he  died  late  in  the  eighth  century.     His 
relics  arc  enshrined  at  Utrecht. 
*ENGELMUND  (St.)  (June  21) 

(8th     cent.)     An     Anglo-Saxon,     a     fellow- 
missionary   with   St.   Willebrord.     He  died  at 
Haarlem,  where  he  is  venerated  as  a  Saint. 
♦ENGHENEDL.  (Sept.  30) 

(7th  cent.)     A  Welsh  Saint,  to  whom  a  church 
in    Anglesey    is    dedicated.     Nothing    is    now 
known  about  his  life. 
♦ENGLACIUS  (ENGLAT)  (St.)  Abbot.       (Nov.  3) 

(10th  cent.)  a.d.  966  is  given  as  the  date  of 
the  death  of  this  Scottish  Saint,  who  by  some 
is  said  to  have  been  a  Bishop.  He  lived  at 
Tarves  in  Aberdeenshire,  where  he  is  known 
as  St.  Tanglan. 
♦ENGLAND  (MARTYRS  OF)  (BI.)  (May  4) 

(16th  cent.)  By  these  are  meant  not  all  who 
in  various  ages  have  laid  down  their  lives  for 
Christ  in  England,  but  only  the  holy  men  and 
women  put  to  death  for  professing  the  Catholic 
Religion,  the  Faith  of  their  Fathers,  in  the 
persecution  consequent  on  the  so-called  Refor- 
mation between  the  years  1535  and  1681.     They 


are  about  six  hundred  in  number.  Of  these, 
fifty-four  were  beatified  bv  Pope  Leo  XIII  on 
Dec.  9,  1886,  and  nine  others  on  May  15,  1895. 
It  is  a  festival  in  their  honour  which  is  in 
England  kept  annually  on  May  4,  and  a  brief 
notice  of  each  one  will  be  found  in  the  present 
volume.  Prominent  among  them  are  Blessed 
John  Fisher,  Bishop  of  Rochester,  Blessed 
Thomas  More,  the  Martyrs  of  the  London 
Charterhouse,  &c.  The  cases  of  253  others  of 
these  Servants  of  God  are  now  being  officially 
enquired  into  in  Rome,  and  pending  the  investi- 
gation they  are  styled  "  Venerable,"  a  prima 
facie  case  having  been  already  made  out.  It  is 
proved  that  they  all  suffered  death  at  the 
hands  of  the  public  executioner,  after  having 
been  in  the  majority  of  cases  put  to  the  torture. 
But  in  not  a  few  instances,  proofs  have  still 
to  be  brought  that  they  suffered  on  account  of 
their  religion,  and  not  merely  on  charges,  true 
or  false,  of  treason  or  other  crimes.  There 
still  remain  284  sufferers  of  whose  claim  to  be 
regarded  as  Martyrs  the  Church  has  not  as  yet 
taken  cognisance. 

*ENGLAT  (TANGLEN)  (St.)  Abbot.  (Nov.  3) 

(10th  cent.)  A  Saint  with  an  Office  in  the 
Aberdeen  Breviary.  He  may  have  been  a 
Bishop,  but  the  particulars  of  his  life  have 
not  been  preserved.  He  died  at  Tarves, 
Aberdeen,  probably  about  a.d.  966. 

*ENNA  (ENDA)  (St.)  Abbot.  (March  21) 

Otherwise  St.  ENDEUS,  which  see. 

ENNATHA  (St.)  V.M.  (Nov.  13) 

See  SS.  ANTONINUS,  ZEBINA,  &c. 

ENNECO  (INIGO)  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  1) 

(11th  cent.)  The  second  Abbot  of  Onia, 
a  Spanish  monastery  founded  by  King  Sancho 
the  Great  of  Navarre  and  transferred  to  Bene- 
dictine monks  of  the  Cluniac  Observance. 
St.  Inigo  governed  this  Abbey  from  A.D.  1038 
to  a.d.  1057,  in  which  year  he  passed  away, 
famous  for  sanctity  and  austerity  of  life,  and 
also  for  numerous  miracles. 

ENNODIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (July  17) 

(6th  cent.)  Born  in  Cisalpine  Gaul  (Northern 
Italy),  or  perhaps  at  Aries  (a.d.  473),  and  well 
versed  in  Rhetoric  and  in  the  science  of  his 
time,  he  married  a  rich  and  noble  lady.  But 
after  recovering  from  a  dangerous  illness,  he 
consecrated  himself  to  God  (taking  deacon's 
orders),  and  his  wife  retired  into  a  convent. 
Consecrated  Bishop  of  Pavia  (Lombardy) 
A.D.  510,  he  was  twice  sent  by  Pope  Hormisdas 
as  his  Legate  to  the  Eastern  Emperor  Anas- 
tasius,  to  try  to  induce  the  latter  to  cease 
from  favouring  Eutychianism  (the  heresy  of 
those  who  denied  to  Christ  a  real  human 
nature  like  our  own).  On  the  last  occasion  he 
endured  much  ill-treatment  at  Constantinople, 
and  barely  escaped  thence  with  his  life.  Return- 
ing to  Pavia  he  laboured  with  much  zeal  for  the 
temporal  and  spiritual  welfare  of  his  flock. 
He  died  four  years  later  (A.D.  521).  The  poems 
and  ascetical  tracts  of  St.  Ennodius  are  inter- 
esting, though  as  literature  they  suffer  greatly 
from  the  defective  taste  of  the  age  in  which  he 
lived. 

♦ENOCH  (St.)  V.  (March  25) 

Otherwise  St.  KENNOCHA,  which  see. 

♦ENODER  (CYNIDR)  (St.)  Abbot.  (April  27) 

(6th  cent.)  A  grandson  of  the  Welsh  chieftain 
Brychan  of  Brecknock.  Llanginydr  in  Here- 
fordshire perpetuates  his  memory,  as  also  pos- 
sibly St.  Enoder  or  Enodoc  in  Cornwall.  He  is 
the  Breton  St.  Quidic.  His  contemporary  in 
the  sixth  century,  St.  Wenedoc  or  Enodoc, 
can  with  difficulty  be  discriminated  from  him. 

♦ENODOCH  (WENEDOC)  (St.)  V.  (March  7) 

(6th  cent.)  A  Welsh  Spirit  of  the  great 
Brychan  race,  possibly  identical  with  St. 
Gwendydd,  daughter  of  the  famous  chieftain 
Brychan  of  Brecknock.  She  cannot  have 
flourished  later  than  A.D.  520. 

♦ENOGATUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  13) 

(7th  cent.)    The  fifth  successor  of  St.  Male 

93 


EOBAN 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


in  the  See  of  Aleth  in  Brittany.  He  died 
A.D.  631. 

EOBAN  (St.)  M.  (June  5) 

(8th  cent.)  A  fellow-labourer  in  Germany 
with  St.  Boniface  and  a  sharer  in  his  martyrdom 
(A.d.  754).  He  is  claimed  as  of  Irish  descent. 
and  is  also  asserted  to  have  been  consecrated 
Assistant  Bishop  of  Utrecht,  where  his  remains 
were  venerated  until  enshrined  at  Erfurth,  the 
scene  of  many  miracles  worked  by  his  inter- 
cession 

♦EOCHOD  (St.)  (Jan.  25) 

(7th  cent.)  One  of  St.  Columbkille's  twelve 
companions,  and  chosen  by  him  to  Christianise 
the  people  of  North  Britain.  He  is  called  the 
Apostle  of  the  Picts  of  Galloway.  He  appears 
to  have  survived  St.  Columba,  who  died  a.d. 
597. 

*EOGAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  23) 

Otherwise  St.  EUGENE,  which  see. 

EPAGATHUS  (St.)  M.  (June  2) 

See  SS.  PHOTINUS,  SANCTUS,   &c. 

EPAPHRAS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (July  19) 

(1st  cent.)  "  The  most  beloved  fellow- 
servant  "  of  St.  Paul  (Col.  i.  7).  He  is  tradition- 
ally said  to  have  been  Bishop  of  Colosse  and  to 
have  suffered  there  for  Christ.  But  beyond 
what  we  read  of  him  in  Scripture  (Coloss.  i.  7  ; 
iv.  12 ;  Philem.  23)  we  know  nothing  of  his 
life. 

EPAPHRODITUS  (St.)  Bp.  (March  22) 

(First  cent.)  The  name  occurs  (Phil.  ii.  25) 
as  that  of  an  Apostle  sent  to  the  Philippians 
by  St.  Paul.  Hence,  St.  Epaphroditus  is 
reputed  first  Bishop  of  Philippi  (Macedonia). 
Again,  we  have  Epaphroditus,  first  Bishop  of 
Andriacia  (Lycia),  and  lastly  Epaphroditus, 
sent  as  its  first  Bishop  to  Terracina  in  the  south 
of  Italy.  All  are  of  the  Apostolic  Age,  and  all 
are  said  to  have  been  of  the  seventy-two 
disciples  chosen  by  Christ  (Luke  x.  1).  There 
are  no  data  for  elucidating  the  problems 
involved. 

EPARCHIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  23) 

See  SS.  DOMITIUS,  PELAGIA,  &c. 

EPARCHIUS  (CYBAR)  (St.)  Abbot.  (July  1) 

(6th  cent.)  Born  in  Perigord  (France) 
a.d.  504,  and  heir  to  the  Dukedom  of  that 
Province.  He  preferred,  however,  to  become 
a  monk  at  Sessac.  Later,  desirous  of  a  still 
more  retired  and  more  austere  life,  he  came  to 
Angouleme  (a.d.  542),  and  with  the  help  of 
St.  Aphtonius,  Bishop  of  the  city,  was  solemnly 
enclosed  in  a  cavern  close  by.  He  had  already 
received  the  priesthood,  and  his  sanctity  and 
the  numerous  miracles  he  wrought  drew  great 
crowds  to  listen  to  his  preaching.  From  his 
retreat  he  also  directed  certain  monks,  who 
eventually  founded  a  monastery  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood. He  died  a.d.  581,  and  was  chosen 
to  be  the  Patron  Saint  of  the  Diocese  of  Angou- 
leme. His  relics,  reverenced  for  a  thousand 
years,  were  destroyed  by  the  Huguenots  in  the 
sixteenth  century. 

EPHEBUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  14) 

See  SS.  PROCULUS,  EPHEBUS,   &c. 

EPHESUS  (MARTYRS  OF).  (Jan.  12) 

(8th  cent.)  Forty-two  monks  of  blameless 
lives,  zealous  opponents  of  the  Iconoclasts,  on 
which  account  their  monastery  at  Ephesus  was 
burned  down,  and  they  themselves  put  to 
torture  and  death  by  the  persecuting  Emperor 
Constantine  Copronymus,  about  A.D.  762. 

EPHRvEM  THE  SYRIAN  (St.)  (Feb.  1) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Father  of  the  Church,  a  great 
orator  and  a  true  poet,  who  has  left  us  a  con- 
siderable body  of  writings  of  which  his  Exposi- 
tion of  the  Scriptures  is  the  most  notable. 
Born  in  Mesopotamia  of  Christian  parents, 
he  became  a  monk  while  still  young,  and 
appears  to  have  been  present  at  the  Council 
of  Nicsea  (a.d.  325)  as  deacon  or  attendant 
upon  one  of  the  Bishops.  The  chief  scene  of 
his  labours  was  Edessa  (Orfa),  where  he  taught 
in  the  schools  and  became  famous  for  his  skill 
94 


and  success  in  controversy.  The  last  years  of 
his  life  he  passed  in  solitude,  dying  at  an 
advanced  age,  a.d.  378. 

EPHREM  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (March  4) 

See  SS.  BASILIUS,  EUGENIUS,   &c. 

EPHYSIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  15) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Palestinian  who,  coming  to 
Borne,  gained  the  favour  of  the  Emperor 
Diocletian,  and  was  by  him  made  Governor  of 
the  Island  of  Sardinia,  where  he  was  converted 
to  Christianity,  and  in  consequence  degraded 
from  his  office,  tortured  and  beheaded  about 
A.D.  303. 

EPICHARIS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  27) 

(4th  cent.)  A  holy  Christian  woman,  mar- 
tyred at  Borne,  or,  as  some  say,  at  Constan- 
tinople, in  the  persecution  under  Diocletian  at 
the  beginning  of  the  fourth  century. 

EPICTETUS,  JUCUNDUS,  SECUNDUS,  VITALIS, 
FELIX  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Jan.  9) 

(3rd  cent.)  Twelve  African  Martyrs,  prob- 
ably of  the  Decian  persecution  (a.d.  250).  One 
of  the  Epistles  of  St.  Cyprian  is  addressed  to  a 
Bishop  Epictetus,  conjectured  to  be  the  Epic- 
tetus  commemorated  on  this  day. 

EPICTETUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  22) 

See  SS.  MABTIAL,  SATURNINUS,   &c. 

EPIGMENIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  24) 

(4th  cent.)  A  priest  mentioned  as  having 
baptised  St.  Crescentius,  a  child-martyr  of  the 
persecution  under  Diocletian.  It  is  nowhere 
stated  that  he  himself  perished  by  the  sword. 
Hence,  probably  he  is  really  to  be  numbered 
only  among  Confessors. 

EPIMACHUS  (St.)  M.  (May  10) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Christian  of  Alexandria  in 
Egypt,  burned  there  at  the  stake  in  the  Decian 
persecution  (A.d.  250),  and  commemorated  by 
the  Church  together  with  St.  Gordian  on 
May  10,  and  likewise  with  St.  Alexander,  his 
fellow-sufferer,  on  Dec.  12. 

EPIPHANA  (St.)  M.  (July  12) 

(Date  uncertain.)  Mentioned  in  the  very 
untrustworthy  Acts  of  St.  Alphius  and  his 
fellow-sufferers,  and  consequently  dated  in  the 
Roman  Martyrology  as  a  Martyr  under  Dio- 
cletian. It  is  more  likely  that  she  suffered 
under  Licinius  after  A.d.  307,  and  more  probable 
still  that  she  was  one  of  the  Sicilian  Martyrs  of 
the  Decian  persecution  (a.d.  250). 

EPIPHANIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  21) 

(5th  cent.)  Born  at  Pavia  in  Lombardy 
(a.d.  439),  and  elected  Bishop  of  that  city  in 
467.  His  sanctity  and  his  gift  of  miracles  won 
him  great  credit  with  the  rulers  of  his  time — a 
credit  which  he  used  for  the  good  of  his  flock 
and  for  securing  peace  to  his  Church.  He 
rebuilt  Pavia  after  its  destruction  by  Odoacer. 
He  died  A.D.  497,  and  his  relics  were  translated 
(a.d.  963)  to  Hildesheim  in  Lower  Saxony. 
His  Life  (still  extant)  was  written  by  St. 
Ennodius,  his  successor. 

EPIPHANIUS,  DONATUS,  RUFINUS  and 

OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  7) 

(Date  unknown.)  St.  Epiphanius  was  an 
African  Bishop  of  unknown  date  and  See. 
The  Martyrologies  commemorate  him  as  having 
suffered  for  Christ,  together  with  fifteen  of  his 
flock. 

EPIPHANIUS  of  SALAMIS  (St.)  Bp.  (May  12) 
(5th  cent.)  A  famous  Eastern  Father,  a 
native  of  Palestine  and  a  monk  from  his  earliest 
youth.  He  was  an  intimate  friend  of  St. 
Hilarion  and  later  of  St.  Jerome.  He  was 
called  to  Borne  for  his  counsel  by  Pope  St. 
Damasus,  and  was  in  so  great  repute  for  holiness 
of  life  and  for  learning  that  the  Arians  did  not 
dare  to  banish  him  from  his  See  of  Salamis 
(Costanza)  in  Cyprus,  though  they  had  driven 
almost  every  other  prominent  Catholic  Bishop 
into  exile.  He  preached  and  wrote  unceasingly 
against  the  heresies  of  his  own  and  preceding 
centuries  (the  confuting  in  detail  of  each  of 
which  is  the  subject-matter  of  his  best-known 
work),  and  was  a  pillar  of  the  Faith  against  the 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


ERKENWALD 


(Jan.  24) 

(Sept.  15) 

(Aug.  11) 
Religious 


Arians,  as  also  against  the  errors  of  certain 
followers  of  Origen.  He  died  at  an  advanced 
age  a.d.  403. 

EPIPODIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  22) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  young  Christian  of  Lyons, 
who  with  his  friend  Alexander  was  discovered 
in  the  hiding-place  in  which  they  had  concealed 
themselves,  put  to  the  torture  and  beheaded 
on  account  of  their  religion  under  the  Emperor 
Marcus  Aurelius,  a.d.  178. 

EPISTEMIS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  5) 

See  SS.  GALATION  and  EPISTEMIS. 

EPITACIUS  and  BASILEUS  (SS.)  MM.  (May  23) 
(1st  cent.)  Epitacius  (variously  written 
Epictetus,  Epictritus,  &c.)  and  Basileus,  both 
looked  upon  as  Bishops  of  the  Apostolic  Age, 
have  been  in  veneration  in  Spain  from  time 
immemorial,  but  there  has  not  come  down  to 
us  any  reliable  account  of  their  lives  and 
asserted  martyrdom. 

EPOLONIUS  (St.)  M. 

See  SS.  BABYLAS,  URBAN,   &c. 

EPVRE  (EVRE)  (St.)  Bp. 

Otherwise  St.  APRUS,  which  see. 

EQUITIUS  (St.)  Abbot. 

(6th  cent.)  The  Superior  of  a 
House  in  the  Province  of  Valeria  (a  district  to 
the  East  of  Rome).  Though  not  a  priest,  he 
preached  with  assiduity  and  success,  bringing 
many  sinners  back  to  God,  from  whom  he  had 
received  the  gift  of  the  working  of  miracles. 
His  life  of  prayer  and  penance  ended  March  7, 
A.D.  540  ;  but  his  Festival  is  kept  on  August  11, 
anniversary  of  the  Translation  of  his  relics  to 
Aquila.  St.  Gregory  the  Great  devotes  a 
considerable  portion  of  the  First  Book  of  his 
Dialogues  to  the  giving  an  account  of  the 
virtues  and  wonderful  works  of  St.  Equitius. 

ERARD  (EBERHARD,  EVERARD)     (Jan.  8) 
(St.)  Bp. 

(7th  cent.)  One  of  the  Irish  Apostles  of 
Bavaria,  who  is  said  to  have  been  Bishop  of 
Ardagh  before  setting  out  on  his  mission  to 
Germany.  He  flourished  in  the  seventh  century 
and  for  some  time  shared  the  solitude  of  St. 
Hidulphus  in  the  Vosges  mountains.  Ratisbon 
was  the  chief  centre  of  his  Apostolic  labours, 
and  it  was  there  that  he  died  (probably  A.d. 
671)  and  that  his  relics  were  enshrined.  He 
is  said  to  have  been  canonised  by  Pope  St.  Leo 
IX.  Alban  Butler  states  St.  Erard  to  have 
been  a  Scotchman,  and  dates  him  considerably 
later,  giving  a.d.  753  as  the  year  of  his  death. 

ERASMA  (St.)  V.M.  (Sept.  3) 

See  SS.  EUPHEMIA,  DOROTHEA,   &c. 

ERASMUS  (ELMO)  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (June  2) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  some  town  in  Syria 
who,  after  resigning  his  See  and  living  seven 
years  as  a  solitary,  came  to  Antioch  during  the 
persecution  under  Diocletian.  Put  to  the 
torture  and  remanded  to  his  prison,  he,  like 
St.  Peter,  was  miraculously  freed  by  an  Angel. 
Later,  in  Illyricum  under  Maximian,  the  same 
experiences  befell  him.  He  died  peacefully  at 
Formiae  near  Gseta  (to  which  latter  town  his 
relics  were  translated  A.D.  842).  He  was  the 
object  of  great  and  widespread  popular  devotion 
throughout  the  Middle  Ages,  and  is  still  yearly 
commemorated  in  the  Liturgy. 

ERASMUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  25), 

(Date  unknown.)  A  Syrian  Christian  who 
suffered  for  the  Faith  at  Antioch  in  one  of  the 
early  persecutions.  He  may  possibly  be  one 
and  the  same  with  the  fourth  century  Martyr, 
Erasmus  of  June  2  ;  but  there  is  not  lacking 
evidence  that  he  was  a  distinct  personage. 
There  can  be  no  doubt  that  some  details  in  the 
traditional  story  of  St.  Erasmus  (June  2)  point 
to  a  confusion  between  him  and  some  other 
Martyr  of  the  same  name. 

ERASTUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (July  26) 

(First  cent.)    The  Treasurer  of  the  city  of 

Corinth  (Rom.  xvi.  23),  converted  by  St.  Paul 

and  one  of  his  helpers  in  the  Apostolate  (Acts. 

xix.  22),  especially  at  Corinth  (2  Tim.  iv.  20). 


The  Greek  tradition  is  that  he  became  Bishop 
of  Philippi  Paneas  in  Palestine.  That  of  the 
Latins  that  his  See  was  Philippi  in  Macedonia, 
and  that  he  in  the  end  was  put  to  death  for  the 
Faith. 

*ERBIN  (St.)  (May  29) 

(5th  cent.)  His  name  is  sometimes  written 
Erbyn  or  Ervan.  A  Cornish  Saint,  probably 
of  the  fifth  century.  Churches  are  dedicated 
to  him  and  his  name  appears  in  several  Calen- 
dars. He  seems  to  have  been  related  to  one  of 
the  Cornish  or  Devonian  chieftains  of  his  age. 
By  error,  his  name  has  sometimes  been  spelled 
Hermes,  confusing  him  with  the  ancient  Martyr 
of  that  name. 

*ERC  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  2) 

(6th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint,  Bishop  of  Slane, 
a  disciple  of  St.  Patrick,  who  died  at  the  age 
of  ninety  a.d.  513. 

ERCONGOTHA  (St.)  V.  (July  7) 

(7th  cent.)  The  daughter  of  King  Ercombert 
of  Kent  and  of  his  Queen  Sexburga.  With 
her  aunt,  St.  Ethelburga,  St.  Ercongotha 
embraced  the  Religious  life  at  Faremoutier  in 
France,  under  St.  Fara  or  Burgondophora, 
where  she  persevered  in  holiness  until  her 
death,  a.d.  660. 

ERCONWALD  (St.)  Bp.  (April  30) 

Otherwise  St.  ERKENWALD,  which  see. 

*ERENTRUDE  (ARNDRUDA)  (St.)  V.  (June  30) 
(7th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint,  sister  of  St. 
Rupert,  who  accompanied  him  to  his  Apostolate 
in  South  Germany,  and  for  whom  he  built  the 
monastery  of  Nimberg  near  Salzburg.  In  the 
eleventh  century  the  Emperor  St.  Henry  re- 
built her  church  and  shrine. 

*ERFYL  (EUERFYL)  (St.)  V.  (July  5) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  British  maiden,  foun- 
dress and  title  Saint  of  the  church  of  Llanerfyl 
(Montgomery). 

*ERGNAD  (ERCNACTA)  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  8) 

(5th  cent.)  This  holy  woman,  born  in  the 
present  county  Antrim,  is  said  to  have  received 
the  veil  from  St.  Patrick.  She  led  a  life  of  great 
penance,  and  her  closing  years  were  marked  by 
many  miracles. 

ERIC  (St.)  King,  M.  (May  18) 

(12th  cent.)  Eric  (a  name  identical  with 
Henry),  son-in-law  of  Smercher,  King  of  Sweden, 
was  elected  to  succeed  him  in  1141,  and  is 
described  as  both  the  father  and  the  servant 
of  his  people.  Having  in  battle  subdued  the 
Finns,  he  laboured  to  convert  them  to  Chris- 
tianity, and  is  reckoned  the  Apostle  of  their 
country.  A  man  of  prayer,  he  built  many 
churches,  but  always  out  of  the  proceeds  of  his 
own  patrimony.  A  Pagan  faction,  headed  by 
Magnus,  son  of  the  King  of  Denmark,  com- 
passed his  death,  a.d.  1151,  when  he  was  struck 
down  from  his  horse  and  beheaded  as  he  was 
leaving  the  church  after  hearing  Mass,  his  last 
thought  being  to  save  his  followers.  His  memory 
is  yet  held  in  benediction  among  the  Swedes. 

*ERKEMBODON  (St.)  Bp.  (April  12) 

(8th  cent.)  Leaving  Ireland  in  company 
with  two  missionaries  who  were  murdered  on  the 
way,  St.  Erkembodon  entered  the  monastery 
of  St.  Omer,  where  he  was  elected  Abbot,  becom- 
ing afterwards  Bishop  of  St.  Omer  and  Terou- 
anne.  He  died  a.d.  734.  Many  miracles  were 
wrought  at  his  shrine,  and  the  offerings  of 
pilgrims  were  soon  so  considerable  that  they 
sufficed  to  defray  the  cost  of  the  reconstruction 
of  the  Cathedral. 

ERKENWALD  (ERCONWALD)  (St.)      (April  30) 
Bp. 

(7th  cent.)  A  Prince  of  East  Anglia  who, 
retiring  among  the  East  Saxons,  founded  out 
of  his  patrimony  the  two  famous  Abbeys  of 
Chertsey  for  monks  and  of  Barking  for  nuns. 
Consecrated  Bishop  of  London  (a.d.  675)  by  the  •  - 
Archbishop  St.  Theodore,  he  governed  that 
See  for  eleven  years  until  his  death  in  a.d.  686. 
His  tomb  in  Old  St.  Paul's  was  famous  fat; 
miracles.    His  Feast  is  also  kept  on  Nov. 

95 


ERLULPH 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


Anniversary  of  the  Translation  of  his  Relics 
to  a  noble  shrine  over  the  High  Altar.  They 
disappeared  at  the  change  of  religion  in  the 
sixteenth  centurv. 

♦ERLULPH  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Feb.  10) 

(9th  cent.)    A  Scottish  missionary  in  Germany 

who  later  became  Bishop  of  Werden,  and  in  the 

end  suffered  death  at  the  hands  of  the  Pagans 

(A.D.  830). 

*ERMEL  (ERME)  (St.)  Abbot.  (Aug.  16) 

Otherwise  St.  ARMAGILLUS  (ARMEL) 
which  see. 

*ERMELINDA  (St.)  V.  (Oct,  29) 

(6th  cent.)     A  Belgian  Saint  who  lived  a  life 

of  penance  in  a  little  cell  in  Brebant.     She  died 

about  A.D.  594,  and  her  relics  are  enshrined  at 

Meldert. 

*EflMENBURGA  (St.)  Widow  (Nov.  19) 

(7th  cent.)  She  is  otherwise  known  as  Domna 
Ebba  (Lady  Ebba)  abbreviated  into  Domneva, 
She  was  a  Kentish  princess  married  to  Merewald, 
son  of  King  Penda  of  Mercia,  and  the  mother  of 
the  three  holy  virgins  SS.  Milburga,  Mildred  and 
Mildgith.  In  her  old  age  she  founded  the  Abbey 
of  Minster  in  Thanet,  where  the  place-name 
Ebb's  Fleet  still  perpetuates  her  memory.  The 
date  of  her  death  some  time  after  A.D.  650  is 
uncertain. 

*ERMENGYTHA  (St.)  V.  (July  30) 

(7th    cent.)     A    sister    of    St.    Ermenburga 

(Domneva)  who  lived  in  great  fervour  in  her 

sister's    monastery    at    Minster    in    Thanet, 

a.d.  680  is  given  as  the  date  of  her  death. 

*ERMENILDA  (St.)  Queen.  (Feb.  13) 

(7th  cent.)  The  daughter  of  King  Erconbert 
of  Kent  and  his  wife,  St.  Sexburga.  She 
married  Wulfhere  of  Mercia  and  became  the 
mother  of  St.  Wereberga.  On  the  death  of 
her  husband  she  joined  her  mother  in  the 
Abbey  of  Minster  in  Sheppey,  embracing  like 
her  the  Religious  life,  and  eventually  succeeding 
her  as  Abbess.  Later,  mother  and  daughter 
are  found  together  again  at  St.  Etheldreda's 
monastery  at  Ely,  where  both  finished  their 
earthly  pilgrimage.  The  death  of  St.  Ermenilda 
may  have  taken  place  about  A.D.  700. 

*ERMINOLD  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  6) 

(12th  cent.)     A  monk  and  Abbot  in  South 

Germany.     A  man  of  very  holy  life.     He  was 

assassinated  (A.D.  1 151),  and  died  forgiving  his 

enemies. 

ERMINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (April  25) 

(8th  cent.)  A  priest  of  Laon  in  France,  who 
at  the  invitation  of  St.  Ursmar,  Abbot-Bishop 
of  Lobbes  (near  Liege),  fixed  his  abode  in  that 
monastery  and  followed  so  carefully  the  example 
of  his  holy  Abbot  that  he  was  chosen  by  him 
to  be  his  successor  (A.D.  713).  St.  Erminus  was 
conspicuous  for  his  gift  of  prophecy.  He  died 
at  an  advanced  age  A.D.  737. 

*ERNAN  (St.)  (Aug.  18) 

(7th  cent.)  A  nephew  of  St.  Columba  and 
sometime  missionary  to  the  Picts.  He  later 
returned  to  Ireland  and  founded  a  monastery 
in  Donegal,  and  possibly  another  in  Wicklow. 
According  to  St.  Adamnan,  at  the  moment  of 
St.  Columba's  death,  St.  Ernan  in  a  vision  saw 
the  soul  of  the  holy  Abbot  raised  to  Heaven. 
St.  Ernan  died  A.D.  634. 

*ERNEST  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  7) 

(12th  cent.)  An  Abbot  in  the  South  of 
Germany  who  joined  one  of  the  Crusades  and 
after  his  arrival  in  Asia  devoted  himself  to  the 
work  of  preaching  the  Gospels  to  the  Infidels. 
He  suffered  martyrdom,  it  is  said,  at  Mecca, 
A.D.  1148. 

"ERNEST  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  7) 

(12th  cent.)  A  Benedictine  Abbot  in  the 
South  of  Germany,  who  joined  in  one  of  the 
Crusades  and  strove  to  propagate  Christianity 
in  Palestine.  Thence  he  penetrated  into  Persia, 
and  finally  made  his  way  into  Arabia,  where  he 
was  put  to  death  by  the  Infidels  (a.d.  1148). 

*ERNEY  (St.). 

(Date   unknown.)    The   Patron   Saint   of   a 
96 


church  in  Cornwall,  whose  history  has  not  been 
traced.     He  may  be  identical  with  St.  Ernan. 
It  appears  that  there  were  several  Celtic  Saints 
of  this  or  of  a  verv  similar  name. 
EROTHEIDES  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  27) 

See  SS.  CAPITOLINA  and  EROTHEIDES. 
EROTIS  (EROTEIS)  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  6) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Martyr  of  the  fourth  century 
who  perished  at  the  stake  (it  would  seem)  in 
Greece,  though  by  some  she  is  identified  with 
St.  Eroteides  of  Cappadocia,  who  suffered  with 
St.  Capitolina. 
*ERTH  (HERYGH,  URITH).  (Oct,  31) 

(6th  cent.)  Brother  to  St.  Uny  and  St.  la 
(Ives).  He  crossed  from  Ireland  into  Cornwall, 
and  was  held  in  such  veneration  that  a  church 
was  dedicated  in  his  honour.  He  has  given  his 
name  to  the  village  of  St.  Erth. 
*ERVAN  (St.)  (May  29) 

Otherwi.se  St.  ERBYN  (ERBIN),  which  see. 
*ERVAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Aug.  16) 

Otherwise  St.  ARMAGILLUS,  which  see. 
ESDRAS  (EZRA)  (St.)  Prophet.  (July  13) 

(6th  cent.  B.C.)  Two  canonical  Books  of 
Holy  Scripture  bear  his  superscription,  and  two 
others,  rejected  by  the  Catholic  Church  and 
Apocryphal,  were  formerly  attributed  to  him. 
He  collected  the  inspired  works  of  those  who 
had  preceded  him,  and  is  by  many  thought  to 
have  written  the  Books  of  Parallelipomenon 
or  Chronicles.  The  tradition  is  that  he  lived 
to  a  great  age  in  Jerusalem  after  the  return 
from  the  Captivity  of  Babylon.  The  ancient 
hypothesis  that  he  was  one  and  the  same  with 
the  Prophet  Malachi  must  be  rejected.  Esdras 
is  said  to  have  introduced  the  practice  of  writing 
Hebrew  uniformly  from  right  to  left  instead  of, 
as  was  done  before  his  time,  alternately  from 
right  to  left  and  from  left  to  right. 
*ESKILL  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (June  13) 

(11th  cent.)  A  fellow-missionary  to  Sweden 
with  St.  Sigfrid,  who  consecrated  him  as  Bishop. 
His  zeal  for  justice  led  to  his  being  cruelly 
done  to  death  by  unbelievers  about  the  middle 
of  the  eleventh  century. 
*ESTERWINE  (St.)  Abbot.  (March  7) 

(7th  cent.)  A  monk  of  Wearmouth  who 
governed  that  monastery  with  zeal  and  success 
in  place  of  St.  Benet  Biscop,  and  died  a.d.  686, 
during  that  Saint's  absence.  His  humbleness 
and  gentleness,  ensured  by  constant  prayer, 
earned  him  his  place  among  the  Saints.  His 
remains  were  enshrined,  with  those  of  St. 
Benet  Biscop,  and  of  St.  Sigfrid  his  successor, 
before  the  altar  of  St.  Peter  at  Wearmouth. 
*ETHA  (St.)  (May  5) 

Otherwise  St.  ECHA,  which  see. 
*ETHBIN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Oct.  19) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Briton  of  noble  birth,  educated 
in  France  by  St.  Samson,  Bishop  of  Dole  in 
Brittany.  When  a  deacon  he  retired  to  the 
Abbey  of  Taurac  (A.D.  554),  where  he  remained 
till  the  dispersion  of  the  community  through  a 
raid  by  the  Franks  (A.D.  556).  He  then  crossed 
over  to  Ireland,  and  there  led  the  life  of  a  hermit 
in  a  forest  near  Kildare,  till  his  death  at  the 
age  of  eightv-three,  about  a.d.  625. 
*ETHELBERT  (St.)  King,  M.  (May  20) 

(8th  cent.)  A  King  of  East  Anglia,  who, 
invited  by  King  Offa  to  come  to  his  Court  to 
marry  his  daughter,  was  by  that  monarch's 
orders  treacherously  and  cruelly  put  to  death 
(a.d.  793).  Numerous  miracles  justified  popular 
devotion  in  regarding  him  as  a  Martyr,  and  the 
place  where  his  relics  were  entombed  was  a 
little  later  made  a  Bishop's  See,  that  of  Here- 
ford. 
ETHELBERT  (St.)  King.  (Feb.  24) 

(7th  cent.)  The  first  Anglo-Saxon  monarch 
to  embrace  the  Christian  Faith.  An  able  ruler 
and  a  wise  legislator,  succeeding  his  father, 
Ermenric,  on  the  throne  of  Kent,  A.D.  560,  he 
practically  ruled  over  all  the  Southern  prin- 
cipalities of  the  Heptarchy.  In  the  year  597, 
encouraged  by  his  Queen,  Bertha  of  France,  he 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


EUCHERIUS 


welcomed  the  Missionaries  sent  by  Pope  St. 
Gregory  to  England  under  St.  Augustine. 
Converted  to  Christianity,  he  founded  Canter- 
bury and  Rochester  Cathedrals,  and  St.  Paul's, 
London.  He  died  A.D.  616,  and  was  buried 
in  the  Abbey  which  he  had  likewise  built  at 
Canterbury.  In  Church  Dedications  he  is 
often  styled  St.  Albert. 
*ETHELBERT  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  17) 

See  SS.  ETHELRED  and  ETHELBERT. 
♦ETHELBURGA  (TATE)  (St.)  Widow.     (April  5) 
(7th  cent.)    The  daughter  of  St.  Ethelbert, 
first  Christian  king  of  Kent,  and  wife  of  Edwin 
of  Northumbria,  after  whose  death  she  returned 
to  Kent  in  company  with  the  holy  Bishop  St. 
Paulinus,  and  founded  the  monastery  of  Ly- 
minge,  to  which  she  retired  and  where  she  passed 
away  (A.D.  647). 
ETHELBURGA  (EDILBERGA)  (St.)  V.    (July  7) 
(7th  cent.)    The  daughter  of  Anna,  King  of 
the  East  Angles,  who  consecrated .  herself  to 
God  in  the  monastery  of  Faremousties  (France). 
In  the  government  of  this  Abbey  she  succeeded 
its    foundress,    St.    Fara.     She    passed    away 
A.D.    664.     She    is    known    in    France    as    St. 
Aubierge. 
♦ETHELBURGA  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  11) 

(7th  cent.)  The  sister  of  St.  Erkenwald, 
Bishop  of  London,  and  first  Abbess  of  that 
Saint's  foundation  at  Barking.  St.  Ethelburga 
is  famous  for  the  many  miracles  worked  at  her 
shrine.  She  died  A.D.  670  about. 
ETHELDREDA  (ETHELREDA,  EDILTRUDIS, 
AUDREY)  (St.)  V.  (June  23) 

(7th  cent.)     Daughter  of  Anna,  King  of  the 
East   Angles,    and    wife    of    Egfrid,    King    of 
Northumbria,  with  whom  she  lived,  but  only  as 
a  sister,  for  twelve  years,  after  which  time  she 
,  took  the  veil  at  Coldingham  under  St.  Ebba. 
Almost    straightway    she    was    chosen    to    be 
Abbess  of  the  new  monastery  in  the  Isle  of  Ely, 
where  her  saintly  life  quickly  attracted  many 
souls   to    God.     She    passed    away,    June    23, 
a.d.  679.     Her  incorrupt  remains  were  solemnly 
translated  and  enshrined  sixteen  years  later  by 
the  Abbess  St.  Sexburga,  her  sister  and  suc- 
cessor, i 
♦ETHELDWITHA  (EALSITHA)  (St.)        (July  20) 
Widow. 

(10th  cent.)    An  Anglo-Saxon  Princess,  wife 

of  King  Alfred.     After  his  death  she  retired  into 

a  convent  which  she  had  founded  at  Winchester. 

She  died  there  A.D.  903. 

♦ETHELFLEDA  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  23) 

Otherwise  St.  ELFLEDA,  which  see. 
•ETHELGIVA  (St.)  Abbess.  (Dec.  9) 

(9th  cent.)    A  daughter  of  King  Alfred  the 
Great  and  Abbess  of  Shaftesbury,  where  she 
died  in  fame  of  high  sanctity  a.d.  896. 
♦ETHELHARD  (St.)  Bp.  (May  12) 

(9th  cent.)    A  Bishop  of  Winchester,  trans- 
lated to  Canterbury  (A.D.  780).     He  died  A.D. 
803. 
*ETHELNOTH  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  29) 

(11th  cent.)  St.  Ethelnoth,  styled  "The 
Good,"  was  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  in  the 
days  of  King  Canute  the  Dane.  He  governed 
his  Church  with  great  ability  for  about  eighteen 
years,  dying  full  of  merits  a.d.  1038. 
♦ETHELRED  (St.)  King.  (May  4) 

(8th  cent.)    A  king  of  Mercia,  uncle  of  St. 
Wereberga,  who  resigned  his  crown  to  become 
a  monk  at  Bardney,  where  he  was  afterwards 
elected  Abbot.     He  died  A.D.  716. 
♦ETHELRITHA  (St.)  V.  (Aug.  2) 

Otherwise     St.     ALFRIDA     (ALTHRYDA), 
which  see. 
♦ETHELRED  and  ETHELBERT  (SS.)        (Oct.  17) 
MM. 

(7th  cent.)  Grandsons  of  St.  Ethelbert, 
first  Christian  King  of  Kent,  and  brothers  of 
St.  Ermenburga  (Domneva)  of  Minster  in 
Thanet.  Though  of  blameless  lives,  they  were 
cruelly  done  to  death  at  Eastry  near  Sandwich, 
about  a.d.  670.     Many  miracles  attested  their 


sanctity  and  ensured  them  the  veneration  due 
to  Martyrs.  Their  shrine  was  finally  set  up  in 
Ramsev  Abbe  v. 

♦ETHELWALD  (St.)  (March  23) 

(7th    cent.)    A    monk   of   Ripon   who   took 

St.  Cuthbert's  place  as  a  hermit  on  the  Island 

of  Fame,  where  after  twelve  years  of  solitude 

he  passed  away  A.D.  699. 

ETHELWALD  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  1) 

(10th  cent.)  A  great  reformer  and  restorer 
in  England  of  the  monastic  life  after  the  Danish 
devastation.  Born  at  Winchester,  he  received 
the  Benedictine  habit  at  Glastonbury  from 
St.  Dunstan.  Both  at  Glastonbury  and  at 
Abingdon  he  for  a  time  was  Abbot.  Made 
Bishop  of  Winchester,  he  replaced  its  secular 
Chapter  by  monks.  After  a  strenuous  Epis- 
copate, fruitful  in  gain  of  souls,  he  passed  away 
Aug.  1,  a.d.  984,  and  was  succeeded  by  St. 
Elphage,  the  future  martyred  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury. 

*ETHELWIN  (St.)  Bp.  (May  3) 

(8th  cent.)     The  second  Bishop  of  Lindsey. 

He  was  a  devoted  friend  of  St.  Egbert,  whom 

he  accompanied  to  Ireland,  dying  there  at  the 

beginning  of  the  eighth  century. 

♦ETHELWOLD  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.    2) 

(8th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  St.  Cuthbert, 
afterwards  Abbot  of  Old  Melrose,  and  for  the 
last  twenty  years  of  his  life  Bishop  of  Lindis- 
farne.  He  was  a  contemporary  of  St.  Bede, 
who  speaks  of  him  in  terms  of  high  praise. 
He  died  a.d.  740,  and  later  his  relics  were 
enshrined  at  Durham. 

*ETHENIA  and  FIDELMIA  (SS.)  VV.  (Jan.  11) 
(5th  cent.)  Daughters  of  King  Laoghaire, 
and  among  the  first  converts  to  Christianity 
made  by  St.  Patrick.  They  received  the  veil 
of  religion  from  his  hands,  and  the  tradition  is 
that  in  the  act  of  receiving  immediately  after- 
wards Holy  Communion  from  him,  they  gave 
up  their  innocent  souls  to  God  (a.d.  433). 

*ETHERNAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  3) 

(Date  uncertain.)  A  native  of  Scotland  who 
studied  in  Ireland,  and  was  there  consecrated 
Bishop.  He  devoted  his  life  to  missionary 
work  in  his  own  country,  and  after  his  holy 
death  was  venerated  by  the  Scots  as  a  Saint. 
His  Festival  and  Office  has  a  place  in  the  old 
Aberdeen  Breviary. 

♦ETHERNASCUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  22) 

Otherwise  St.  ERNAN,  which  see. 

*ETHOR  (St.)  M.  (April  10) 

See  SS.  BEOCCA,  ETHOR  and  OTHERS. 

*ETTO  (HETTO)  (St.)  Bp.  (July  10) 

(7th  cent.)  An  Irish  Saint,  missionary 
in  Northern  France  and  Flanders.  He  died 
A.D.  670. 

*ETTO  (St.)  (June  2) 

Otherwise  St.  ADALGISUS,  which  see. 

EUBULUS  (St.)  M.  (March  7) 

(4th  cent.)  A  companion  of  St.  Hadrian  the 
Martyr,  at  Csesarea  in  Palestine,  and  the  last 
of  the  Christians  who  suffered  there  in  the 
great  persecution.  He  was  cast  to  the  wild 
beasts  in  the  Amphitheatre  under  Galerius 
Maximinus,  A.D.  308. 

EUCARPIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  18) 

See  SS.  TROPHIMUS  and  EUCARPIUS. 

EUCARPIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  25) 

See  SS.  BARDOMIAN,  EUCARPIUS,   &c. 

EUCHARIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  8) 

(First  cent.)  The  second  Bishop  of  Treves, 
successor  and  disciple  of  St.  Maternus,  whom 
tradition  alleges  he  had  raised  from  the  dead 
by  laying  on  his  corpse  the  Staff  of  St.  Peter. 
He  flourished  in  the  first  century  and,  it  is 
asserted,  was  Bishop  for  twenty-three  vears. 

EUCHERIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  20) 

(8th  cent.)  Born  in  Orleans  and  most 
piously  educated  by  his  mother,  he  entered 
(A.D.  714)  the  monastery  of  Jumieges  in  Nor- 
mandy, where  he  lived  as  a  monk  till  A.D.  724. 
In  that  year  his  uncle,  the  Bishop  of  Orleans, 
having   died,   he   was   obliged   to   accept   the 

G  97 


EUCHERIUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


responsibilities  of  the  Episcopate.  In  737,  for 
having  reproved  Charles  Martel  because  of  his 
encroachments  on  ecclesiastical  rights,  he  was 
banished  to  Cologne  and  later  to  the  vicinity 
of  Liege.  He  died  in  the  monastery  of  St. 
Trudo  (Saint-Trond)  A.D.  743. 

EUCHERIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  16) 

(5th  cent.)  Of  very  illustrious  birth  and 
remarkable  for  his  learning  and  eloquence, 
Eucherius  married  a  lady  called  Galla,  by  whom 
he  had  two  sons.  These  he  placed  in  the 
Abbey  of  Lerins,  then  just  founded,  and  both 
later  became  Bishops.  He  himself  in  a.d.  422 
retired  to  the  same  monastery,  whilst  Galla 
took  the  veil.  In  his  solitude  he  wrote  several 
works  on  "  Contempt  of  the  World,"  con- 
spicuous not  only  for  piety  but  also  for  elo- 
quence of  diction  and  mastery  of  the  Latin 
tongue.  In  a.d.  434  he  was  compelled  to 
accept  the  Archbishopric  of  Lyons,  where  he 
laboured  with  great  fruit  till  his  death  a.d.  450. 
His  name  is  among  those  of  the  Fathers  who 
subscribed  the  Acts  of  the  First  Council  of 
Orange. 

EUDOXIA  (St.)  M.  (March  1) 

(1st  cent.)  Born  at  Heliopolis  in  Ccele-Syria 
of  a  Samaritan  family,  Eudoxia  led  at  first  a 
profligate  life,  but  was  converted  to  Christian- 
ity, received  Baptism,  and  died  a  penitent. 
Under  a  false  accusation  she  was  brought  before 
the  ruler  of  the  Province,  but,  having  restored 
life  to  his  dead  son,  she  was  set  free.  Arrested 
a  second  time  as  a  Christian,  she  was  beheaded 
under  Trajan  (a.d.  98-117). 

EUDOXIUS,   ZENO,    MACARIUS    and    OTHERS 
(SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  5) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  body  of  Christian  soldiers  said 
to  have  been  more  than  a  thousand  in  number, 
stationed  in  Gaul  in  the  time  of  Trajan,  early 
in  the  second  century,  and  on  their  refusal  to 
sacrifice  to  the  gods,  transferred  to  Armenia, 
where,  encouraged  by  Eudoxius  their  leader, 
they  bravely  gave  their  lives  for  Christ. 

EUDOXIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  2) 

See  SS.  CARTERIUS,  STYRIACUS  and 
OTHERS. 

EUGENDUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  1) 

(6th  cent.)  The  fourth  Abbot  of  Condat 
(St.  Claude)  in  the  Jura  Mountains.  He  entered 
the  monastery  at  the  age  of  seven  years  and 
persevered  there  till  his  death  (a.d.  510),  at  the 
age  of  sixty-one.  A  model  of  religious  excel- 
lence and  of  humility,  and  especially  zealous 
for  the  observance  of  monastic  poverty,  he  was 
ever  affable  to  all  and  universally  beloved. 

EUGENE  III.  (Bl.)  Pope.  (July  8) 

(12th  cent.)  A  French  Cistercian  Abbot, 
disciple  of  St.  Bernard,  who  on  account  of  his 
saintly  character  was  elected  Pope  (a.d.  1145) 
in  very  troublous  times.  He  governed  the 
Church  wisely,  promoted  the  Second  Crusade, 
and  died  a.d.  1153,  the  same  year  as  his  holy 
master,  St.  Bernard. 

EUGENE  (St.)  M.  (July  29) 

See  SS.  LUCILLA,  FLORA,  Ac. 

*EUGENE  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  23) 

(7th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  the  Diocese 
of  Derry,  where  he  had  his  Episcopal  See,  having 
previously  accomplished  much  missionary  work, 
both  in  Great  Britain  and  on  the  Continent. 
He  died  in  a.d.  618,  or  perhaps  earlier. 

EUGENIA  (St.)  V.M.  (Dec.  25) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Roman  maiden,  proficient  in 
the  Philosophy  and  learning  of  the  time,  who, 
converted  to  Christianity  by  her  slaves,  SS. 
Protus  and  Hyacinth,  like  them,  gave  her  life 
for  Christ  at  Rome  under  Valerian.  She  was 
put  to  death  in  her  prison  on  Christmas  Day, 
a.d.  257.  In  their  poems  St.  Avitus  of  Vienne, 
St.  Aldhelm  of  Salisbury,  and  Venantius 
Fortunatus  celebrate  St.  Eugenia. 

EUGENIAN  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Jan.  8) 

(4th   cent.)    A   Saint,  stated  to  have  been 

Bishop  of  Autun  in  France  in  the  middle  of  the 

fourth  century.    What  is  known  for  certain 

98 


about  him  is  that  he  was  at  that  period  a  strenu- 
ous upholder  of  the  Catholic  Faith  against  the 
Arians.  He  ended  his  holy  life  by  martyrdom, 
but  whether  at  the  hands  of  heretics  or  of 
Pagans  is  unknown. 
EUGENIUS  (EUGENE)  (St.)  P.  (Jan.  4) 

See  SS.  AQUILINUS,  GEMINUS,   &c. 
EUGENIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  24) 

See  SS.  MARDONIUS,  MUSIANUS,   &c. 
EUGENIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  4) 

See  SS.  BASIL,  EUGENIUS,  &c. 
EUGENIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  20) 

See  SS.  PAUL,  EUGENIUS,   &c. 
EUGENIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (May  2) 

See  SS.  VINDEMIALIS,  EUGENIUS,   &c. 
EUGENIUS  I.  (St.)  Pope.  (June  2) 

(7th  cent.)  While  Pope  St.  Martin  I  was  in 
banishment  in  the  Chersonesus,  whither  he  had 
been  exiled  by  the  Emperor  Constans,  Eugenius, 
a  Roman  by  birth,  acted  as  his  Vicar  in  the 
West.  And  when  it  became  known  that  St. 
Martin  had  died  from  the  ill-usage  he  had 
received  (a.d.  654),  St.  Eugenius  was  chosen 
to  succeed  him.  Affable  to  all,  his  great 
characteristic  was  his  care  of  the  poor.  He 
maintained  that  the  revenues  of  the  Church 
were  their  patrimony.  He  bravely  and  skilfully 
combated  the  subtle  Monothelite  heresy  (that 
which  denied  to  Christ  a  human  will),  and  after 
a  short  Pontificate,  passed  away  a.d.  657,  and 
was  buried  in  St.  Peter's. 
EUGENIUS,  SALUTARIS,  MURITTA  and 

OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (July  13) 

(6th  cent.)  The  entry  in  the  Roman  Martyr- 
ology  regarding  these  Saints  is  as  follows : 
"  In  Africa,  the  holy  confessors,  Eugenius, 
Bishop  of  Carthage,  renowned  for  his  Faith 
and  his  virtues,  and  all  the  clergy  of  that  Church 
to  the  number  of  five  hundred  or  more  (among 
them  being  many  young  boys  who  ministered 
as  Lectors  or  Readers).  In  the  persecution 
under  the  Arian  Hunneric,  King  of  the  Vandals, 
they  were  scourged  and  starved,  and  at  last 
(rejoicing  always  in  the  Lord)  driven  into 
banishment.  Conspicuous  among  them  was 
the  Archdeacon  Salutaris  and  the  Dignitary 
next  in  rank  to  him,  Muritta,  who  had  each 
twice  previously  suffered  for  Christ."  a.d.  505 
is  the  probable  date  of  the  sentence  passed  on 
St.  Eugene  and  Ms  holy  companions. 
EUGENIUS  (T.)  M.  (July  18) 

See  SS.   SYMPHOROSA   and  HER  CHIL- 
DREN. 
EUGENIUS  (St.)  M.  (July  23) 

See  SS.  APOLLONIUS  and  EUGENIUS. 
EUGENIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  6) 

See  SS.  COTTIDUS,  EUGENIUS,  &c. 
EUGENIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  25) 

See  SS.  PAULUS,  TATTA,   Ac. 
EUGENIUS  of  TOLEDO  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  13) 

(7th  cent.)  There  appear  to  have  been  tM'o 
Saints,  Bishops  of  Toledo,  by  name  Eugene. 
The  first  presided  over  that  See  from  a.d.  636 
to  a.d.  647,  and  subscribed  the  Acts  of  the 
fifth  Council  of  Toledo.  He  was  eminent  not 
only  for  piety  and  sacred  learning,  but  also  for 
proficiency  in  the  science  of  his  age.  His 
successor,  also  a  monk  by  name  Eugene,  was 
Bishop  from  A.D.  647  to  a.d.  657.  He  too  took 
part  in  various  Councils,  and  to  other  accom- 
plishments added  that  of  being  a  poet.  Some 
of  his  writings  are  still  extant. 
EUGENIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Nov.  15) 

(Date  uncertain.)  A  fellow- v/orker  with 
St.  Denis  of  Paris,  whose  date  consequently 
depends  on  that  of  the  first  evangelisation  of 
Central  and  Northern  France,  whether  it  be 
placed  in  the  first  or  in  the  third  century  of  the 
Christian  era.  St.  Eugene  while  engaged  in 
missionary  work  near  Paris,  was  seized  and 
put  to  death  by  the  Pagans.  Many  centuries 
afterwards,  his  relics,  either  wholly  or  in  part, 
were  translated  to  Toledo  in  Spain. 
EUGENIUS  (St.)  (Nov.  17) 

(5th  cent.)    A  learned  Florentine,  disciple  of 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


EUPHEMIA 


St.  Ambrose  of  Milan,  who  faithfully  served 
St.  Zenobius  of  Florence  as  his  deacon,  retiring 
with  him  from  time  to  time  to  solitude,  and  like 
him  favoured  by  Almighty  God  with  the  grace 
of  miracle-working.  He  passed  away  a.d.  422. 
EUGENIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  13) 

See  SS.  EUST11ATIUS,  AUXENTIUS,   &c. 
EUGENIUS  and  MACARIUS  (SS.)  MM.     (Dec.  20) 

(4th    cent.)     Two    priests,    victims    of    the 

persecution  under  Julian  the  Apostate  (A.D.  362). 

They  were  scourged,  banished  into  the  desert 

of  Arabia,  and  on  their  return  put  to  the  sword. 

EUGENIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  30) 

(Date  unknown.)  Beyond  the  fact  that  a 
Saint  of  this  name  has  from  the  earliest  times 
been  honoured  in  the  Liturgy  of  the  Church  of 
Milan  on  this  day,  as  Bishop  of  that  See,  no 
record  of  him  remains. 
EUGRAPHUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  10) 

See  SS.  MENNAS,  HERMOGENES,  &c. 
EULALIA  of  BARCELONA  (St.)  V.M.      (Sspk  12) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  maiden  of  Barcelona 
who  suffered  many  tortures,  and  in  the  end 
was  crucified  or  (as  others  say)  burned  to  death 
at  the  stake  in  that  city  under  Diocletian 
A.D.  304.  She  is  the  Patron  Saint  of  Barcelona, 
and  is  also  much  venerated  in  the  South  of 
France,  where  her  name  is  variously  written, 
Aulausie,  Aulaire,  Otaille,  <fec. 
EULALIA  of  MERIDA  (St.)  V.M.  (Dec.  10) 

(4th  cent.)  The  Patron  Saint  of  Merida  and 
Oviedo  in  Spain,  in  which  latter  city  her  relics 
are  venerated.  Like  St.  Eulalia  of  Barcelona, 
she  was  a  Christian  maiden  put  to  death  for  the 
Faith  in  the  persecution  under  Diocletian 
a.d.  304.  After  undergoing  many  tortures  she 
perished  at  the  stake.  At  the  moment  of  her 
death  a  white  dove  was  seen  issuing  from  her 
mouth,  and  over  her  ashes,  cast  into  a  field, 
the  Heavens  forthwith  spread  a  pall  of  snow. 
The  modern  theory  that  she  is  one  and  the 
same  with  her  namesake  and  contemporary  of 
Barcelona  is  unconvincing. 
EULAMPIA  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  10) 

See  SS.  EULAMPIUS  and  EULAMPIA. 
EULAMPIUS  and  EULAMPIA  with  OTHERS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  10) 

(4th  cent.)  Two  young  children,  brother  and 
sister,  who  bravely  confessed  Christ  at  Nico- 
media  in  Asia  Minor  under  Maximinian  Herculeus 
(a.d.  302),  and  who  miraculously  came  forth 
unhurt  from  a  cauldron  of  boiling  oil  into  which 
they  had  been  cast.  They  were  thereupon 
beheaded  ;  but  their  courage  led  to  the  con- 
version of  two  hundred  soldiers,  witnesses  of 
their  martyrdom,  and  who  themselves  were 
likewise  put  to  death  as  Christians. 
EULOGIUS  of  TARRAGONA  (St.)  M.         (June  21) 

See  SS.  FRUCTUOSUS,  AUGURIUS,   &c. 
EULOGIUS  of  CORDOVA  (St.)  M.  (March  11) 

(9th  cent.)  A  priest  of  Cordova  in  Spain, 
who  in  the  ninth  century  persecution  of  Chris- 
tians by  the  Mahometans  distinguished  himself 
by  his  zeal  in  encouraging  the  faithful  to 
steadfastness  in  the  Confession  of  Christ.  He 
was  seized  and  bravely  gave  his  life  for  the 
Faith  (probably  A.D.  859).  Some  of  his  writings, 
notably  his  Memoriale  Sanctorum,  are  still 
extant.  He  had  been  for  his  great  merits 
elected  Archbishop  of  Toledo,  but  was  taken 
from  this  world  before  being  consecrated. 
EULOGIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (May  5) 

(4th  cent.)  A  priest  of  Edessa,  who  when 
the  Emperor  Valens  intruded  an  Arian  Bishop 
and  exiled  all  those  of  the  clergy  who  refused 
him  Communion,  was  banished  to  the  Thebaid 
(Egypt),  where  he  devoted  himself  successfully 
to  the  conversion  of  the  still  Pagan  people  of 
the  district.  At  the  death  of  Valens  (A.D.  375) 
he  returned  to  Edessa,  became  Bishop  of  that 
city,  and  as  such  attended  the  Ecumenical 
Council  of  Constantinople  (a.d.  381). 
EULOGIUS  of  ALEXANDRIA  (St.)  Bp.   (Sept.  13) 

(7th  cent.)     A  Syrian  by  birth  and  a  monk 
from  early   youth,   who   laboured   with   great 


fruit  for  the  reform  of  morals  and  the  strength- 
ening of  orthodox  belief  among  his  compatriots, 
many  of  whom  had  been  seduced  by  the  Euty- 
chians  or  Monophysites.  Eulogius  was  Patri- 
arch of  Alexandria  from  A.D.  579  to  A.D.  607. 
Photius  gives  an  account  of  his  writings  in  terms 
of  high  praise.  His  correspondence  with  his 
friend  St.  Gregory  the  Great  (whose  letters 
to  him  are  extant)  is  interesting.  One  of  the 
Epistles  contains  St.  Gregory's  account  of  his 
having  sent  St.  Augustine  to  England. 

EULOGIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.        (July  3) 

(4th    cent.)    Martyrs    at    Constantinople    in 

the  time  of  the  Arian  Emperor  Valens  (a.d. 

364-376) ;  but  of  whom  particulars  are  lacking. 

EUMENIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  18) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  saintly  Bishop  of  Gortyna  in 
Crete,  conspicuous  for  his  charity.  He  died  in 
exile  in  the  Thebaid  in  Upper  Egypt,  or  perhaps 
at  Thebes  in  Bceotia  (Greece).  He  flourished 
in  the  latter  half  of  the  third  century.  For 
the  many  miracles  he  wrought  in  life  and 
after  death,  he  has  become  known  as  the 
Thaumaturgus  or  Wonder-worker.  His  relics 
were  translated  to  Crete  in  the  seventh  century. 

*EUNAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  23) 

(8th  cent.)  A  Saint  whose  zeal  and  good 
works  were  so  eminent  that  he  has  come  to  be 
venerated  as  the  Patron  Saint  of  his  Diocese 
of  Raphoe  in  Ulster.  By  many  he  is  supposed 
to  be  the  St.  Adamnan  of  Iona  who  wrote  the 
Life  of  St.  Columba.  In  that  case,  he,  after 
establishing  Raphoe,  must  have  retired,  as  was 
not  uncommon  in  his  time,  to  the  Scottish 
monastery  to  end  his  days  in  the  cloister. 

EUNICIANUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  23) 

See  SS.  THEODULUS,  SATURNINUS,   &c. 

EUNOMOA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  12) 

See  SS.  HILARIA,  DIGNA,   &c. 

EUNUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  27) 

See  SS.  JULIAN  and  EUNUS. 

EUNUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  30) 

See  SS.  JULIAN,  EUNUS,   &c. 

EUPHEBIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (May  23) 

(Date  unknown.)    A  Bishop  of  Naples  whose 

date  is  variously  given  from  the  second  to  the 

eighth  century.     No  particulars  concerning  him 

have  come  down  to  us. 

EUPHEMIA  (St.)  M.  (March  20) 

See  SS.  ALEXANDRA,  CLAUDIA,   &c. 

EUPHEMIA,  DOROTHEA,  THECLA  and 

ERASMA  (SS.)  VV.MM.  (Sept.  3) 

(1st  cent.)  The  two  first  were  daughters  of 
Valentius,  a  Pagan  nobleman  of  Aquileia,  and 
the  two  others,  daughters  of  his  brother  Valen- 
tinianus,  a  Christian.  The  Pagan  Valentius 
having  heard  of  their  Baptism  had  them  all 
arrested.  After  having  been  put  to  the  torture 
they  were  beheaded  (it  is  alleged  by  Valentius's 
own  hand)  and  their  bodies  cast  into  a  river 
near  Aquileia.  Their  martyrdom  took  place 
in  the  first  century  of  the  Christian  era.  They 
are  venerated  at  Venice  and  also  at  Ravenna. 

EUPHEMIA  (St.)  V.M.  (Sept.  16) 

(4th  cent.)  A  youthful  Christian  maiden, 
burned  at  the  stake  for  the  Faith  of  Christ, 
in  the  city  of  Chalcedon,  under  the  Emperor 
Galerius,  about  a.d.  307.  She  had  long  before 
taken  a  vow  of  virginity,  and  by  her  sober 
attire  made  known  to  all  men  that  she  had 
forsaken  the  world.  Unheard-of  tortures 
appear  to  have  preceded  her  gaining  of  the  crown 
of  martyrdom,  for  which  she  had  always 
proclaimed  that  she  longed.  A  realistic  picture 
in  the  great  church  of  the  Council  of  Chalcedon 
(celebrated  a  century  and  a  half  later  under 
her  patronage)  portrays  her  sufferings.  She 
is  honoured  as  one  of  the  chief  Martyrs  of  the 
Greek  Church,  and  her  festival  is  a  holiday 
over  almost  all  the  East.  Her  relics,  rescued 
from  the  destructive  fury  of  the  Iconoclasts, 
were  translated  (a.d.  750)  to  the  church  of 
St.  Sophia  in  Constantinople,  and  were  in  great 
veneration  until  their  destruction  (A.D.  1452) 
by  the  Turks. 

99 


EUPHRASIA 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


EUPHRASIA  (St.)  V.  (March  13) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Virgin  of  Constantinople, 
nearly  allied  in  blood  to  the  Emperors,  Theo- 
dosius  the  Great,  and  Areadius.  A  year  after 
her  birth  (A.D.  380)  her  father  died,  and  her  pious 
mother  withdrew  with  her  daughter  to  Egypt, 
where  she  had  large  estates,  and  fixed  her  abode 
near  a  great  monastery  of  one  hundred  and 
thirty  nuns.  When  of  age  to  judge  for  herself 
Euphrasia  elected  to  join  the  community. 
The  nuns  received  the  novice  but  refused  to 
accept  the  wealth  offered  with  her ;  and 
Euphrasia  thenceforth  lived  in  poverty,  as 
required  by  their  severe  rule,  until  her  death 
(A.D.  410).  To  the  Emperor  Theodosius  the 
Younger,  who  had  had  designs  to  give  her  in 
marriage  to  a  Senator  of  distinction,  Euphrasia 
had  at  the  outset  written  a  touching  letter 
beseeching  him  to  distribute  her  rich  patrimony 
to  the  poor,  which  he  faithfully  did. 

EUPHRASIA  (St.)  M.  (March  20) 

See  SS.  ALEXANDRA,  CLAUDIA,   Ac. 

EUPHRASIA  (St.)  V.M.  (May  18) 

See  SS.  THEODOTUS,  THECUSA,   Ac. 

EUPHRASIUS  (St.)  Pp.,  M.  (Jan.  14) 

(Date  unknown. )  Perhaps  identical  with 
Eucrathius,  a  correspondent  of  St.  Cyprian, 
and  therefore  a  Saint  of  the  third  century. 
Others  hold  that  he  was  a  Saint  and  Martyr 
in  Africa  of  the  time  of  the  Vandal  persecution 
in  the  fifth  century. 

EUPHRASIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (May  15) 

See  SS.  TORQUATUS,  ACCITIANUS,   Ac. 

EUPHROMIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  3) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Autun  in  France, 
friend  of  St.  Lupus  of  Troyes,  and  zealous  like 
him  for  orthodoxy  and  discipline.  He  assisted 
at  the  Council  of  Aries  in  A.D.  475,  but  the 
precise  date  of  his  death  is  unknown. 

EUPHRONIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  4) 

(6th  cent.)  Born  A.D.  530  of  senatorial  family 
and  dedicated  to  God  from  his  youth,  he 
illustrated  by  his  virtues  the  See  of  St.  Martin, 
being  the  eighteenth  Bishop  of  Tours.  When 
this  city  was  burned  down  during  his  Episcopate, 
besides  comforting  and  aiding  his  flock,  he 
re-erected  several  churches.  He  died  A.D.  573, 
having  been  seventeen  years  a  Bishop,  and  was 
succeeded  by  the  famous  Saint  Gregory  the 
Historian. 

EUPHROSYNA  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  1) 

(5th  cent.)  An  Egyptian  maiden,  born  at 
Alexandria  of  pious  Christian  parents.  When 
she  was  to  be  married,  despite  her  resolve  to 
consecrate  her  virginity  to  God,  she  (it  is  said) 
entered  in  male  attire  a  monastery  of  monks 
whose  Abbot  was  her  father's  friend.  She  took 
this  extraordinary  step  because  she  knew  that 
her  father  would  search  all  convents  of  nuns 
and  drag  her  out.  For  thirty-eight  years  she 
lived  unknown  in  a  retired  cell  and  utterly  alone, 
and  was  looked  upon  by  all  as  a  singularly  holy 
man.  Even  her  father,  wanting  spiritual  advice, 
was  introduced  to  her,  and  greatly  appreciated 
her  wise  counsels.  He  assisted  at  her  last 
moments,  and  only  then  did  she  disclose  her 
identity.  After  her  death,  about  A.D.  470,  her 
father  himself  took  possession  of  her  cell,  where 
he  passed  the  rest  of  his  days  in  penance  and 
praver. 

EUPHROSYNA  (St.)  V.M.  (May  7) 

See  SS.  FLA  VIA  DOMITILLA,   &c. 

EUPLIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  12) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Martyr  at  Catania  in  Sicily 
(A.D.  304).  He  was  in  deacon's  orders  and 
openly  proclaimed  himself  a  Christian,  carrying 
about  with  him  a  Book  of  the  Gospels,  a  pro- 
ceeding directly  contrary  to  the  Edicts  of  the 
Emperor  Diocletian.  Put  on  the  rack  and 
bidden  to  worship  Apollo,  Mars  and  iEsculapius, 
he  replied  that  he  adored  only  the  Father,  the 
Son  and  the  Holy  Ghost.  After  his  execution  the 
Christians  carried  off  his  body  and  embalmed  it. 

EUPORUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  23) 

See  SS.  THEODULUS,  SATURNINUS,  &c. 
100 


EUPREPIA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  12) 

See  SS.  HILARIA,  DIGNA,   Ac. 

EUPREPIS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  30) 

See  SS.  CASTULUS  and  EUPREPIS. 

EUPREPIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  21) 

(1st  cent.)     The  first  Bishop  of  Verona  in 

the  North  of  Italy.     Immemorial  belief  holds 

that  he  was  sent  thither  as  a  missionary  by  the 

Apostle  St.  Peter  himself. 

EUPREPIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  27) 

See  SS.  COSMAS  and  DAMIAN. 

EUPSYCHIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  9) 

(4th  cent.)  A  young  patrician  of  Caesarea 
in  Cappadocia.  Julian  the  Apostate,  learning 
that  the  Temple  of  Fortune  in  that  city  had 
been  destroyed,  ordered  a  special  persecution 
of  Christiana  to  appease  the  gods.  Eupsychius, 
accused  of  the  crime,  was  cruelly  tortured  and 
beheaded  (a.d.  362). 

EUPSYCHIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  7) 

(2nd  cent.)  A  Christian  of  Csesarea  in 
Cappadocia  who,  arrested  under  the  Emperor 
Hadrian,  after  having  distributed  all  his  goods 
to  the  poor,  was  savagely  tortured  and  beheaded 
(a.d.  130,  about). 

*EURFYL  (St.)  V.  (July  5) 

(Date  unknown.)  The  Patron  Saint  of 
Llanerfyl  (Montgomery).  Nothing  concerning 
her  has  come  down  to  our  times. 

*EURGAIN  (St.)  V.  (June  30) 

(6th  cent.)  A  daughter  of  the  chieftain 
Caradog  in  Glamorgan,  foundress  of  Cor- 
Eurgain,  afterwards  Llantwit. — Another  St. 
Eurgain,  wife  of  a  princeling  in  North  Wales, 
founded  Llan-Eurgain  in  Flintshire. 

EUSEBIA  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  29) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Christian  maiden  of  Bergamo 
in  Lombardy,  niece  of  St.  Domnio,  who  like  him 
was  beheaded  under  Maximian  Herculeus, 
towards  the  close  of  the  third  century.  As 
about  St.  Domnio,  the  ancient  Martyrologies 
are  silent  concerning  St.  Eusebia.  Such  details 
as  we  have  come  from  local  traditions.  Their 
bodies  were  found  and  enshrined  A.D.  1401. 

*EUSEBIUS  (St.)  (Jan.  30) 

(9th  cent.)  A  Saint  who,  leaving  Ireland, 
repaired  to  the  monastery  of  St.  Gall  (Switzer- 
land), where  he  practised  great  mortification, 
was  gifted  with  prophecy  and  miracles,  and  by 
his  sanctity  attracted  the  veneration  even  of 
the  princes  and  nobles  of  his  time. — Another 
St.  Eusebius  of  the  same  or  earlier  date  is  also 
in  honour  as  a  monk  of  St.  Gall,  and  is  said  to 
have  suffered  martyrdom.  But  particulars 
are  lacking  and  dates  quite  uncertain. 

EUSEBIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (March  5) 
(Date  unknown.)  Ten  Martyrs  supposed  to 
have  suffered  in  Africa,  but  at  what  period  or 
under  what  circumstances  is  unknown.  The 
word  Eusebius  in  the  manuscript  Martyrologies 
is  followed  by  the  word  Palatinus  ;  but  whether 
the  word  Palatinus  expresses  the  qualification 
of  St.  Eusebius  as  an  official,  or  is  the  name  of 
one  of  his  fellow-martyrs,  is  uncertain. 

EUSEBIUS,  NEON,  LEONTIUS,  LONGINUS  and 
OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (April  24) 

(Date  uncertain.)  According  to  the  Greek 
Menologies,  bystanders  eight  in  number,  who, 
converted  to  Christianity  on  witnessing  the 
martyrdom  of  St.  George,  were  themselves  put 
to  death  on  the  morrow. 

EUSEBIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  28) 

See  SS.  APHRODISIUS,  CARALIPPUS,  Ac 

♦EUSEBIUS  (St.)  Hermit.  (Feb.  15) 

(5th  cent.)  A  holy  recluse  of  Asehia  in  Syria, 
venerated  in  the  East. 

♦EUSEBIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  14) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Martyr  in  Palestine  under 
Maximian  Herculeus  the  colleague  of  Dio- 
cletian, towards  the  close  of  the  third  century. 
He  is  commemorated  in  the  ancient  Martyro- 
logies. 

EUSEBIUS  of  SAMOSATA  (St.)  Bp.         (June  21) 

(4th  cent.)     The  "  Light-bearer  to  the  world," 

as   he    is   styled   by    St.    Gregory    Nazianzen. 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


EUSTACHIUS 


Bishop  of  Samosata  from  A.D.  361,  this 
Syrian  Saint  was  loved  and  venerated  through- 
out the  East.  Especially  devoted  to  him  was 
the  great  St.  Basil.  Not  only  zealous  but 
skilful  in  doing  his  part  in  the  struggle  against 
the  Arians,  it  was  not  until  A.D.  374  that  they 
succeeded  in  driving  St.  Eusebius  into  exile. 
He  was  banished  into  Thrace,  but  recalled  four 
years  later  by  the  Emperor  Gratian.  He  had 
always  longed  to  give  his  life  for  Christ  as  a 
Martyr  ;  and  in  fact  his  death  came  about, 
A.D.  379  (or  perhaps  A.D.  380)  by  the  act  of  an 
Arian  woman  who  threw  down  a  heavy  tile 
from  the  roof  of  a  house  on  his  head.  His  last 
word  was  to  beg  that  she  might  be  pardoned 
both  by  God  and  by  man. 
EUSEBIUS  of  MILAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  12) 

(5th  cent.)  Probably  a  Greek  by  birth,  the 
successor  of  St.  Lazarus  in  the  See  of  Milan. 
He  was  of  great  assistance  to  Pope  St.  Leo  the 
Great  in  that  Pontiff's  efforts  to  repress  the 
Eutychian  heresy.  He  restored  the  churches 
of  Milan,  rebuilt  the  city  walls,  replaced  the 
books  burned  by  the  barbarians  in  their  inroads, 
and  reformed  Church  discipline  in  the  North 
of  Italy.  He  died  A.D.  465,  after  sixteen  years 
of  Episcopate. 
EUSEBIUS  (St.)  (Aug.  14) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Roman  priest,  sometimes 
honoured  as  a  Martyr,  he  having  ended  his  days 
in  a  prison  (A.D.  357)  during  the  Arian  troubles 
fostered  even  in  Home  by  the  Emperor  Con- 
stantius.  Into  the  controversy  among  the 
learned  regarding  the  attitude  of  St.  Eusebius 
towards  the  Pontiffs,  Liberius  and  St.  Felix  II, 
it  is  not  necessary  to  enter.  That  Liberius 
never  swerved  from  orthodoxy  is  clear.  It  is 
perhaps  equally  so  that  St.  Eusebius  did  not 
endorse  his  policy  in  the  difficult  circumstances 
of  the  times,  and  thereby  forfeited  the  Pontiff's 
favour.  After  the  death  of  St.  Eusebius, 
Pope  and  people  joined  in  venerating  his 
memory  ;  and  eight  years  later  St.  Damasus, 
who  shared  his  views,  was  elected  to  the  Supreme 
Pontificate. 
EUSEBIUS,  PONTIANUS,  VINCENT  and 

PEREGRINUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  25) 

(2nd  cent.)     Martyrs  at  Home  under  Coin- 
modus  (a.d.  192).     Their  relics  were  translated 
to  France  in  the  ninth  century. 
EUSEBIUS,  NESTULUS  and  ZENO  (Sept.  8) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(4th  cent.)  Three  brothers  of  Gaza  in  Pales- 
tine who  were  set  upon  as  Christians  by  a  Pagan 
mob,  frenzied  with  delight  at  the  news  of  the 
apostasy  of  the  Emperor  Julian  (A.D.  362). 
The  Martyrs  were  dragged  about  the  streets  of 
the  city,  maltreated  with  savage  ferocity, 
and  at  last  cast  into  a  lire  kindled  for  the 
purpose  on  the  town  refuse-heap. 
EUSEBIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept,  21) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  Martyr  in  Phenicia  of 
unknown  date,  who  appears  to  have  given 
himself  up  voluntarily  as  a  Christian  and  to 
have  gone  through  excruciating  torture  before 
being  executed.  The  Greek  Martyrologies 
which  celebrate  his  fortitude  are  silent  as  to 
the  place  and  particulars  of  his  Passion. 
EUSEBIUS  (St.)  Pope.  (Sept.  26) 

(4th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Marcellus 
in  the  Chair  of  St.  Peter  (A.D.  310).  He 
strenuously  upheld  the  discipline  of  the  Church 
and  opposed  any  undue  laxity  in  applying 
the  so-called  Penitential  Canons,  enforced  on 
Christians  who  had  failed  in  courage  during  the 
persecutions.  He  himself  was  at  once  called 
upon  to  suffer  for  Christ,  being  banished  to 
Sicily,  where  he  died  after  a  short  Pontificate 
of  less  than  five  months.  Fragments  of  his 
epitaph  written  by  Pope  St.  Damasus  have 
been  found  in  the  Roman  Catacombs  whither 
his  remains  were  brought  for  interment. 
EUSEBIUS  of  BOLOGNA  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  26) 

(4th  cent.)     A  friend  of  St.  Ambrose  of  Milan, 
who  became  Bishop  of  Bologna  about  A.D.  370. 


He  was  a  prudent  and  learned  Prelate.  He 
assisted  at  the  Council  of  Aquileia  (A.D.  380) 
against  the  Arians.  Warned  in  a  vision,  he 
discovered  the  concealed  relics  of  the  Holy 
Martyrs  Vitalis  and  Agricola,  and  reverently 
enshrined  them.  At  his  death  (A.D.  400)  he 
was  succeeded  by  St.  Felix. 
EUSEBIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  4) 

See  SS.  CAIUS,  FAUSTUS,   &c. 
EUSEBIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  22) 

See  SS.  PHILIP,  SEVERUS,  &c. 
EUSEBIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  5) 

See  SS.  FELIX  and  EUSEBIUS. 
EUSEBIUS,  MARCELLUS,  HIPPOLYTUS,  MAXI- 

MUS,  ADRIAS,    PAULINA,    NEON,   MARY, 

MARTANA  and  AURELIA  (SS.)MM.  (Dec.  2) 

(3rd  cent.)  Christians  arrested  as  such  in 
Rome  in  the  time  of  the  Emperor  Valerian 
(A.D.  254-259),  and  after  torture  put  to  death. 
Eusebius,  a  priest,  and  Marcellus  his  deacon, 
were  beheaded  ;  Adrias  and  Hippolytus  were 
scourged  to  death  ;  Paulina  died  in  the  torture- 
chamber  ;  Neon  and  Mary  were  beheaded,  and 
Maximus  was  thrown  into  the  Tiber. 
EUSEBIUS  of  VERCELLI  (St.)  Bp.,  M.     (Dec.  16) 

(4th  cent.)  He  was  by  birth  a  native  of 
Sardinia ;  and  after  passing  some  years  in 
Rome  as  a  priest,  he  was  consecrated  Bishop 
of  Vercelli  in  the  present  Province  of  Piedmont 
(A.D.  340).  A  great  and  active  champion  of 
the  Catholic  Faith  against  the  Arians,  he  was 
banished  by  their  machinations  to  Syria,  where 
he  underwent  many  hardships.  Before  return- 
ing to  Vercelli  under  Julian  he  visited  St. 
Athanasius  at  Alexandria.  In  the  words  of 
St.  Jerome :  "  On  the  return  of  Eusebius, 
Italy  put  off  her  mourning."  Thenceforth  to 
the  year  of  his  death  (a.d.  370)  he  devoted 
himself,  in  concert  with  St.  Hilary  of  Poitiers, 
to  the  extirpation  of  Arianism.  By  exception, 
on  account  of  the  much  that  he  went  through 
in  the  cause  of  religion,  he  is  honoured  liturgi- 
cally  as  a  Martyr. 
EUSIGNIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  5) 

(4th  cent.)  An  old  soldier  of  the  army  of 
Constantius  Chlorus  who,  surviving  to  the  age 
of  one  hundred  and  ten  years,  refused  to  sacri- 
fice to  idols  at  the  bidding  of  Julian  the  Apos- 
tate, and  was  scourged  and  beheaded  as  a  Chris- 
tian at  Antioch  in  Syria  (a.d.  362). 
EUSTACE. 

Saints  of  this  name  will  be  found  described 
under  the  name  EUSTACHIUS,  the  Latin  and 
Ecclesiastical  equivalent. 
EUSTACHIUS,   THEOPISTES,   AGAPITUS 

and  THEOPISTUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  20) 

(2nd  cent.)  According  to  traditional  ac- 
counts, a  Roman  family  of  distinction — 
Eustace,  an  officer,  his  wife,  Thcopista,  and  his 
sons  Agapius  and  Theopistus — were  put  to 
death  as  Christians  under  Hadrian  (A.D.  118). 
Their  Acts,  as  we  have  them,  are  untrustworthy, 
but  their  cultus  is  universal  in  the  East  as  in 
the  West.  Their  relics  are  asserted  to  have 
been  conveyed  to  Paris  from  their  church  in 
Rome  in  the  twelfth  century.  They  were 
destroyed  (A.D.  1567)  by  the  Huguenots.  A 
curious  theory  makes  St.  Eustachius  (otherwise 
Placidus)  identical  with  a  personage  mentioned 
by  Joscphus,  and  thus  a  Saint  of  the  Apostolic 
Ace. 
EUSTACHIUS  (St.)  (Oct.  12) 

(Date  unknown.)  The  authorities  are  in 
complete  disagreement  as  to  who  this  St. 
Eustachius  was.  His  date  is  quite  unknown. 
Some  with  the  Roman  Martyrology  describe 
him  as  a  priest  and  Confessor  in  Syria  ;  others 
with  the  Bollandists  make  of  him  an  Egyptian 
Martyr. 
EUSTACHIUS,  THESPESIUS  and  ANATOLIUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  20) 

(3rd  cent.)  Christians  who  gained  the 
crown  of  martyrdom  at  Nieaja  in  Asia  Minor 
in  the  persecution  under  the  Emperor  Maxi- 
mums the  Thracian  (a.d.  235). 

101 


EUSTACHIUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


EUSTACHIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Nov.  28) 

See  SS.  VALERIAN,  URBAN,   Ac. 
EUSTASIUS  (EUSTATHIUS,  EUSTOCHIUS) 

(St.)  Abbot.  (March  29) 

(7th    cent.)    The    successor    of    his    master 

St.  Columbanus  as  Abbot  of  Luxeuil  in  a.d.  611. 

He    sanctified    himself    by    continual    prayer, 

watchings  and  fasting.     He  ruled  over  about 

six    hundred    monks,    and    was    the    spiritual 

father  of  many  holy  Bishops  and  Saints.    He 

died  a.d.  C26,  having  been  Abbot  for  fifteen 

vears. 

EUSTATHIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (July  16) 

(4th  cent.)      A  native  of  Sida  in  Pamphylia 

who,  as  St.  Athanasius  assures  us,  had  confessed 

the  Faith  of  Christ  before  the  Pagan  persecutors, 

and  was  a  man  of  eloquence,  learning  and  virtue. 

He  was  made  Bishop  of  Berea  in  Syria,  and 

thence  reluctantly  translated  to  the  Patriarchal 

See  of  Antioch.     He  assisted  at  the  General 

Council  of  Nice,  where  he  opposed  the  practice 

of  translating  Bishops  from  one  See  to  another. 

He  contended  against  the  Arians,  being  the 

first,  according  to  St.  Jerome,  to  do  so  with 

the   pen.     Eusebius   of   Nicomedia   sought   to 

have    him    removed    from    Antioch    and    by 

calumnies  succeeded  in  deceiving  the  Emperor 

Constantine  and  in  procuring  his  banishment, 

first  to  Treves  then  to    Illyricum,  where    his 

virtues  shone  with  the  brightest  lustre.     He 

died  at  Philippi  in  Macedonia,  about  a.d.  337. 

EUSTATHIUS  (St.)  M.  (July  28) 

(Date  unknown.)    A  Martyr  in  Galatia  who 

after  torture  appears  to  have  been  cast  into  a 

river.     The  Greek  Menology  has  much  amplified 

the  little  genuine  tradition  records  of  him. 

EUSTERIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  19) 

(5th   cent.)     The   fourth   Bishop  of   Salerno 

near   Naples,    who   seems   to   have   flourished 

about  the  middle  of  the  fifth  century,  but  all 

particulars  concerning  him  have  been  lost. 

EUSTOCHIA  (St.)  V.  (Sept.  28) 

Otherwise  St.  EUSTOCHIUM,  which  sec. 
♦EUSTOCHIUM  (Bl.)  V.  (Feb.  13) 

(15th  cent.)  A  Benedictine  nun  of  Padua  in 
Italy,  wonderful  for  her  patience  in  the  many 
fearful  trials  and  sufferings  with  which  Almighty 
God  was  pleased  to  allow  the  devil  to  afflict  her 
during  the  whole  course  of  her  short  life.  She 
died  at  the  age  of  twenty-four  (a.d.  1469). 
EUSTOCHIUM  (St.)  V.  (Sept.  28) 

(5th  cent.)  The  third  and  best-loved  daughter 
of  St.  Paula,  the  Roman  matron  who  followed 
St.  Jerome  to  Palestine.  She  joined  her  mother 
at  Bethlehem  and  lived  a  saintly  life  with  her  in 
the  nunnery  founded  by  the  latter  under  the 
guidance  of  St.  Jerome.  Eventually  she  suc- 
ceeded (A.D.  404)  to  the  government  of  the 
community,  and  died  A.D.  419.  One  of  the 
finest  treatises  of  St.  Jerome  is  addressed  to  her. 
She  spoke  Greek  and  Latin  with  equal  fluency, 
and  learned  Hebrew  so  as  to  be  able  to  chant 
the  Psalms  in  the  original  tongue. 
EUSTOCHIUM  (St.)  V.M.  (Nov.  2) 

(4th  cent.)  Julian  the  Apostate  having 
ordered  public  sacrifices  in  honour  of  Venus, 
Eustochium,  a  fervent  Christian  of  Tarsus  in 
Cilicia,  refused  to  comply  with  the  Edict. 
She  was  in  consequence  tried  and  barbarously 
tortured,  but  afterwards,  while  engaged  in 
prayer,  peacefully  gave  up  her  soul  to  God 
(A.D.  362). 
EUSTOCHIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  19) 

(5th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Brictius  in 
the  See  of  St.  Martin  of  Tours  in  the  fifth 
century,  and,  according  to  St.  Gregory  of 
Tours,  "  a  prelate  of  resplendent  holiness." 
He  died  a.d.  461,  having  been  seventeen  years 
a  Bishop.  He  attended  the  Council  of  Angers, 
a.d.   453,  and  some  of  his  writings  are  still 

EUSTOCHIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  16) 

See  SS.  ELPIDIUS,  MARCELLUS,   &c. 

EUSTOLIA  and  SOPATRA  (SS.)  VV.  (Nov.  9) 
(7th  cent.)  One  or  both  of  these  holy 
102 


virgins  was  a  daughter  of  the  Emperor  Maurice 
of  Constantinople  (A.D.  582-602).  They  were 
from  the  beginning  revered  as  Saints  in  the 
East,  and  at  a  very  early  date  their  names  were 
inserted  in  the  Roman  Martyrology. 
EUSTORGIUS  (St.)  (April  11) 

(4th  cent.)  A  priest  of  Nicomedia  in  Asia 
Minor  who  suffered  for  the  Faith  in  one  of  the 
persecutions,  perhaps  that  of  Diocletian,  about 
the  year  300 ;  but  it  is  not  proved  that  he  was 
actually  put  to  death. 
EUSTORGIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (June  6) 

(6th  cent.)  The  second  Bishop  of  Milan  of 
that  name  who,  after  living  for  a  long  time 
in  Rome,  became  Bishop  of  Milan  (a.d.  512). 
He  converted  the  Hungarian  Laurianus,  after- 
wards Bishop  of  Seville  in  Spain  and  Martyr. 
He  was  conspicuous  for  his  self-sacrificing 
charity  to  the  poor,  and  ransomed  many  of  his 
flock  taken  prisoners  in  the  savage  wars  of  his 
time.  He  died  A.D.  518. 
EUSTORGIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  18) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Greek,  traditionally  held  to 
have  been  an  official  in  the  service  of  the 
Emperor  Constantine  the  Great.  He  was 
elected  Bishop  of  Milan  in  succession  to  St. 
Maternus,  or  possibly  St.  Mirocles.  He  appears 
from  a  letter  of  St.  Athanasius  to  have  suffered 
for  the  Faith,  and  to  have  written  in  defence 
of  orthodoxy  against  the  Arians.  To  him  is 
attributed  the  acquisition  for  Milan  of  the 
relics  of  the  Three  Magi,  afterwards  by  Frederic 
Barbarossa  transported  to  Cologne.  He  held 
the  See  of  Milan  from  A.D.  315  to  A.D.  331. 
EUSTOSIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  10) 

See  SS.  DEMETRIUS  and  OTHERS. 
EUSTRATIUS,    AUXENTIUS,    EUGENE,     MAR- 
DARIUS  and  ORESTES  (SS.;  MM.     (Dec.  13) 
(4th  cent.)     Martyrs  under  Diocletian  (A.D. 
302  about)  at  Sebaste  in  Armenia.     Eustratius 
was  burned  to  death  in  a  furnace ;    Orestes 
roasted  on  a  gridiron  ;  the  others  done  to  death 
in  various  manners.     Their  relics  are  venerated 
in  Rome  in  the  Church  of  St.  Apollinaris. 
EUTHALIA  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  27) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Sicilian  maiden  who,  with  her 
mother,  was  converted  to  Christianity  by  the 
holy  martyr  Alpheus  and  his  fellow-sufferers. 
She  herself  gave  her  life  for  Christ,  being,  as 
tradition  has  it,  done  to  death  by  her  own 
brother.  She  was  probably  one  of  the  victims 
of  the  Decian  persecution  in  the  middle  of 
the  third  century.  It  is  right  to  mention  that 
the  Bollandists  consider  her  very  existence 
to  be  hardly  proved. 
EUTHYMIUS  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  20) 

(5th  cent.)  An  Armenian  nobleman  of 
Melitene  who  becoming  a  priest  was  on  account 
of  his  conspicuous  virtues  and  talents  entrusted 
with  the  supervision  of  all  the  monasteries  of 
the  district.  From  love  of  solitude  he  secretly 
fled  to  Palestine,  lived  for  some  time  as  a  hermit 
in  a  cavern  near  the  Dead  Sea,  and  finally 
gathering  disciples,  founded  a  monastery  of  his 
own.  Though  he  consistently  shunned  the 
crowds  attracted  by  his  repute  for  sanctity  and 
miracles,  he  was  instrumental  in  securing 
many  conversions,  notably  that  of  the  Empress 
Eudoxia  from  Eutychianism,  and  in  procuring 
submission  in  the  East  to  the  Decrees  of  the 
Council  of  Chalcedon  (A.D.  451).  He  died 
A.D.  473  at  the  age  of  ninety-seven,  and  is 
among  the  most  highly  venerated  Saints  of  the 
Eastern  Church. 
EUTHYMIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (March  11) 

(9th  cent.)  A  fervent  monk  raised  to  the 
See  of  Sardis  in  Lydia,  who  courageously 
resisted  the  Iconoclasts  and  was  prominent  in 
the  Second  Council  of  Nice  (A.D.  787).  Banished 
by  the  Emperor  Nicephorus,  he  remained  in 
exile  till  his  death,  twenty-nine  years  later, 
though  recalled  at  intervals  and  offered  per- 
mission to  retain  his  See  on  condition  of  his 
tolerating  the  Iconoclast  heresy.  In  the  end 
he  was  scourged  to  death,  a.d.  840,  under  the 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


EUTYCHIUS 


Emperor  Theophilus,  a  bigoted  Iconoclast,  who 
however  was  happily  reconciled  to  the  Church 
before  his  own  death  two  years  afterwards. 

EUTHYMIUS  (St.)  If.  (May  5) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  deacon  of  the  Church 
of  Alexandria  who  gave  his  life  for  Clirist,  but 
in  which  persecution  is  now  unknown. 

EUTHYMIUS  (St.)  (Aug.  29) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Roman  Christian  who  with  his 
wife  and  child,  St.  Crescentius,  fled  to  Perugia 
during  the  persecution  of  Diocletian,  and  there 
crowned  a  troubled  life  by  a  saintly  death, 
early  in  the  fourth  century. 

EUTHYMIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  24) 

(4th  cent.)  One  of  the  sufferers  at  Nicomedia, 
the  Imperial  residence,  in  the  great  persecution 
under  Diocletian  (a.d.  303).  It  is  recorded  of 
St.  Euthymius  that  he  had  been  foremost  in 
encouraging  his  fellow-believers  bravely  to  lay 
down  their  lives  for  Christ. 

EUTROPIA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  15) 

See  SS.  LIBYA,  LEONIDES,  &c. 

EUTROPIA  (St.)  Widow.  (Sept.  15) 

(5th  cent.)  Of  this  Saint  mentioned  by 
Sidonius  Apollinaris  there  is  no  notice  in  the 
more  ancient  Martyrologies.  She  is  stated  to 
have  lived  in  Auvergne  (France)  some  time  in 
the  fifth  century. 

EUTROPIA  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  30) 

(3rd  cent.)  An  African  Martyr,  probably  of 
the  persecution  under  Valerian  (A.D.  253). 
No  trustworthy  account  of  her  is  extant. 

EUTROPIA  (St.)  V.M.  (Dec.  14) 

See  SS.  NICASIUS,  EUTROPIA,   &c. 

EUTROPIUS  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  12) 

(5th  cent.)  A  Lector  or  Reader  of  the 
Church  of  Constantinople,  who  was  put  to 
death  with  St.  Tygrius  and  many  others  on 
account  of  their  loyalty  to  St.  John  Chrysostom 
after  that  great  Saint  had  been  driven  into 
exile.  St.  Eutropius  died  in  prison  from  the 
consequences  of  the  torture  to  which  he  had 
been  subjected  (A.D.  405). 

EUTROPIUS  (St.)  M.  (March  3) 

See  SS.  CLEONICUS,  EUTROPIUS,   &c. 

EUTROPIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (April  30) 

(Date  uncertain.)  One  of  the  fellow-workers 
with  St.  Denis  of  Paris  in  the  Evangelisation  of 
Gaul,  and  the  first  Bishop  of  Saintes.  The 
tradition  is  that  he  sealed  his  Apostolate  with 
his  blood.  The  date  will  depend  upon  that  in 
the  first  or  third  century  at  which  is  fixed  the 
Apostolate  of  St.  Denis. 

EUTROPIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (May  27) 

(5th  cent.)  A  citizen  of  Marseilles  ordained 
deacon  by  St.  Eustachius.  He  succeeded 
St.  Justin  in  the  See  of  Orange  and  wrought 
many  miracles.  There  is  mention  of  him  in 
a.d.  463  and  in  a.d.  475  ;  but  other  dates  are 
wanting.  He  appears  in  his  lifetime  to  have 
enjoyed  a  great  reputation  in  France.  Sidonius 
Apollinaris  speaks  of  him  in  the  highest  and 
most  reverential  terms. 

EUTROPIUS,  ZOSIMA  and  BONOSA        (July  15) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(3rd  cent.)  Martyrs  at  Porto  near  Rome, 
probably  victims  of  the  persecution  under 
Aurelian  (a.d.  273  about),  though  some  ante- 
date them  to  the  time  of  Septimius  Sevcrus 
(A.D.  193-211).  The  fifty  soldiers  commemor- 
ated as  Martyrs  in  the  Roman  Martyrology 
on  July  8  appear  to  have  been  converted  to  the 
Faith  while  witnessing  the  fortitude  of  SS. 
Eutropius,  Zosima  and  Bonosa  (a  brother  and 
his  two  sisters).  For  some  reason  the  name 
of  St.  Bonosa  has  remained  the  most  prominent 
of  the  three. 

EUTYCHES  (St.)  M.  (April  15) 

See  SS.  MARO,  EUTYCHES,  &c. 

EUTYCHIANUS  (St.)  M.  (July  2) 

See  SS.  ARISTON,  CRESCENTIANUS,   &c. 

EUTYCHIANUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  17) 

See  SS.  STRATON,  PHILIP,   &c. 

EUTYCHIANUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  2) 

See  SS.  DIOMEDES,  JULIAN,   &c. 


EUTYCHIANUS  (T.)  M.  (Nov.  13) 

See  SS.  ARCADIUS,  PASCHASIUS,   &c. 

EUTYCHIANUS  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (Dec.  8) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  native  of  Etruria  or  Tuscany, 
who  in  a.d.  275  succeeded  St.  Felix  I  in  the 
Chair  of  St.  Peter.  He  had  great  veneration 
for  the  remains  of  the  Martyrs,  and  is  said  to 
have  interred  several  hundreds  of  them  with 
his  own  hands.  He  appointed  or  revived  the 
now  obsolete  custom  of  blessing  grapes  and 
other  fruits  at  the  end  of  the  Canon  of  the 
Mass.  He  passed  away  in  the  reign  of  Probus 
or  soon  after  (a.d.  283,  perhaps) ;  but  there 
is  some  dispute  as  to  precise  dates.  The  marble 
slab  covering  his  tomb  in  the  Catacombs  of 
St.  Callistus  has  in  modern  times  been  brought 
to  light.  The  Church  honours  him  as  a 
Martyr. 

EUTYCHIUS  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  4) 

(4th  cent.)  One  of.  the  victims  in  Rome, 
it  would  appear,  of  the  persecution  under 
Diocletian  at  the  opening  of  the  fourth  century. 
From  the  inscription  composed  for  his  tomb  by 
Pope  St.  Damasus  we  learn  that  after  torture 
he  was  left  for  twelve  days  in  prison  without 
food,  and  in  the  end  thrown  down  into  a  well. 
His  relics  are  now  venerated  in  the  church  of 
San  Lorenzo  in  Damaso. 

EUTYCHIUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (March  14) 
(8th  cent.)  Christians  very  many  in  number, 
put  to  death  for  the  Faith  in  Mesopotamia  by 
the  Mohammedans  after  their  conquest  of  the 
country.  The  year  usually  given  is  A.D.  741. 
The  many  miracles  wrought  by  invoking  the 
intercession  of  St.  Eutychius  have  made  him 
famous  in  the  East. 

EUTYCHIUS  of  ALEXANDRIA  and       (March  26) 
OTHERS  (SS.)  MM. 

(4th  cent.)  Orthodox  Christians  and  staunch 
supporters  of  St.  Athanasius,  who  under  the 
leadership  of  St.  Eutychius,  a  sub-deacon  of 
the  Church  of  Alexandria,  were  imprisoned 
and  tortured  for  their  Faith  in  the  Trinity 
by  the  Arian  intruded  Bishops.  From  St. 
Athanasius  we  learn  that  St.  Eutychius,  after 
being  scourged,  was  condemned  to  slavery  in 
the  mines,  but  perished  from  exhaustion  on 
the  road  thither  (A.D.  356). 

EUTYCHIUS  (St.)  M.  (April  15) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  Martyr  of  unknown  date 
of  Ferentino  in  the  Roman  Campagna.  A 
vision  in  which  he  appeared  to  St.  Redemptus, 
Bishop  in  the  sixth  century  of  that  See,  is 
recounted  by  St.  Gregory  the  Great.  Assemani 
treats  exhaustively  of  St.  Eutychius  in  his 
work  on  the  local  Saints  of  Ferentinum. 

EUTYCHIUS  (St.)  M.  (May  21) 

See  SS.  TIMOTHY,  POLIUS,  &c. 

EUTYCHIUS  and  FLORENTIUS  (SS.)  (May  23) 
(6th  cent.)  Two  Umbrian  Saints  of  the 
sixth  century  who  successively  governed  a 
monastery  near  Norcia.  St.  Gregory  the  Great 
extols  their  sanctity  and  recounts  several 
miracles  worked  by  their  prayers. 

EUTYCHIUS  (St.)  (Aug.  24) 

(1st  cent.)  A  Phrygian,  disciple  of  St.  Paul, 
and  conjectured  to  have  been  the  young  man 
raised  from  the  dead  by  the  Apostle  at  Troas 
(Acts  xx.),  who  on  St.  Paul  leaving  the  East, 
attached  himself  to  St.  John  the  Evangelist, 
aiding  him  in  his  Apostolate  and  attending  him 
to  the  Isle  of  Patmos.  He  is  said  to  have 
himself  been  imprisoned  and  put  to  the  torture 
for  the  Faith,  but  to  have  lived  to  nearly  the 
end  of  the  first  century  and  to  have  died  a 
natural  death. 

EUTYCHIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  19) 

See  SS.  JANUARIUS,  FESTUS,  &c. 

EUTYCHIUS,  PLAUTUS  and  HERACLEAS 

(SS).  MM.  (Sept.  29) 

(Date  uncertain.;  Martyrs  of  uncertain  date 
and  place,  though  noted  by  the  Martyrologies 
as  having  suffered  in  Thrace.  There  are  also 
great  discrepancies  in  the  names  attributed  to 
them. 

103 


EUTYCHIUS 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


EUTYCHIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  5) 

See  SS.  PLACIDUS  and  OTHERS. 
EUTYCHIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  21) 

See  SS.  HONORIUS,  EUTYCHIUS,  &c. 
EUTYCHIUS  (OYE)  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  11) 

(4th  cent.)    A  Spanish  Martyr  of  the  fourth 
century.     He    suffered    either    at    Merida    or 
somewhere    in    the    neighbourhood    of    Cadiz. 
Nothing  is  really  now  known  about  him. 
EUTYCHIUS  and  DOMITIAN  (SS.)  MM.  (Dec.  28) 
(Date  unknown.)    A  priest  with  his  deacon 
registered  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  as  having 
suffered  martyrdom  at  Ancyra  in  Galatia  (Asia 
Minor).     We  have  no  other  record  of  them. 
EUVERT  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  7) 

Otherwise  St.  EVORTIUS,  which  see. 
*EVAL  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  20) 

(6th  cent.)    A  British  Bishop  in  Cornwall, 
at  the  end  of  the  sixth  century,  who  has  left 
a  place-name  in  that  county.     Nothing  certain 
is  known  about  him. 
EVAGRIUS  of  CONSTANTINOPLE  (St.)  (March  6) 
Bp. 

(4th    cent.)    When    (A.D.    370)    the    See    of 

Constantinople   had   been   vacant   for   twenty 

years,  usurped  by  Arian  intruders,  the  Catholics 

seized  a  favourable  moment  and  elected  Evag- 

rius,  a  personage  otherwise  unknown  to  history. 

A  few  months  later  he  was  driven  out  by  the 

Emperor  Valens  and  died  in  exile.     His  merits 

were  such  as  to  entitle  him  in  the  opinion  of  his 

contemporaries  to  the  honour  of  canonisation. 

EVAGRIUS  and  BENIGNUS  (SS.)  MM.     (April  3) 

(Date  unknown.)     Martyrs  at  Tomi  on  the 

Black   Sea.     Nothing   has   come   down   to   us 

concerning  them,  save  the  insertion  of  their 

names  in  the  old  Martyrologies. 

EVAGRIUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  1) 

See  SS.  PRISCUS,  CRESCENS,   &c. 
EVAGRIUS,  PRISCIAN  and  OTHERS        (Oct.  12) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(Date  unknown.)    Martyrs  of  uncertain  date, 

said  by  some  to  have  suffered  in  Rome  ;    by 

others,  with  more  probability,  in  Syria. 

*EVAN  (INAN)  (St.)  (Aug.  18) 

(9th  cent.)     A  Scottish  hermit  in  Ayrshire, 

to    whom    churches    are    dedicated,    but    the 

particulars  of  whose  life  have  been  lost. 

EVARISTUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  14) 

See  SS.  CARPONIUS.  EVARISTUS,   &c. 

EVARISTUS  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (Oct.  26) 

(2nd  cent.)     The  successor  of  St.  Anacletus, 

or   possibly  of   St.   Clement   in   the   Chair  of 

St.  Peter.    There  is  much  dispute  as  to  the 

precise    date    of    his    nine    years'  Pontificate. 

Some  put  it  A.i>.  96  to  A.D.  108  ;  others  A.D.  103 

to  A.D.  112  ;  others  again,  A.D.  112  to  A.D.  121. 

He  appears  to  have  been  a  Greek  of  Antioch, 

and  on  the  side  of  his  father,  of  Jewish  descent. 

He  divided  the  City  of  Rome  into  parishes  and 

appointed  seven  deacons  to  attend  the  Pope, 

thus  originating  the  College  of  Cardinals.    He 

is  honoured  liturgically  as  a  Martyr. 

EVARISTUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  23) 

See  SS.  THEODULUS,  SATURNINUS,   &c. 

EVASIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Dec.  1) 

(4th  cent.)     A  Saint  of  whom  at  the  present 

day   we   have   no   trustworthy   account.    The 

tradition  is  that  Pope  St.  Sylvester  consecrated 

him  first  Bishop  of  Asti  in  Piedmont,  that  he 

laboured  zealously  for  the  good  of  his  fiock, 

that  he  was  driven  from  his  See  by  the  Arian 

Emperor   Constantius,    and    that    with    many 

others  he  was  put  to  the  sword  under  Julian 

the  Apostate,  a.d.  362,  at  a  place  later  called 

after  him  Casale  Sant'   Evasale,   now  simply 

EVASIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  2) 

(Date   unknown.)    Beyond   the   mention  of 

him    in   the   Roman   Martyrology,    no   record 

remains  of  this  Saint,  who  is  described  as  a 

Bishop  of  Brescia  in  Lombardy. 

EVELLIUS  (St.)  M.  (May  11) 

(1st   cent.)    A    Councillor    of   the  Emperor 

Nero,    whose    conversion   to   Christianity   was 

104 


brought  about  by  the  great  patience  and 
constancy  of  the  Christians  who  suffered  under 
his  eyes,  and  more  particularly  by  the  example 
of  the  Martyr  St.  Torpes.  St.  Evellius  was 
beheaded  at  Pisa  A.D.  66  or  67. 
EVENTIUS  of  SARAGOSSA  (St.)  M.  (April  16) 

See  SARAGOSSA  (MARTYRS  of). 
EVENTIUS  (St.)  M.  (May  3) 

See  SS.  ALEXANDER,  THEODULUS,  Ac. 
*EVERARD  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  8) 

Otherwise  St.  ERARD,  which  see. 
The  name  EBERHARD  is  also  often  written 
EVERARD. 
♦EVERARD  HANSE  (Bl.)  M.  (July  31) 

(16th  cent.)  A  Protestant  minister  who, 
becoming  a  convert,  resigned  his  rich  prefer- 
ments and  received  the  priesthood  at  Rheims. 
His  Apostolate  afterwards  in  England  was 
short ;  and  he  was  put  to  death  at  Tyburn, 
A.D.  1582.  Bystanders  report  that  when  the 
executioner  had  cut  him  down  alive  from  the 
gallows  and,  according  to  the  sentence,  was 
tearing  out  his  heart,  he  was  heard  to  exclaim, 
"  O  Happy  Day." 
*EVERILDIS  (St.)  V.  (July  9) 

(7th  cent.)  A  holy  maiden,  born  in  the 
South  of  England,  who  after  the  Apostolate  of 
St.  Birinus,  retired,  in  company  with  SS.  Bega 
and  Wulfreda,  to  the  neighbourhood  of  York, 
where  they  gathered  many  other  holy  virgins 
round  them  at  a  place  still  called  after  her, 
Everillsham  or  Everingham. 
EVERG1STUS  (EBREGESILUS)  (St.)  (Oct.  24) 
Bp.  M. 

(5th  cent.)  A  Bishop  of  Cologne  and  suc- 
cessor of  St.  Severinus  in  the  fifth  century. 
A  Prelate  of  great  zeal  and  sanctity  and  dis- 
tinguished by  his  assiduity  and  confidence  in 
prayer.  While  visiting  the  town  of  Tongres 
he  was  set  upon  and  killed  by  robbers.  Many 
miracles  have  been  worked  at  his  shrine. — 
Another  saintly  Bishop  of  Cologne  of  the  same 
name  is  put  on  record  by  St.  Gregory  of  Tours 
as  having  been  renowned  for  the  working  of 
miracles  about  a  century  later. 
*EVERMAR  (St.)  M.  (May  1) 

(7th  cent.)  A  Belgian  Saint  who,  while  on 
a  pilgrimage,  was  set  upon  by  evildoers  and 
murdered  in  a  forest,  about  A.D.  700.  He  is 
still  in  great  veneration  and  is  honoured  as  a 
Martyr. 
*EVERMUND  (St.)  Abbot.  (June  16) 

(6th   cent.)     A   French    Saint,   founder   and 
first  Abbot  of  Fontenay  in  Normandy. 
EVILASIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  20) 

See  SS.  FAURTA  and  EVILASIUS. 
EVODIUS,  HERMOGENES  and  CALLISTUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (April  25) 

(Date  unknown.)  Christians  of  Syracuse  in 
Sicily,  registered  in  the  old  Martyrologies 
(but  without  date)  as  having  suffered  martyr- 
dom. Evodius  and  Hermogenes  are  said  to 
have  been  brothers,  Callistus  (often  written 
Callista)  is  likewise  asserted  to  have  been 
brother  or  sister  to  them.  These  three  Saints 
also  appear  in  the  Martyrologies  on  Sept.  2. 
EVODIUS  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (May  6) 

(1st  cent.)  The  first  Bishop  of  Antioch, 
consecrated,  it  is  said,  by  St.  Peter  the  Apostle 
on  his  departure  thence  for  Rome.  By  some  of 
the  ancients  the  fact  that  at  Antioch  the 
disciples  vere  first  named  Christians  (Acts  xi. 
26)  is  attributed  to  St.  Evodius.  Tradition 
makes  of  him  a  Martyr  (a.d.  67  about).  He 
was  followed  in  the  Sec  of  Antioch  by  the 
great  St.  Ignatius. 
EVODIUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  2) 

See  SS.  THEODOTA,  EVODIUS,   &c. 
EVODIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  8) 

(5th  cent.)  Born  at  Rouen  and  educated 
among  the  clergy  of  the  Cathedral,  his  virtues 
and  talents  caused  him  to  be  raised  to  the 
Episcopate.  He  wrought  many  miracles  in  his 
lifetime  and  also  after  his  death,  which  happened 
some  time  in  the  fifth  century.    Four  hundred 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


FAITH 


years  later  his  relics  were  translated  to  Braine, 
near  Soissons. 
EVORTIUS  (EUVERT)  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  7) 

(4th   cent.)    A   Roman   cleric   who   became 
Bishop  of  Orleans,  apparently  during  the  reign 
of  Constantine,  and  who  died  about  A.D.  340. 
An  Abbey,   St.   Euvert,   was   founded  at  the 
place  where  his  relics  were  enshrined. 
EVROUL  (EBRULPHUS)  (St.)  Abbot.      (Dec.  29) 
(6th    cent.)     Born     at     Bayeux     (Northern 
France)  (A.D.   517),  he  had  a  brilliant  career 
at  the  Court  of  King  Childebert  I ;   but  moved 
by   a   Divine   impulse   obtained  leave   of   the 
following  monarch,  Clotaire  I,  to  retire  to  a 
monastery  (his  wife  at  the  same  time  taking 
the  veil  in  a  convent).     He  lived  henceforth 
a  life  of  prayer  and  of  work  for  the  good  of  his 
neighbour  ;  and  himself  founded  many  religious 
houses.     He  passed  away  A.D.  596. 
EWALD  THE  DARK  and  EWALD  THE  FAIR 
(SS.)  (Oct.  3) 

(7th  cent.)  Two  of  the  missionary  priest- 
monks,  sent  by  St.  Egbert  with  St.  Willibrord 
from  England  to  evangelise  Germany.  Vener- 
able Bede  relates  that  their  field  of  work  was 
"  Old  Saxony."  Their  Apostolate  appears  to 
have  been  very  short.  They  were  done  to  death 
by  the  Pagans,  probably  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Dortmund  about  A.D.  695.  Ewald  the  Fair 
was  struck  down  by  a  sword  blow.  Ewald  the 
Dark,  the  more  prominent  of  the  two,  was 
fearfully  maltreated,  and  in  the  end  torn  to 
pieces.  King  Pepin  enshrined  their  relics  at 
Cologne. 
*EWE  (St.)  V.  (Oct.  27) 

Otherwise  St.  IVES  (IWA),  which  see. 
EXANTHUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  7) 

See  SS.  CARPOPHOBUS,  EXANTHUS,  &C. 
*EXMEW  (WILLIAM)  (Bl.)  M.  (June  18) 

See  CABTHUSIAN  MARTYBS. 
EXPEDITUS  of  MELITENE  (St.)  M.        (April  19) 

See  SS.  HERMOGENES,  CAIUS,   Ac. 

EXUPERANTIA  (St.)  V.  (April  26) 

(Date   unknown.)     A    Saint   of   the   Roman 

Martyrology,  concerning  whom  no  particulars 

are  extant.     Her  relics  are  venerated  at  Troyes 

in  France. 

EXUPERANTIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Jan.  24) 

(5th  cent.)     A  Bishop  of  Cingoli  near  Ancona 

in   Italy.     He   is   believed   to    have   been   by 

birth  a  native  of  North  Africa.     To  his  prayers, 

his  flock  attributed  their  immunity  from  the 

plague  devastating  Italy  in  his  time.     They  have 

since  venerated  him  as  their  Patron  Saint. 

EXUPERANTIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (May  30) 

(5th     cent.)     The     nineteenth     Bishop     of 

Ravenna  who  occupied  that   See   for  twenty 

years,   dying  a.d.   418.     It  is  related  of  him 

that  he  cared  for  his  flock  not  only  in  regard 

to    things    spiritual,    but    for    their    temporal 

well-being  also.     He  is  buried  in  the  church  of 

St.  Agnes  in  his  own  city. 

EXUPERANTIUS  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  30) 

See  SS.  SABINUS,  EXUPERANTIUS,   &c. 

EXUPERIA  (St.)  M.  (July  26) 

See  SS.  SYMPHRONIUS,  OLYMP1US,    &c. 

EXUPERIUS,     HESPERIUS,     ZOE,     CYRIACUS 

and  THEODULUS  (SS.)  MM.  (May  2) 

(2nd    cent.)     A    family   of   Christian    slaves 

(husband,  wife  and  two  sons),  the  property  of  a 

rich    Pagan    of    Attalia    in    Pamphylia    (Asia 

Minor),  in  the  time  of  the  Emperor  Hadrian. 

For  refusing  to  take  part  in  idolatrous  rites 

they  were  put  to  the  torture  and,  remaining 

steadfast,  were  at  last  burned  to  death  (A.D. 

140). 

EXUPERIUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  22) 

See  SS.  MAURICE,  EXUPERIUS,   &c. 
EXUPERIUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Sept.  28) 

(5th  cent.)  A  saintly  Bishop  of  Toulouse 
in  France  at  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  century. 
St.  Jerome,  who  dedicated  to  him  one  of  his 
works,  extols  his  virtues.  We  have  a  letter 
from  him  to  Pope  St.  Innocent  I.  He  was 
devoted  to  the  poor,  and  even  sent  large  con- 


tributions to  those  of  Palestine  and  Egypt. 
He  passed  awav  A.D.  411. 

EXUPERIUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  19) 

See  SS.  SEVEBINUS,  EXUPERIUS,   &c. 

*EYNON  (ONION)  (WILLIAM)  (Bl.)  M.  (Nov.  14) 
See  Bl.  HUGH  FABINGDON. 

EZECHIEL  (St.)  Prophet.  (April  10) 

(6th  cent.  B.C.)  One  of  the  Four  Greater 
Prophets  and  the  writer  of  a  canonical  Book  of 
Scripture.  The  tradition  is  that  he  was  put  to 
death,  while  in  captivity  in  Babylon  with  the 
rest  of  his  nation,  by  one  of  the  Jewish  Headmen 
who  had  turned  Pagan  (B.C.  525),  and  was 
buried  there  in  the  tomb  of  the  Patriarchs 
Sem  and  Arphaxad.  His  grave  was  for  the 
early  Christians  a  place  of  pilgrimage. 


F 

FABIAN  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (Jan.  20) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Roman  who,  while  yet  a  lay- 
man, was  by  a  sign  from  Heaven  pointed  out 
as  the  successor  of  St.  Antherus  (a.d.  236)  in 
St.  Peter's  Chair.  This  "  incomparable  man," 
as  St.  Cyprian  styles  him,  did  much  for  Ecclesi- 
astical discipline,  repressed  the  rigorism  of 
certain  heretics  of  his  time,  and  called  to 
account  the  famous  Origcn.  He  beautified  the 
shrines  of  the  Roman  Martyrs,  and  was  himself 
one  of  the  victims  of  the  Decian  persecution 
(A.D.  250).  To  St.  Fabian  is  attributed  the 
Holy  Thursday  rite  of  Consecration  of  the 
Holy  Oils  ;  also  by  some  the  alleged  Baptism 
of  the  Emperor  Philip. 
FABIAN  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  31) 

See  SS.  STEPHEN,  POTENTIANUS,   &c. 
FABIUS  (St.)  M.  (May  11) 

See  SS.  MAXIMUS,  BASSUS  and  FABIUS. 
FABIUS  (St.)  M.  (July  31) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Christian  soldier  who  for 
refusing  to  carry  a  standard  bearing  idolatrous 
emblems,  and  for  boldly  giving  as  a  reason  his 
belief  in  Christ,  was  beheaded  at  Csesarea  in 
Mauretanea,  under  Diocletian  about  A.D.  300. 
FABRICIANUS  and  PHILIBERT  (SS.)  (Aug.  22) 
MM. 

(Date  unknown.)     Of  these  holy  men,  who 
are  alleged  to  have  suffered  in  Spain  and  who 
are  honoured  at  Toledo,  nothing  whatever  is 
reallv  known. 
*FACHANAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  14) 

(6th  cent.)  The  first  Bishop  of  Ross  (Ire- 
land), where  he  founded  the  monastery  of  Ross- 
Altair,  which  became  a  centre  of  pilgrimage  and 
a  celebrated  school  of  learning.  He  was  remark- 
able for  his  eloquence  and  is  venerated  as 
Patron  of  the  Diocese  of  Ross. 
FACUNDUS  and  PRIMITIVUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  27) 
(4th  cent.)  Spanish  Martyrs,  the  sons  of 
St.  Marcellus  the  Centurion,  also  a  Martyr, 
said  to  have  been  put  to  death  under  Diocletian 
about  A.D.  300,  by  order  of  Atticus  or  of 
Dacianus,  Judge  in  Galicia.  More  probably 
however  their  martyrdom  took  place  as  early 
as  the  middle  of  the  second  century  in  the  time 
of  Marcus  Aurelius. 
*FAGAN  (St.)  (Jan.  3) 

Otherwise  St.  FUGATIUS,  which  see. 
*FAILBHE  THE  LITTLE  (St.)  Abbot.   (March  10) 
(8th  cent.)     He  was  for  seven  years  Abbot  of 
Iona.  where  he  died,  aged  eighty,  A.D.  754. 
♦FAILBHE  (St.)  Abbot.  (March  22) 

(7th  cent.)  The  immediate  predecessor  of 
St.  Adamnan  (a.d.  679)  as  Abbot  of  Iona.  He 
was  of  Irish  birth  and  brother  of  St.  Finan  of 
Rath.  There  are  several  other  Saints  of  the 
same  name  commemorated  in  the  Scottish 
Menologies. 
FAINA  (St.)  M.  (May  18) 

See  SS.  THEODOTUS,  THECUSA,   &c. 
FAITH  (PISTIS),  HOPE  (ELPIS),  CHARITY 

(AGAPE)  VV.MM.  (Aug.  1) 

(2nd  cent.)    Three  young  girls,  daughters  of 

105 


FAITH 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


St.  Sophia,  with  whom  they  were  baptised. 
Their  mother  brought  them  up  carefully  as 
Christians  and  encouraged  them  during  the 
horrors  of  their  martyrdom  in  Rome  under 
Hadrian  early  in  the  second  century.  Many 
legends  have  grown  up  concerning  them,  but 
nothing  more  can  be  stated  with  any  certainty 
about  them  and  their  holy  mother.  St.  Sophia 
and  her  children  have  always  been  in  great 
veneration  both  in  the  East  and  in  the  West. 
SS.  Faith,  Hope  and  Charity  are  said  to  have 
been  put  to  death  at  the  ages  respectively  of 
twelve,  ten  and  nine  years. 

FAITH  (St.)  V.M.  (Oct.  6) 

(4th  cent.)  Born  at  Agen  in  the  South  of 
France  and  arrested  in  the  same  city  by  the 
notorious  Prefect  Dacian  under  the  Emperor 
Maximian  Herculeus.  She  was  burned  to 
death  a.d.  303.  A  number  of  bystanders 
(chief  among  whom  was  the  Martyr  St.  Capra- 
sius)  inspired  by  her  example,  bravely  declared 
themselves  to  be  also  Christians,  and  were  on 
that  account  beheaded.  The  relics  of  St. 
Faith  were  enshrined  at  the  Abbey  of  Conque, 
but  a  portion  of  her  ashes  were  taken  to  Glaston- 
bury. Hence  probably  her  place  in  the  Sarum 
Calendar  and  the  Dedication  to  her  of  certain 
English  churches. 

FAL  (FELE)  (St.)  (May  1G) 

Otherwise  St.  FIDOLUS,  which  see. 

*FANCHEA  (GARBH)  (St.)  V.  (Jan.  1) 

(6th  cent.)  Born  in  Clogher  and  sister  of 
SS.  Endeus,  Lochina,  Carecha  and  Dareima. 
She  presided  as  Abbess  over  a  flourishing 
community  of  holy  women  and  was  instrumental 
in  converting  her  brother,  Endeus,  the  celebrated 
Abbot  of  Arran,  whom  she  led  on  to  great 
sanctity. 

FANDILA  (FANDILAS)  (St.)  M.  (June  13) 

(9th  cent.)  Born  in  the  South  of  Spain, 
he  became  a  monk  at  Cordova,  where  he  was 
ordained  priest.  Arrested  during  the  persecu- 
tion of  the  Caliph  Mahomed  he  was  cast  into 
prison  and  beheaded  at  Cordova,  a.d.  853. 

FANTINUS  (St.)  (Aug.  30) 

(9th  cent.)  A  monk  in  Calabria  (South  of 
Italy)  who,  when  over  sixty  years  of  age,  went 
to  Greece  to  visit  the  shrines  of  the  Martyrs, 
and  died  at  Thessalonica,  probably  some  time 
in  the  ninth  century.  Famous  in  life  for  his 
austerities,  he  was  renowned  also  for  the 
miracles  he  wrought  both  before  and  after 
death. 

FARA  (St.)  V.  (Dec.  7) 

Otherwise  St.  PHARA  or  BURGONDOFARA, 
which  see. 

*FARANNAN  (St.)  (Feb.  15) 

(6th  cent.)  Born  in  Ireland,  St.  Farannan 
became  one  of  St.  Columba's  disciples  at  Iona. 
Eventually  he  settled  in  the  West  of  Ireland, 
living  in  a  cave  and  performing  most  rigorous 
penances.  He  is  the  Patron  Saint  of  Alterna 
(All-Faranna)  in  Sligo,  the  probable  place  of  his 
death. 

♦FARINGDON  (HUGH)  (Bl.)  M.  (Nov.  14) 

See  Bl.  HUGH  FARINGDON. 

FARO  (PHARO)  (St.)  Bp.  (Oct.  28) 

(7th  cent.)  Of  a  noble  Burgundian  family, 
his  father,  Ageneric,  was  one  of  the  principal 
lords  at  the  Court  of  Theodebert  II.  His 
brother,  St.  Cagnoald,  a  monk  at.  Luxeuil,  and 
his  sister,  St.  Phara,  attained  like  him  to  the 
honours  of  the  Altar.  Separating  by  mutual 
consent  from  his  wife  (Blidechild,  afterwards 
a  nun),  St.  Faro  received  the  religious  tonsure 
and  became  Bishop  of  Meaux,  a  See  which  he 
retained  for  forty-six  years,  until  his  holy 
death  a.d.  672.  His  zeal  and  piety,  coupled 
with  the  gift  of  miracle-working,  drew  many 
holy  men  and  women  to  Meaux,  among  others 
St.  Fiacra. 

FAUSTA  and  EVILASIUS  (SS.)  MM.        (Sept.  20) 

(4th    cent.)     St.    Fausta,    a    girl    of    about 

thirteen,  was  being  cruelly  tortured  by  order 

of  Evilasius,  a  heathen  magistrate,  when  the 

106 


latter,  seeing  the  constancy  of  the  child,  believed 
and  was  also  crowned  for  Christ.    They  suffered 
at  Cyzicum  in  Pontus  under  Diocletian,  A.D. 
305. 
FAUSTA  (St.)  Widow.  (Dec.  19) 

(3rd  cent.)  Famous  both  for  the  nobility 
of  her  birth  and  for  her  piety,  St.  Fausta, 
mother  of  St.  Anastasia,  died  in  Rome  towards 
the  end  of  the  third  century.  In  the  words  of 
her  daughter  she  was  "  a  pattern  of  goodness 
and  piety."  Baronius  maintains  the  authenti- 
city of  the  Letter  of  St.  Anastasia,  in  which 
these  words  occur,  but  doubts  have  since  been 
raised  as  to  its  genuineness. 
FAUSTINIAN  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  26) 

(4th  cent.)  St.  Faustinian  is  said  to  have 
been  the  second  Bishop  of  Bologna  in  Italy. 
He  comforted  the  Christians  during  Diocletian's 
persecution,  and  later  was  a  zealous  champion 
of  the  Catholic  Faith  against  the  Arians.  There 
is  some  doubt  as  to  the  precise  date  of  his 
death,  which  took  place  early  in  the  fourth 
century. 
FAUSTINUS  and  JOVITA  (SS.)  MM.         (Feb.  15) 

(2nd  cent.)  Two  brothers,  nobly  born,  and 
zealous  professors  of  the  Christian  Faith,  which 
they  boldly  preached  to  their  fellow-citizens 
of  Brescia  (Lombardy)  at  a  time  of  heathen 
fury  such  that  even  their  Bishop  had  sought 
concealment.  They  were  at  length  arrested 
by  the  authorities,  and  it  is  said  that  the 
Emperor  Hadrian  himself,  after  arguing  with 
them,  ordered  them  to  be  beheaded  (A.D.  121). 
The  City  of  Brescia  possesses  their  relics  and 
venerates  them  as  its  chief  Patrons. 
FAUSTINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  16) 

(4th  cent.)  The  successor  of  St.  Ursicinus 
in  the  See  of  Brescia  (Lombardy).  He  is  said 
to  have  compiled  the  Acts  of  his  collateral 
ancestors  SS.  Faustinus  and  Jovita.  He 
died  after  about  twenty  years  of  Episcopate, 
a.d.  381,  and  was  succeeded  by  St.  Philastrius. 
FAUSTINUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.        (Feb.  17) 

(Date  unknown.)  All  particulars  of  these 
Saints  are  lost,  though  Baronius  has  inserted 
them  in  the  Martyrology  on  the  authority  of 
ancient  manuscripts  he  had  before  him.  They 
are  alleged  to  have  suffered  in  Rome  and  to 
have  been  forty- five  in  number ;  but  it  is 
quaintly  added  :  "  The  very  names  of  forty- 
four  of  them  are  now  known  to  none  save 
God." 
FAUSTINUS,  TIMOTHY  and  VENUSTUS  (May  22) 

(SS.)  MM. 

(4th    cent.)    These    holy    men    suffered    in 

Rome  perhaps  as  late  as  the  reign  of  Julian  the 

Apostate  (a.d.   360-363) ;    but  no  particulars 

are  forthcoming. 

FAUSTINUS  (St.)  M.  (June  5) 

See  SS.  FLORENTIUS  and  OTHERS. 
FAUSTINUS  (St.)  M.  (July  29) 

See  SS.  SIMPLICIUS,  FAUSTINUS,   &c. 
FAUSTINUS  (St.)  (July  29) 

(4th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  St.  Felix,  Bishop 
of  Martano  or  Spello,  near  Spoleto,  and  his 
faithful  attendant  in  the  hour  of  his  Passion. 
St.  Faustinus  himself  suffered  much  for  Christ 
before  passing  away  peacefully  early  in  the 
fourth  century  at  Todi  in  Umbria. 
FAUSTINUS,    LUCIUS,     CANDIDUS,     C03LIAN, 

MARK,    JANUARIUS    and    FORTUNATUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (Dec.  15) 

(Date     unknown.)    African     Martyrs     com- 
memorated in  all  the  old  Martyrologies,  but 
of  whom  nothing  otherwise  is  known. 
FAUSTUS  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (June  24) 

(Date  unknown.)  Twenty-four  Roman  Mar- 
tyrs whose  Acts  have  been  lost  and  whose  date 
is  quite  uncertain.  Some  conjecture  that  this 
St.  Faustus  is  the  convert  made  at  the  end  of 
her  life  by  St.  Dafrosa,  mother  of  St.  Bibiana. 
Others  identify  him  and  his  fellow-sufferers 
with  the  Saints  Lucy  and  Twenty-two  others, 
commemorated  in  the  Roman  Martyrology  on 
June  25  (probably  a.d.  280). 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


FELICITTAS 


FAUSTUS  (St.)  M.  (July  16) 

(3rd  cent.)    A  Martyr  of  the  Decian  persecu- 
tion (A.D.  250),  who,  crucified  and  shot  at  with 
arrows,  is  said  to  have  lingered  in  nis  agony  for 
five  days. 
FAUSTUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  1) 

See  SS.  BONUS  and  FAUSTUS. 
FAUSTUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  7) 

(2nd  cent.)  It  is  a  tradition  that  this 
St.  Faustus  was  a  soldier  who  gave  his  life  for 
Christ  after  enduring  many  tortures  at  Milan 
during  the  reign  of  Commodus  (a.d.  180-A.d. 
193) ;  but  neither  at  Milan  nor  elsewhere  are 
there  any  particulars  extant. 
FAUSTUS,  MACARIUS  and  OTHERS  (Sept.  6) 
(SS.)  MM. 

(3rd  cent.)  St.  Faustus  was  a  priest,  and 
with  that  of  Macarius  the  Greek  Menologies 
give  the  names  of  his  other  ten  fellow-sufferers. 
They  were  victims  of  the  Decian  persecution 
(A.d.  250),  and  were  beheaded  at  Alexandria 
in  Egypt. 
FAUSTUS  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  8) 

See  SS.  TIMOTHY  and  FAUSTUS. 
FAUSTUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  3) 

See  SS.  DIONYSIUS  and  FAUSTUS. 
FAUSTUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  4) 

See  SS.  CAIUS,  FAUSTUS  and  OTHERS. 
FAUSTUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  5) 

See  SS.  PLACIDUS  and  OTHERS. 
FAUSTUS,       JANUARIUS       and      MARTIALIS 
(SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  13) 

(4th  cent.)  Saints  styled  by  the  Poet 
Prudentius  "  the  three  Crowns  of  Cordova," 
in  which  city  they,  during  the  great  persecution, 
under  the  Emperors  Diocletian  and  Maximian, 
having  bravely  confessed  their  Faith  in  Christ, 
were  put  to  the  torture  and  beheaded  (a.d.  304). 
FAUSTUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  19) 

(4th  cent.)    The  deacon  of  St.  Dionysius  of 
Alexandria  and  his  companion  in  exile.     He  is 
reported  to  have  survived  his  master  for  many 
years,  and  in  the  end  to  have  laid  down  his 
life  in  extreme  old  age  for  Christ  in  the  persecu- 
tion under  Diocletian  at  the  beginning  of  the 
fourth  century. 
FAUSTUS,     DIDIUS,     AMMONIUS,     PHILEAS, 
HESYCHIUS,  PACOMIUS,  THEODORE  and 
OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  26) 

(4th  cent.)  These  Martyrs  suffered  in  the 
persecution  raised  in  Egypt  by  the  Emperor 
Maximian  Galerius,  in  which  St.  Peter,  Patriarch 
of  Alexandria,  perished  (a.d.  311  about).  St. 
Faustus  was  a  priest  of  Alexandria ;  SS. 
Phileas,  Hesychius,  Pacomius  and  Theodore 
were  Egyptian  country  Bishops ;  and  with 
them  six  hundred  and  sixty  Christians  are  said 
to  have  given  their  lives  for  their  Faith. 
TEATHERSTON  (RICHARD)  (Bl.)  M.     (July  30) 

See  Bl.  RICHARD  FEATHERSTON. 
FEBRONIA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  25) 

(4th  cent.)  A  young  nun  in  her  twentieth 
year,  victim  of  the  persecution  under  Diocletian 
(a.d.  304),  who  bravely  sealed  her  Confession 
of  Christ  with  her  blood,  at  Sybapolis  in  Syria, 
according  to  the  Martyrologies  ;  but  really  at 
Nisibi  in  Assyria  (Mesopotamia)  as  modern 
research  has  shown.  In  their  fear  the  fifty 
sisters  in  her  community  had  fled  to  various 
hiding-places,  Fcbronia  alone  remaining  with 
her  Abbess  and  one  other  aged  nun,  when  the 
Imperial  officers  came  to  seize  them.  It 
appears  that  Febronia  only  was  put  to  death, 
and  it  is  from  the  pen  of  one  of  the  other  two 
that  we  have  the  particulars  of  the  ghastly 
tortures  to  which  she  was  subjected  before 
being  beheaded. 
♦FECHIN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  20) 

(7th  cent.)  A  disciple  of  St.  Yathy  and 
founder  of  many  monasteries  in  Ireland.  He 
led  a  life  of  extraordinary  penance,  spending 
his  nights  after  the  manner  of  St.  Patrick, 
in  reciting  the  whole  Psalter.  He  is  honoured 
at  Fobhare  or  Foure  (West  Meath),  where  he 
governed  a  monastery.    Ecclefechan  and  St. 


Vigean's,    near    Arbroath    in    Scotland,    also 
perpetuate  his  memory. 
*FEDLEMID  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  9) 

Otherwise  St.  PHELIM,  which  see. 
*FEIGHIN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  20) 

Otherwise  St.  FECHIN,  which  see. 
*FELAN  (St.)  Abbot.  (Jan.  9) 

Otherwise  St.  FCELAN,  which  see. 
FELE  (FAL)  (St.)  (May  16) 

Otherwise  St.  F1DOLUS,  which  see. 
FELICIAN  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Jan.  24) 

(3rd  cent.)  Ordained  priest  by  Pope  St. 
Eleutherius  and  consecrated  Bishop  of  Foligno, 
his  native  city,  by  Pope  St.  Victor,  he  governed 
that  See  till  a.d.  250,  when  the  Decian  persecu- 
tion broke  out.  Though  then  in  his  ninetieth 
year,  St.  Felician  was  arrested  and  sent  to 
Rome,  but  died  at  Monte  Rotondo  on  his  way 
thither.  His  remains,  brought  back  to  Foligno, 
were  some  centuries  later  translated  to  Metz, 
where  many  miracles  have  been  worked  at  his 
shrine.  At  Minden  in  Westphalia,  whither 
some  of  his  relics  were  carried  in  the  tenth 
century,  a  Feast  in  his  honour  is  kept  on 
Oct.  20,  which  has  given  occasion  to  a  second 
insertion  of  his  name  in  the  Roman  Martyrology. 
FELICIANUS,  PHILIPPIANUS  and  OTHERS 
(SS.)  MM.  (Jan.  30) 

(Date  unknown.      Of  these  African  Martyrs, 
one  hundred  and  thirty-six  in  number,  com- 
memorated  in  the   ancient  Martyrologies,   no 
record  has  come  down  to  our  time. 
FELICIAN  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  2) 

See  SS.  FORTUNATUS  and  FELICIAN. 
FELICIAN  (St.)  M.  (June  9) 

See  SS.  PRIMUS  and  FELICIAN. 
FELICIAN  (St.)  M.  (July  21) 

See  SS.  VICTOR,  ALEXANDER,   &c. 
FELICIAN  (St.)  Bp.  M.  (Oct.  20) 

See  St.  FELICIAN  (Jan.  24). 
FELICIAN  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  29) 

See  SS.  HYACINTHUS,  QUINCTUS,   &c. 
FELICIAN  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  11) 

See  SS.  VALENTINE,  FELICIAN,   &c. 
FELICIAN  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  19) 

See  SS.  SEVERINUS,  EXUPERIUS,   &c. 
FELICINUS  (St.)  Bp.  (July  19) 

Otherwise  St.  FELIX  of  VERONA,  \ohich  see. 
FELICISSIMA  (St.)  V.M.  (Aug.  12) 

See  SS.  GRACILIAN  and  FELICISSIMA. 

FELICISSIMUS,    HERACLIUS    and    PAULINUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (May  26) 

(3rd  cent.)     These  Martyrs  probably  suffered 

towards  the  close  of  the  third  century  under 

Diocletian,    at   Todi   in   Umbria,    where   their 

relics  are  still  venerated  ;    but  no  particulars 

are  known  concerning  them. 

FELICISSIMUS  (St.)  M.  (July  2) 

See  SS.  ARISTON,  CRESCENTIANUS,   &c. 

FELICISSIMUS  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  6) 

See  SS.  XYSTUS,  FELICISSIMUS,  &c. 
FELICISSIMUS  (St.)  M.  (Oct.  26) 

See  SS.  ROGATIANUS  and  FELICISSIMUS. 
FELICISSIMUS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  24) 

(4th    cent.)    A    Martyr    who    suffered    at 
Perugia   (Central   Italy),   perhaps   under   Dio- 
cletian, in  the  first  years  of  the  fourth  century. 
Nothing  more  is  known  of  him. 
FELICITAS  (St.)  M.  (March  7) 

See  SS.  PERPETUA  and  FELICITAS. 
FELICITAS  (St.)  M.  (March  8) 

See  SS.  CYRIL,  ROGATUS,   &c. 
FELICITTAS  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  23) 

(2nd  cent.)  This  holy  widow,  distinguished 
above  all  the  Roman  Matrons  of  her  time  for 
her  piety  and  charity,  had  seven  sons,  together 
with  whom  she  was  arrested  and  tried  as  a 
Christian  before  the  Emperor  Antoninus  Pius 
in  Pome,  about  a.d.  165.  Having  encouraged 
her  children  to  sacrifice  their  lives  cheerfully 
for  Christ,  she,  her  spirit  of  Faith  overcoming 
the  natural  tenderness  of  her  mother's  heart, 
witnessed  the  sufferings  by  which  they  merited 
their  crowns  of  martyrdom.  She  followed 
them  five  months  later,  being  beheaded  as  a 

107 


PELICULA 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


Christian,  Nov.  23,  A.D.  165.     She  has  since 
been  commemorated  throughout  the  Catholic 
Church  on  that  day.     The  Feast  of  her  seven 
martvred  sons  is  kept  on  July  10. 
FELICULA  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  14) 

See  SS.  VITALIS,  FELICULA,   &c. 
FELICULA  (St.)  V.M.  (June  13) 

(1st  cent.)  A  Roman  Saint  of  the  Apostolic 
Age  and  fellow-sufferer  with  St.  Petronilla, 
after  whose  martyrdom  under  Domitian  she 
was  left  for  a  fortnight  in  her  prison  without 
food  or  drink.  The  charge  against  her  was 
her  refusal  to  marry  a  Pagan  and  to  sacrifice 
to  idols.  Utterly  wasted  though  she  was,  she 
was  tortured  on  the  rack  and  at  last  thrown 
into  a  ditch  to  die.  Her  body  was  recovered 
by  the  priest  St.  Nicomedes,  and  by  him 
secretly  interred  outside  the  walls  of  Rome 
(A.D.  90  about). 
FELINUS  and  GRATIANUS  (SS.)  MM.       (June  1) 

(3rd  cent.)  These  holy  men,  soldiers  in  the 
Imperial  army,  were  martyred  at  Perugia  in 
the  persecution  under  Decius  (A.D.  250).  Their 
relics  were  translated  to  Arona  near  Milan, 
A.D.  979. 
FELIX  and  JANUARIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Jan.  7) 

(Date    unknown.)     Said    to    have    suffered 

martyrdom  at  Heraclea,  a  name  common  to 

several  ancient  cities.     We  have  neither  dates 

nor  particulars  concerning  them. 

FELIX  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  9) 

See  SS.  EPICTETUS  and  FELIX. 
FELIX  of  NOLA  (St.)  M.  (Jan.  14) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Syrian  by  birth,  who  after 
serving  in  the  Imperial  army,  became  a  priest 
at  Nola  in  Southern  Italy,  and  was  chosen  to 
be  his  chief  adviser  by  the  Bishop  St.  Maximus. 
When  in  A.D.  250  the  persecution  under  Decius 
broke  out,  Felix  was  seized,  scourged  and 
thrown  into  prison ;  but  having  been  mira- 
culously delivered  therefrom,  he  watched  over 
the  deathbed  of  the  Bishop,  and  devoted  himself 
to  the  service  of  the  rest  of  the  persecuted 
group  of  Christians.  Decius  having  perished 
and  the  Church  being  for  a  time  at  peace,  the 
Bishopric  of  Nola  was  offered  to  Felix,  which 
however,  he  refused,  preferring  to  occupy 
himself  as  before  in  assisting  the  prelate  chosen 
in  his  place.  The  ancients  are  loud  in  praise 
of  his  holiness  of  life  and  of  his  charity  to  all. 
He  died  in  peace  at  an  advanced  age,  A.D.  260, 
but  on  account  of  the  many  sufferings  he  had 
endured  for  Christ's  sake  has  always  been 
honoured  as  a  Martyr.  He  is  commemorated 
annually  on  Jan.  14  throughout  the  Catholic 
Church,  and  his  shrine  at  Nola,  where  many 
miracles  have  been  wrought  in  answer  to  prayers 
for  help  from  him,  is  a  famous  place  of  pilgrim- 
age. St.  Paulinus  of  Nola  and  Venerable  Bede 
have  both  written  the  Life  of  St.  Felix,  and 
Pope  St.  Damasus  has  composed  verses  in  his 
honour. 

Another  St.  Felix,  a  Roman  priest,  whose  Feast 
is  also  marked  on  the  14th  of  January,  is  often 
confused  with  the  more  famous  Saint  of  Nola. 
FELIX  IV  (St.)  Pope.  (Jan.  30) 

(6th  cent.)  The  successor  of  Pope  St.  John  I 
(A.D.  526).  He  built  the  Roman  church  of 
SS.  Cosmas  and  Damian  and  consecrated  no 
fewer  than  thirty-nine  Bishops,  during  his  short 
Pontificate  of  four  years.  He  was  evidently 
an  able  statesman,  and  treated  successfully  the 
cause  of  his  people  with  the  Barbarians,  who  in 
his  time  had  overrun  Italy.  He  died  A.D.  530. 
FELIX  of  LYONS  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  3) 

See  SS.  LUPICINUS  and  FELIX. 
FELIX,  SEMPRONIUS,  HIPPOLYTUS  and 

OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (Feb.  3) 

(Date  unknown.)  There  are  various  opinions 
as  to  the  place  where  these  Martyrs  suffered. 
Though  the  old  Registers  describe  them  as 
Africans,  and  probably  St.  Felix  was  of  the 
Roman  Province  there,  it  is  not  at  all  certain 
that  they  all  suffered  in  that  country.  Their 
Acts  are  no  longer  extant. 

108 


FELIX  of  AFRICA  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  11) 

See  SS.  SATURNINUS,  DATIVUS,   &c. 
FELIX  of  ADRUMETUM  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  21) 

See  SS.  VERULUS,  SECUNDINUS,  &c. 
FELIX  of  METZ  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  21) 

(2nd  cent.)     Described  as  the  third  Bishop 
of  Metz,  which  See  he  is  alleged  to  have  occupied 
for  forty  years  in  the  Sub- Apostolic  Age. 
FELIX  of  BRESCIA  (St.)  Bp.  (Feb.  23) 

(7th  cent.)  The  twentieth  Bishop  of  Brescia 
in  Lombardy,  which  Diocese  he  governed 
during  over  forty  troublous  years.  He  strug- 
eled  successfully  against  the  Arian  Bishop, 
intruded  into  his  See  by  Rotharius,  King  of 
the  Lombards,  and  energetically  opposed  the 
inroads  of  the  heresy,  then  making  its  last  great 
effort  against  the  Catholic  Faith.  He  was  a 
zealous  pastor,  and  built  and  endowed  several 
churches.  The  date  of  his  death,  about  the 
middle  of  the  seventh  century,  is  variously 
given. 
FELIX  III  (St.)  Pope.  (Feb.  25) 

(5th  cent.)  An  ancestor  of  St.  Gregory  the 
Great.  St.  Felix  succeeded  Pope  St.  Simplicius, 
A.D.  483,  and  fought  against  Monophytism  or 
Eutychianism,  which  heresy  denied  that  Christ 
had  the  nature  of  man  besides  that  of  God. 
He  deposed  Acacius,  Bishop  of  Constantinople, 
for  heresy  and  schism.  Before  his  death 
(A.D.  492)  he  held  a  Synod  to  decide  the  measures 
to  be  taken  with  those  who  had  apostatised 
during  the  Vandal  persecution.  He  is  by  many 
reputed  the  author  of  the  so-called  Sacramen- 
tarium  Leonianum. 
FELIX  (St.)  M.  (Feb.  26) 

See  SS.  FORTUNATUS,  FELIX,   &c. 
FELIX,     LUCIOLUS,     FORTUNATUS,     MARCIA 

and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (March  3) 

(Date  unknown.)  Of  these,  as  of  so  many 
holy  Confessors  of  Christ  in  the  early  ages  of 
the  Church,  no  record  has  remained,  save  the 
registering  of  their  names  in  the  various  ancient 
Martyrologies.  SS.  Felix,  <fec.  are  by  several 
authors  conjectured  to  have  suffered  in  Africa ; 
but  no  date  can  with  any  probability  be  assigned 
to  them. 
FELIX  (St.)  M.  (March  8) 

See  SS.  CYRIL,  ROGATUS,  &c. 
FELIX  of  DUNWICH  (St.)  Bp.  (March  8) 

(7th  cent.)  St.  Felix,  a  native  of  Burgundy, 
when  he  was  consecrated  Bishop,  was  destined 
to  the  work  of  the  Evangelisation  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxons.  St.  Honorius  of  Canterbury,  on  the 
arrival  of  St.  Felix  in  England,  advised  him 
to  betake  himself  to  East  Anglia  (Norfolk  and 
Suffolk),  where  the  pious  King  Sigebert  was 
seeking  the  conversion  of  his  still  heathen 
subjects.  There  he  laboured  with  such  success 
that  at  his  death  (A.D.  646)  practically  t  lie 
whole  country  had  become  Christian.  He  was 
buried  at  Dunwich  in  Suffolk,  which  town,  now 
swallowed  up  by  the  sea,  he  had  chosen  for  his 
See.  Several  centimes  later  his  relics  were 
translated  to  Ramsey  Abbey. 
FELIX  of  AQUILEIA  (St.)  M.  (March  16) 

See  SS.  HILARY,  TATIANUS,   &c. 
FELIX  of  GERONA  (St.)  M.  (March  18) 

See  SS.  NARCISSUS  and  FELIX. 
FELIX  and  OTHERS  (SS.)  MM.  (March  23) 

(5th  cent.)  Twenty-four  of  the  victims  of 
the  Arian  Hunneric,  King  of  the  Vandals, 
towards  the  close  of  the  fifth  century.  Of 
these  African  Saints  no  particulars  are  extant, 
though  St.  Bede  and  all  the  old  Martyrologies 
register  them  as  above. 
FELIX  of  TREVES  (St.)  Bp.  (March  2(3) 

(5th  cent.)  The  local  records  of  the  Church 
of  Treves  were  destroyed  by  the  Normans, 
who  pillaged  the  city  at  the  end  of  the  ninth 
century.  We  only  know  that  this  St.  Felix, 
the  second  Bishop  of  Treves  of  that  name, 
and  thirty-third  in  succession  from  the  founda- 
tion of  the  See,  was  consecrated  by  St.  Martin  • 
of  Tours  (A.D.  386)  under  the  Emperor  or 
usurper  Maximus.     He  was  a  zealous  opponent 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


FELIX 


of  the  strange  Priscillianist  heresy.  He  later 
resigned  his  See  and  retired  to  a  monastery 
he  had  built  in  honour  of  our  Lady  and  of  the 
Martyrs  of  the  Theban  Legion,  where  he  died 
after  a.d.  400.  There  is  much  controversy 
about  him,  and  especially  whether  or  not  some 
of  the  particulars  given  may  not  apply  to 
another  Felix,  also  of  Treves. 

FELIX  (St.)  M.  (March  31) 

See  SS.  THEODULTJS,  ANESIUS,   Ac. 

FELIX  of  SARAGOSSA  (St.)  M.  (April  16) 

See  SARAGOSSA  (MARTYRS  of). 

FELIX  of  ALEXANDRIA  (St.)  M.  (April  21) 

See  SS.  ARATOR,  FORTUNATUS,    &c. 

FELIX,  FORTUNATUS  and  ACHILLEUS 

(SS.)  MM.  (April  23) 

(3rd  cent.)  The  Apostles  of  Vienne  in 
France,  whither  they  were  sent  by  St.  Irenseus 
of  Lyons,  St.  Felix  being  a  priest  and  SS.  For- 
tunatus  and  Achilleus  deacons.  From  a 
humble  lodging  wherein  they  lived  a  life  of 
much  penance  they  evangelised  the  town, 
converting  many  to  Christianity.  In  the  end 
they  were  imprisoned,  and  after  cruel  torture 
put  to  death  for  the  Faith,  A.D.  212. 

FELIX  of  SEVILLE  (St.)  M.  (May  2) 

(Date  unknown.)  A  deacon  who  suffered 
for  Christ  at  a  date  and  under  circumstances 
of  which  we  have  no  longer  any  record.  In 
Seville  and  its  neighbourhood  he  is  held  in 
great  veneration. 

FELIX  of  ROME  (St.)  M.  (May  10) 

See  SS.  CALEPODIUS,  PALMATIUS,   &c. 

FELIX  and  GENNADIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (May  16) 

(Date  unknown.)  No  particulars  are  extant 
of  these  two  Martyrs  venerated  from  ancient 
times  in  the  city  of  Uzalis  in  Pro-consular 
Africa,  and  formerly  a  Bishop's  See,  where 
their  relics  were  enshrined. 

FELIX  of  SPOLETO  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (May  18) 

(4th  cent.)  There  is  a  dispute  as  to  whether 
this  Saint  was  Bishop  of  Spoleto  or  of  the 
neighbouring  city  of  Spello  (Hispellum) ;  but 
all  agree  that  he  was  one  of  the  victims  of  the 
great  persecution  (A.D.  304  about)  under 
Diocletian  and  Maximian  Herculeus,  by  whose 
orders  he  was  beheaded  as  a  Christian  teacher. 
At  Spoleto  he  is  still  in  great  veneration. 
Baring  Gould  with  others  contend  that  he  was 
Bishop  not  of  Spoleto  in  Umbria,  but  of  Spalato 
in  Dalmatia. 

FELIX  of  CANTALICIO  (St.)  (May  18) 

(16th  cent.)  A  Saint  in  great  veneration  in 
Italy.  Born  about  A.D.  1513,  near  Rieti,  of 
poor  parents,  he  worked  in  his  youth  in  the 
fields,  and  at  the  age  of  thirty  entered  among 
the  Capuchins  as  a  lay-brother,  and  as  s\ich 
for  forty  years  begged  about  Rome.  His 
intimacy  with  St.  Philip  Neri,  and  how,  as  the 
greatest  of  earthly  blessings,  they  used  to  wish 
one  another  "  sufferings  for  Christ,"  is  prover- 
bial. St.  Felix  was  also  much  valued  by 
St.  Charles  Borromeo.  His  characteristic 
seems  to  have  been  throughout  a  life  of  austere 
penance,  a  cheerful  piety,  whence  his  nickname 
Deo  gratias  "  ("  Thanks  be  to  God  ").  He 
died  in  Rome  in  great  joy  of  spirit,  May  18, 
1587.  He  is  often  represented  carrying  a 
beggar's  wallet  inscribed  "  Deo  Gratias." 

FELIX  of  ISTRIA  (St.)  M.  (May  24) 

See  SS.  ZCELLUS,  SERVILIUS,   &c. 

FELIX  of  SARDINIA  (St.)  M.  (May  28) 

See  SS.  .EMILIUS,  FELIX,  &c. 

FELIX  I  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (May  30) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Roman  by  birth.  He  suc- 
ceeded St.  Dionysius,  A.D.  269,  in  the  Chair  of 
St.  Peter.  He  wrote  to  Maximus  of  Alexandria 
condemning  the  heresy  of  Paul  of  Samosata. 
A  fragment  of  this  letter  has  been  preserved. 
He  is  further  said  to  have  decreed  that  Mass  be 
always  celebrated  over  relics  of  Martyrs. 
St.  Felix  received  the  crown  of  martyrdom, 
A.D.  274,  under  Aurelian,  and  was  buried  on 
the  Aurelian  Way.  Some  historians  date  his 
Pontificate  from  a.d.  273  onlv  to  A.D.  275. 


FELIX  and  FORTUNATUS  (SS.)  MM.  (June  11) 
(3rd  cent.)  Two  brothers,  born  at  Vicenzp 
in  the  North  of  Italy,  and  done  to  death  aft 
the  infliction  of  fearful  torture  at  Aquileia. 
They  suffered  under  Diocletian  about  A.D.  296. 
Part  of  their  relics  is  at  Vicenza,  part  at  Chioggia 
near  Venice. 
FELIX  of  CORDOVA  (St.)  M.  (June  14) 

See  SS.  ANASTASIUS,  FELIX,   &c. 
FELIX  of  APOLLONIA  (St.)  M.  (June  17) 

See  SS.  ISAURUS,  FELIX,   &c. 

*FELIX  of  NANTES  (St.)  Bp.  (July  7) 

(6th  cent.)     A  learned  and  pious  prelate  who 

governed  ably  and  successfully  in  the  Diocese  of 

Nantes  for  about  thirty-three  years.     He  was 

noted  for  his  zeal  for  Church  discipline,   and 

still   more   for   his   charity   to   the   poor.     He 

assisted  at  the  French  Councils  of  his  time  and 

built  the  Cathedral  of  Nantes.     He  died  Jan.  8, 

A.D.   584.     His   festival   is   kept  in   July,   the 

anniversary  of  the  Translation  of  his  relics. 

*FELIX  and  MAURUS  (SS.)  Bps.  (June  16) 

(6th    cent.)    Palestinians,    father    and    son, 

who  after  a  pilgrimage  to  Rome  settled  at  a 

place  now  called   San  Felice,  near  Narni,  in 

Central  Italy.     They  are  venerated  as  Saints 

at  Spoleto,  and  in  the  neighbourhood. 

FELIX  (St.)  M.  (June  23) 

(3rd  cent.)    A  priest  of  Sutri  in  Tuscany, 

who  under  the  Emperors  Valerian  and  Gallienus 

was  scourged  to  death  (a.d.  257),  he  having 

been  conspicuous  for  his  zeal  in  preaching  the 

Christian    Faith    and    successfxU    in    making 

converts  from  heathenism. 

FELIX  (St.)  M.  (July  2) 

See  SS.  ARISTON,  CRESCENTIANUS,   Ac. 

FELIX  (St.)  M.  (July  10) 

One  of  the  SEVEN  HOLY  BROTHERS,  MM., 

which  see. 

FELIX  (St.)  M.  (July  10) 

See  SS.  JANUARIUS,  MARINUS,  Ac. 
FELIX  of  MILAN  (St.)  M.  (July  12) 

See  SS.  NABOR  and  FELIX. 

FELIX  of  COMO  (St.)  Bp.  (July  14) 

(4th    cent.)     Said    to    have    been    the    first. 

Bishop  of  Como.     He  flourished  in  the  latter 

half  of  the  fourth  century,  and  was  a  zealous 

pastor    of    souls,    honoured    by    the    intimate 

personal  friendship  of  the  great  St.  Ambrose. 

FELIX  of  PAVIA  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (July  15) 

(Date  unknown.)     A  Martyr  of  whom  nothing 

reliable   has   come   down   to   us.     Some   have 

thought  him  to  be  one  and  the  same  person 

with  the  St.  Felix,  Bishop  of  Spello  or  Spoleto 

(May  18). 

FELIX  (St.)  M.  (July  17) 

One  of  the  SCILLITAN  MARTYRS,  which 

FELIX  (FELICINUS)  of  VERONA  (St.)      (July  19) 
Bp. 

(Date  unknown.)  A  Bishop  of  Verona 
venerated  from  ancient  times  as  a  Saint,  but 
of  whom  no  authentic  account  is  extant.  His 
relics  are  enshrined  in  one  of  the  churches  of 
Verona. 
FELIX  of  MANFREDONIA  (St.)  M.  (July  25) 

See  SS.  FLORENCE  and  FELIX. 

FELIX,  JUCUNDA  and  JULIA  (SS.)  MM.  (July  27) 

(Date  unknown.)     In  regard  to  these  Saints, 

an  error  appears  to  have  crept  into  the  Roman 

Martyrology,  which  assigns  them  to  Nola  in 

South   Italy.     As   to   St.   Felix,   the  reference 

would  simply  be  to  the  date  of  the  consecration 

of  St.  Felix,  Bishop  of  Nola  (Nov.  15).     SS. 

Jucunda    and    Julia    are    in    the    older    MSS. 

described   as    Martyrs   of   Nicomedia   in    Asia 

Minor.     Nothing  more  is  known  about  them. 

FELIX  of  CORDOVA  (St.)  M.  (July  27) 

See  SS.  GEORGE,  FELIX,   &c. 
FELIX  II  (St.)  Pope,  M.  (July  29) 

(4th  cent.)  St.  Felix,  Archdeacon  of  Rome, 
was  elected  Pope  A.D.  355,  when  Pope  Liberius 
was  sent  into  exile  by  the  Arian  Emperor 
Constantius,  but  on  the  return  of  Liberius, 
after  two  years  of  exile,  he  at  once  resigned  the 

109 


FELIX 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


Pontificate  of  which  in  all  probability  he  had 
been  merely  the  Administrator.  The  Roman 
Martyrology  records  his  martyrdom  at  Cervetro 
(Cserae)  in  Tuscany,  probably  about  A.D.  360  ; 
but  it  is  the  opinion  of  some  authors  that  he 
lived  on  for  several  years  in  retirement  and 
died  a  peaceful  death.  The  Church  also 
commemorates  the  Finding  of  the  Body  of 
St.  Felix  with  those  of  other  Martyrs.  It  is 
especially  to  be  noted  that  from  the  outset  he 
has  always  been  regarded  as  a  Saint,  and  there 
are  no  real  grounds  for  setting  him  aside  as  a 
mere  Anti-Pope. 

FELIX  of  GERONA  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  1) 

(4th  cent.)  A  Spanish  Christian  who  suffered 
under  Maximian  Herculeus  and  the  merciless 
Prefect  Dacianus  (A.D.  303)  at  Gerona  in  the 
North  of  Spain.  He  was,  while  still  living, 
literally  cut  to  pieces  with  butchers'  knives. 
The  old  Christian  poet  Prudentius  has  written 
some  verses  in  his  honour. 

*FELIX  (FEDLIMID)  (St.)  Bp.  (Aug.  9) 

Otherwise  St.  PHELIM,  which  see. 

FELIX  of  PORTO  (St.)  M.  (Aug.  22) 

See  SS.  MARTIAL,  SATURNINUS,   &c. 

FELIX  of  PISTOJA  (St.)  (Aug.  26) 

(9th  cent.)  The  traditions  of  Pistoja,  a  town 
in  Tuscany,  where  he  flourished  probably  in  the 
ninth  century,  present  him  to  us  as  a  hermit, 
remarkable  for  the  austerity  of  his  life,  and 
venerated  as  a  Saint  immediately  after  his 
holy  death.  His  cultus  was  revived  on  the 
discovery  of  his  shrine,  A.D.  1400 ;  but  his 
history  is  very  uncertain. 

FELIX  and  ADAUCTUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Aug.  30) 

(4th  cent.)  Christians  who  were  beheaded 
in  Rome  (A.D.  304),  in  the  last  great  persecution, 
and  who  are  liturgically  commemorated  in  the 
Universal  Church.  St.  Felix  was  a  priest. 
St.  Adauctus  (a  Christian  of  name  unknown, 
so  styled  because  he  was  unexpectedly  added 
(adauctus)  to  St.  Felix  in  the  latter's  glorious 
death  struggle  in  consequence  of  his  calling 
out  that  he  too  was  a  Christian)  is,  of  course, 
quite  other  than  the  St.  Adaucus  (Oct.  4)  of 
Gibbon's  gibe  (Decl.  and  Fall,  ch.  Xvi.). 

FELIX  and  ANOTHER  FELIX  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  10) 
See  SS.  NEMESIAN,  FELIX,    &c. 
One  of  these  St.  Felix  appears  to  have  been 
a  Bishop. 

FELIX  and  REGULA  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  11) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  brother  and  sister  who  at  the 
time  of  the  famous  martyrdom  of  St.  Maurice 
and  his  companions  under  Maximian  Herculeus, 
took  refuge  in  Switzerland  ;  but  were  afterwards 
sought  out  and  cruelly  put  to  death  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Zurich. 

FELIX  and  CONSTANTIA  (SS.)  MM.  (Sept.  19) 
(1st  cent.)  Martyrs  who  suffered  in  the 
very  beginnings  of  Christianity  in  the  time  of 
Nero  at  Nocera,  a  town  between  Naples  and 
Salerno,  where  their  relics  are  venerated  ;  but 
no  particulars  are  extant. 

FELIX  of  AUTUN  (St.)  M.  (Sept.  24) 

See  SS.  ANDOCHIUS,  THYRSUS,   &c. 

FELIX  and  CYPRIAN  (SS.)  Bps.,  MM.  (Oct.  12) 
(5th  cent.)  The  leaders  of  a  multitude  of 
4966  Catholic  Christians  in  Africa,  maltreated 
and  driven  out  to  starve  in  the  Sahara  Desert 
by  Hunneric,  the  persecuting  Arian  King  of 
the  Vandals,  a.d.  482.  Among  them  were  many 
little  children.  Their  contemporary,  Victor  of 
Utica,  has  left  us  a  touching  account  of  their 
sufferings. 

FELIX  (AFRICANUS),  AUDACTUS  (ADAUCTUS), 
JANUARIUS,    FORTUNATUS,    and    SEPTI- 
MUS (SS.)  MM.  (Oct.  24) 
(4th    cent.)     African   Martyrs    who   suffered 
under  Diocletian,  a.d.  303.     Every  endeavour 
was  used  to  induce   St.   Felix  (a  Bishop)  to 
deliver   up   the    Sacred    Scriptures    and    other 
Christian  books,  the  destruction  of  which  was 
a  paramount  object  with  the  crafty  Emperor, 
but   the   Saint   remained   steadfast   to   death. 
Dragged  to  Rome,  he  with  the  others  was  put 

no 


to  the  sword  at  Venosa  (or  perhaps  Nola)  in 
the  South  of  Italy.-  There  is,  however,  much 
controversy  among  the  learned  as  to  the  names 
of  these  Martyrs  and  the  details  of  their  Passion. 
FELIX  and  EUSEBIUS  (SS.)  MM.  (Nov.  5) 

(1st  cent.)  Christians  of  the  first  century, 
St.  Felix  being  a  priest  and  St.  Eusebius 
described  as  a  monk  or  Solitary.  They  are 
mentioned  in  the  Acts  of  St.  Csesareus  as 
having  been  concerned  in  the  burial  of  that 
HolyMartyr.  They  themselves  were  afterwards 
beheaded  in  the  first  years  of  the  second  century 
at  Terracina,  a  city  between  Rome  and  Naples. 
FELIX  of  THYNISSA  (St.)  M.  (Nov.  6) 

(Date  uncertain.)  An  African  Christian, 
who  in  one  of  the  early  persecutions,  having 
faithfully  confessed  Christ  before  the  Roman 
Judge  and  having  been  sentenced  to  be  be- 
headed, was  on  the  following  morning  found 
dead  in  his  prison,  as  was  related  by  St.  Augus- 
tine in  a  sermon  to  his  people  of  Hippona. 
The  Thynissa  where  St.  Felix  suffered  is  an  old 
town  near  Hippona  (Bona),  not  Tunis,  as  some 
have  thought. 
FELIX  of  FONDI  (St.)  (Nov.  6) 

(6th  cent.)  A  holy  Religious  of  a  monastery 
at  Fondi  in  Southern  Italy,  characterised  by 
St.  Gregory  the  Great  as  a  Saint  and  contem- 
porary of  his  own  (late  in  the  sixth  century). 
Nothing  more  is  known  about  him. 
FELIX  of  NOLA  (St.)  Bp.,  M.  (Nov.  15) 

(3rd  cent.)  A  Saint  from  his  youth  upward, 
who  became  Bishop  of  Nola,  near  Naples,  and 
is  by  many  asserted  to  have  been  the  first 
occupant  of  that  See.  With  thirty  others,  he 
gave  his  life  for  Christ  about  A.D.  287  in  the 
beginning  of  the  last  great  persecution  under 
the  Prefect  Marcianus. 
FELIX  of  VALOIS  (St.)  (Nov.  20) 

(13th  cent.)  St.  Felix  of  the  Royal  House  of 
Valois,  born  A.D.  1127,  after  having  for  some 
time  led  a  most  austere  life  as  a  hermit  in  a 
forest  near  Meaux,  became  with  St.  John  of 
Matha  the  Founder  of  the  Trinitarian  Order 
(still  existing),  of  which  the  scope  was  the 
great  work  of  charity  of  that  age,  the  freeing 
of  the  Christian  captives  held  in  slavery  by  the 
Moors  of  Spain  and  North  Africa.  Pope 
Innocent  III  confirmed  the  new  Institute, 
and  St.  Felix  li\Ted  to  see  as  many  as  six  hundred 
of  its  houses  begun.  He  died  at  Cerf-Froid, 
his  old  hermitage,  Nov.  4,  A.D.  1212,  having 
shortly  before  been  comforted  by  a  vision 
of  Our  Lady,  wearing  the  Trinitarian  habit. 
FELIX  (St.)  Bp.  (Nov.  28) 

See  SS.  VALERIAN,  URBAN,   &c. 

FELIX  of  BOLOGNA  (St.)  Bp.  (Dec.  4) 

(5th    cent.)    The    fifth    Bishop   of    Bologna 

and    previously   a   deacon   of   the    Church   of 

Milan  under   St.   Ambrose.     He  is  mentioned 

by  Paulinus  in  his  Life  of  that  Saint.     St.  Felix 

died  a.d.  429,  and  was  succeeded  by  St.  Petro- 

nius,  afterwards  Patron  Saint  of  Bologna. 

FELIX  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  5) 

See  SS.  JULIUS,  POTAMIA,   &c. 
FELIX  of  ROME  (St.)  M.  (Dec.  29) 

See  SS.  CALLISTUS,  FELIX,   &c. 
*FELTON  (JOHN)  (Bl.)  M.  (Aug.  8) 

See  Bl.  JOHN  FELTON. 

*FEOCK  (St.)  V.  (Feb.  2) 

(Date    uncertain.)    An    otherwise    unknown 

Saint,  whose  name  is  perpetuated  by  a  church 

Dedication  in  Cornwall.     Possibly  she  was  an 

immigrant  from  Ireland.     Some  have  it  that 

Feock  is  only  a  variant  of  the  name  of  St. 

Fiacca,    a    Confessor,    friend    of    St.    Patrick. 

But  this  seems  hardly  likely.     Others  identify 

St.  Feock  with  St.  Vougas  of  Brittany. 

FERDINAND  (St.)  King.  (May  30) 

(13th    cent.)     St.    Ferdinand    III,    King    of 

Castile   and   Leon,   resembled   in   many   ways 

his    first   cousin,    St.    Louis,    King   of   France. 

A  brave  soldier,  he  won  back  from  the  Moors 

the  great  cities  of  Seville  and   Cordova,  and 

gave  its  deathblow  to  their  rule  in  Spam.     He 


THE  BOOK  OF  SAINTS 


FIDHARLEUS 


was  dilieent  and  just  in  his  government,  and 
above  all  heedful  to  do  no  wrong  to